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3.2 session by kulakow   cassava breeding in ssa3 brief
3.2 session by kulakow   cassava breeding in ssa3 brief
3.2 session by kulakow   cassava breeding in ssa3 brief
3.2 session by kulakow   cassava breeding in ssa3 brief
3.2 session by kulakow   cassava breeding in ssa3 brief
3.2 session by kulakow   cassava breeding in ssa3 brief
3.2 session by kulakow   cassava breeding in ssa3 brief
3.2 session by kulakow   cassava breeding in ssa3 brief
3.2 session by kulakow   cassava breeding in ssa3 brief
3.2 session by kulakow   cassava breeding in ssa3 brief
3.2 session by kulakow   cassava breeding in ssa3 brief
3.2 session by kulakow   cassava breeding in ssa3 brief
3.2 session by kulakow   cassava breeding in ssa3 brief
3.2 session by kulakow   cassava breeding in ssa3 brief
3.2 session by kulakow   cassava breeding in ssa3 brief
3.2 session by kulakow   cassava breeding in ssa3 brief
3.2 session by kulakow   cassava breeding in ssa3 brief
3.2 session by kulakow   cassava breeding in ssa3 brief
3.2 session by kulakow   cassava breeding in ssa3 brief
3.2 session by kulakow   cassava breeding in ssa3 brief
3.2 session by kulakow   cassava breeding in ssa3 brief
3.2 session by kulakow   cassava breeding in ssa3 brief
3.2 session by kulakow   cassava breeding in ssa3 brief
3.2 session by kulakow   cassava breeding in ssa3 brief
3.2 session by kulakow   cassava breeding in ssa3 brief
3.2 session by kulakow   cassava breeding in ssa3 brief
3.2 session by kulakow   cassava breeding in ssa3 brief
3.2 session by kulakow   cassava breeding in ssa3 brief
3.2 session by kulakow   cassava breeding in ssa3 brief
3.2 session by kulakow   cassava breeding in ssa3 brief
3.2 session by kulakow   cassava breeding in ssa3 brief
3.2 session by kulakow   cassava breeding in ssa3 brief
3.2 session by kulakow   cassava breeding in ssa3 brief
3.2 session by kulakow   cassava breeding in ssa3 brief
3.2 session by kulakow   cassava breeding in ssa3 brief
3.2 session by kulakow   cassava breeding in ssa3 brief
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3.2 session by kulakow cassava breeding in ssa3 brief

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  • 1. Research efforts to increase cassava productivity in Sub-Saharan Africa Outline • Cassava production and use in Nigeria • IITA cassava breeding progress • Closing the yield gap • Future directions for biofuel research P. Kulakow, R. Okechukwu, G. Tarawali, B. Maziya-Dixon, A. G. O. Dixon, and C. Egesi
  • 2. Introduction • Most cassava in Africa is used for food purposes and • Cassava has a key role in food security • Cassava also important for income genetation for farmers and processors – Reliable markets in biofuels can contribute to farm income • Cassava production in SSA faces many challenges – disease and pests, – limited access to improved varieties, – sub-optimal production practices – limited access to markets (transportation, quality, market information, location of processors)
  • 3. Introduction • Increased business management of cassava farms is needed to track costs and markets • Development of the biofuel sector will compete with other initiatives to commercialize cassava production – Starch – Flour – Glucose syrup – Many factories operate well below capacity with new processing facilities coming on-line. Many processors operate at 30-50% capacity or less.
  • 4. FAO and RTEP Estimates of Cassava Production in Nigeria 2000-2009 Year RTEP Estimate (Million MT) Change % FAO Estimate (Million MT) Change % 2000 36.8 32.0 2001 37.9 3.1 32.1 0.2 2002 40.0 5.4 34.1 6.4 2003 40.7 1.7 36.3 6.4 2004 42.8 5.3 38.8 7.0 2005 45.7 6.8 41.6 7.0 2006 50.7 10.9 45.7 10.0 2007 49.1 -3.2 43.4 -5.1 2008 51.1 4.1 44.6 2.7 2009 52.0 1.8 Source: RTEP (Root and Tuber Expansion Program), compiled from 1. Annual Reports of Central Bank of Nigeria, 1998, 2001, 2003 and 2005 2. RTEP, cassava production survey, 2007, 2008 and projections for 2009; and faostat.fao.org RTEP estimates average 13.5% higher than FAO
  • 5. Issues in cassava production estimates • Accuracy of production estimates? • What proportion of national cassava production will be available for biofuel feedstock? • Opportunities for use of cassava for biofuels will come from increased production and excess supply over food security needs.
  • 6. Yield Gap and Waste • Development of the cassava biofuel industry in SSA will need a reduction in the yield gap between yield potential and the actual yields realized by farmers. • The cassava sector experiences significant amounts of post-harvest waste. Waste reduction and niche uses of waste for energy are potential benefial applications of biofuels. • Targeted investment to reduce and utiliize post-harvest waste needed.
  • 7. Most Cassava production in SSA is utilized for food • In Nigeria, greater than 70% of cassava production is processed into garri by village level processors – Chiedozie Egesi, NRCRI • Per capita consumption of cassava is greater than 200 kg/year in NC, SW, SE, and SS Nigeria
  • 8. Selected Traditional Cassava Processing Methods Flours Chips Fufu Gari
  • 9. Cassava Breeding • Plant breeding has contributed to increased productive potential of cassava. • Research addressing production limiting factors will continue to show progress. • Benefits from genetic improvement will apply to multiple uses including food, industrial applications and biofuels. • Time from hybridization to variety for cassava is minimum of 8-12 years with opportunities for fastrack releases in as little as 6 years.
  • 10. Key targets for Cassava Breeding 1. Select durable resistance to critical diseases and pests in Africa especially viruses 2. Enhance nutritional quality through development of biofortified varieties 3. Produce stable high yields in variable environments by improving local and broad adaptation through abiotic stress tolerance. 4. Enhance adoption of improved varieties that provide reliable root supplies with preferred end-use quality characteristics. – improved agronomic practices – connected value chain
  • 11. TME 419 TME 117 Cassava Mosaic Disease – Selection and Diversifying Resistance Cassava Diseases-Virus, Fungi, Bacteria
  • 12. Cassava Brown Streak Disease CBSD Leaf, Stem and Root Symptoms
  • 13. Ecosystem management of Cassava Pests: Breeding to Enhance Bio-Control of Cassava Green Mite  Predatory mite -- Typhlodromalus aripo feeds on cassava green mite  Introduced to Africa from Brazil in 1993 for biological control of cassava green mite Mononychellus tanajoa  Hairiness of apical leaves is necessary for support biocontrol agents
  • 14. Abiotic Stress Tolerance – Stay Green High leaf retention capacity five months after planting increases fresh yield by 7 tonnes per ha
  • 15. Muvazi, DRC Lilongwe, Malawi Ibadan, Nigeria Cassava Processing Centers • Participatory Evaluation • Technology Transfer and training • Enterprise Development • Linkage to Investors and Industry
  • 16. Cassava Breeding Progress from 1970 - 2003 • 581 elite genotypes cloned from 1970 to 2003 were evaluated between 1999/00 and 2006/07 growing seasons in 6 locations in Nigeria. • Regression of mean genotype values on year of cloning shows change in average performance of selected elite clones
  • 17. FYLD increased by 83.9% y = 0.0101x - 18.908 R2 = 0.3406 0.00 0.20 0.40 0.60 0.80 1.00 1.20 1.40 1.60 1.80 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 Fresh Root Yield Year of cloning Meanlog(freshyield) Genetic gain/year = 1.01%
  • 18. DMC increased by 3.4% y = 0.0006x + 0.332 R2 = 0.0146 1.20 1.25 1.30 1.35 1.40 1.45 1.50 1.55 1.60 1.65 1.70 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 Dry Matter Content Year of cloning Meanlog(drymatterpercentage) Genetic gain/year = 0.06%
  • 19. CMD decreased by 30.8% y = -0.0044x + 9.1817 R2 = 0.1741 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45 0.50 0.55 0.60 0.65 0.70 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 Cassava Mosaic Disease Severity Year of cloning Meanlog(CMDseverity) Genetic gain/year = 0.44%
  • 20. Progress in Cassava Breeding in SSA CMD Fresh Root Dry Matter Year of Cloning Severity Yield Content (t/ha) (%) 1970 - 1980 2.00 ± 0.09 9.59 ± 0.56 33.71 ± 0.38 1981 - 1990 2.06 ± 0.07 14.00 ± 0.39 32.82 ± 0.49 1991 - 2002 1.38 ± 0.02 17.64 ± 0.22 34.87 ± 0.16
  • 21. Cassava Breeding Progress • 75 variety release events in partnership between IITA and NARS from 2006-2009 • Over 600 improved genotypes available for international distribution • Advanced genotypes for preferred end user quality characteristics
  • 22. Variety Identity and quality
  • 23. Current Promising Products of Cassava Breeding
  • 24. Promising Genotypes for Multiple Pest Resistance, Yield, and Dry Matter – 2009/10 Clone Mean CMD Score Fresh Yield Dry Yield Dry Matter t/ha t/ha % 07/0134 1.1 36.2 13.0 32.8 07/0299 1.0 33.2 7.1 24.5 07/1378 1.0 30.7 10.2 32.0 07/0045 1.0 30.6 9.7 31.5 07/0004 1.1 29.4 11.8 35.5 30572 (check) 3.2 24.2 5.9 23.8 Trial Mean 1.4 27.6 9.2 31.9
  • 25. Deep yellow Yellow Cream White Beta-carotene Enriched Cassava Breeding target of 15 µg/g fresh weight Increasing pro-Vitamin A content of cassava using recurrent selection
  • 26. Nigeria - National Cooperative Research Program Vitamin A Biofortified Cassava Candidate Varieties for Release in 2011 Trials Coordinated by NRCRI Clone Mean CMD severity Fresh yield Dry matter Total carotene beta- carotene score t/ha % μg/g frwt μg/g frwt 01/1368 2.9 21.4 28.0 6.1 4.4 01/1371 1.2 22.1 26.5 8.1 5.9 01/1412 1.0 29.6 29.0 6.4 4.3 30572 (chk) 2.8 21.0 38.0 0.6 0.4
  • 27.   Mean CMD Severity Fresh yield Dry yield Dry matter Total carotene Genotype   t/ha t/ha % ug/g frwt 07/0593 1.1 11.8 3.1 24.6 11.4 06/1635 1.2 10.0 2.4 22.3 9.1 07/0824 3.3 10.1 1.8 18.4 9.0 01/1368  (check) 2.7 16.5 3.9 22.4 8.2 07/0553 3.0 15.2 3.2 20.6 7.8 07/0539 1.1 12.0 2.5 19.0 7.7 01/1371  (check) 1.7 13.1 3.0 19.4 6.0 Trial Mean 2.0 10.3 2.2 19.9 7.2 Pipeline of Biofortified Yellow Root Cassava Genotypes
  • 28. Closing the Yield Gap • Increased on-farm yield with improved value  chain linkages will benefit cassava uses for  food, industry and biofuels.  
  • 29. Farmer yields of improved and local  varieties by state in SS and SE Nigeria
  • 30. Seven (7) project countries - Central Africa: DR Congo - East Africa: Tanzania - West Africa: Ghana, Nigeria, Sierra Leone - Southern Africa: Malawi, Mozambique Project Objective Provide adequate supply of cassava products at economically affordable prices through availability of improved cassava varieties, production processes and farm gate processing Unleashing the Power of Cassava in Africa  in response to the food price crisis - UPoCA
  • 31. Extension leaflets Each distributed to about 4000 farmersEach distributed to about 4000 farmers
  • 32. 3333 Demonstration trials Early plant developmentEarly plant development Technologies:Technologies: 1.1. Spacing distance (0.8 x 1.0m)Spacing distance (0.8 x 1.0m) 2.2. Herbicides for weed controlHerbicides for weed control 3.3. FertilizerFertilizer 4.4. Local and Improved VarietyLocal and Improved Variety 5.5. Compare to local practicesCompare to local practices 6.6. 40 demonstrations established40 demonstrations established Clustered around three starch factoriesClustered around three starch factories
  • 33. Fertilizer depot Agro chemicals Weed Control Groups Fertilizer plant in Ebonyi State Commercial Banks, Micro-credit SchemesCommercial Banks, Micro-credit Schemes Linkages to service providers Syngenta / Dizengoff
  • 34.  Farm Machinery
  • 35. Priorities for Bioenergy Uses for Cassava • Life-cycle assessments of biofuel technologies – Energy balances – Food security needs – Environmental costs • Identify appropriate targets for biofuel applications – Waste minimization – Targeted reliable markets for farmers – Niche economic technologies • Cogeneration using waste from processing facilities • On-farm applications • Larger scale applications utilizing excess productive capacity • Capitalize on variation in cassava starch and sugar variability – Apply genomics knowledge and integrated breeding platforms to develop adapted varieties with specialized traits • International and regional research networks on biofuels – Most research investment should still target food and industrial uses of cassava in SSA – Shared research resources are more likely to yield advances

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