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Session 3.1 Review of Genetic Tools and Knowledge that could Contribute to Cassava Productivity and to Special Uses: Fuel, Food, Industrial Starches and Feed by Clair Hershey, FAO
 

Session 3.1 Review of Genetic Tools and Knowledge that could Contribute to Cassava Productivity and to Special Uses: Fuel, Food, Industrial Starches and Feed by Clair Hershey, FAO

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    Session 3.1 Review of Genetic Tools and Knowledge that could Contribute to Cassava Productivity and to Special Uses: Fuel, Food, Industrial Starches and Feed by Clair Hershey, FAO Session 3.1 Review of Genetic Tools and Knowledge that could Contribute to Cassava Productivity and to Special Uses: Fuel, Food, Industrial Starches and Feed by Clair Hershey, FAO Presentation Transcript

    • Genetic tools and knowledge for cassava productivity and special uses
      What is the status of cassava production and how did we get here?
      Lessons learned along the way
      Where do we want to go from here?
      What are the tools, knowledge and systems that we going to employ to get us there?
    • Weeds
      Degradedsoils
      Fundamental for food security
      Intercropping
      Lowfertility
      Lowbutstableyields
      Traditional cultivation
    • Development of managementpackages and new varietiesforhigh and efficientproductivity has a history of almost 40 years in IARCs and longer in some NARS
      Management
      +
      Genetic Improvement
    • Fundamental for income generation and rural development
      Well managed cassava
      Commercialplanting in sub-humidconditions
      Commercialplanting in acidsoils
    • 1. Status of technology
      Applied breeding techniques well established
      Flow of improved varieties for many regions and markets
      Optimum management packages (soils/agronomy) defined for many regions and systems
      Steady yield increases in many countries
      Molecular tools advancing rapidly
    • Global yield trends (t/ha) for cassava
      Source: FAOSTAT
    • Yield trends (t/ha) in six cassava-producing countries
    • Yield trends - overview
      • Cassava is rapidly diverging into a traditional crop for food security and an industrial crop
      30-40 t/ha is possible under very good management in many environments
      70-80 t/ha is possible in exceptional conditions
    • However . . .
      Many people believed that by the 90s, national programs would be able to take over most breeding functions and IARCs could focus on upstream and strategic research; trait discovery for deployment by NARS.
      By the mid 90s, the effects of cutbacksin the system were becoming evident
    • Emerging problems for Cassava in Asia:
      The need for continued vigilance
      New Cassava pests and diseases
      • Mealy bug
      • Whitefly
      • Otherdiseases
    • Critical contributions of the Americas
      Diversity of cultivated cassava
      Diversity of wild species
      Diversity of pests and diseases
      Diversity of bio-control agents
    • New challenges: Impact of climate change oncassavasuitable environments
      Global cassava suitability will increase
      5.1% on average by 2050… but many major areas of current production suffer negative impacts
      Source: A. Jarvis, CIAT
    • 2. Lessons learnedAn overview
      Sustained investment in research pays off
      +/- 20-year lag between initial research investment and substantial returns for breeding + management technology
      Genetic improvement and management contribute more or less equally to yield gains
      Integration of production and market demand
      . . . markets drive intensified management
      Most countries are not anywhere close to yield potential
      There is no status quo – the world evolves and research efforts need to keep up
    • 3. Where to from here?
      What do we want to be able to offer in the next 20 years?
      to growers
      to processors and consumers
      What do research organizations need to do to deliver these products?
    • 3. What growers need
      High yield potential in a wide range of environments
      Effective management of biotic and abiotic constraints
      Cost-effective, eco-efficient crop and soil management practices
      • Plant traits that enable efficient management
      • Efficient propagation systems
      • Root traits with a ready market
    • 3. What processors and consumers need
      Year-round access to a uniform, quality product at a fair price
      Specific starch traits
      Good post-harvest storage
      Ease of processing (root form, peel traits, fibre content)
      High efficiency of conversion (according to specific end-uses)
    • 4. How are we going to get there?Challenges and Opportunities
    • 4. How are we going to get there?Challenges and Opportunities for the research community
      “Africa has only 70 scientists per million inhabitants compared to 4380 scientists per million inhabitants in Japan”
      Dr Papa AbdoulayeSeck, Director General of the Africa Rice Center (WARDA)
    • 4. How are we going to get there?Challenges and Opportunities for the research community
      Serious decline in funding in last 20 years
      Many once-strong NARS cassava programs have made serious cutbacks in personnel and operations
      Training of the new generation has lagged
      Few national programs able to produce/manage crosses (About 50,000 – 100,000 seeds managed for every successful new variety developed)
      In CGIAR – the trend away from interdisciplinary core-funded teams to special projects
      Limited private sector support in most countries
    • 4. How are we going to get there?Challengesand Opportunitiesfor the research community
      Train young staff with advanced degrees
      Commit to long term support for research
      A system that fully integrates management and genetic improvement
      A system that fully integrates molecular tools with plant breeding
      Work to develop market demand
    • Research efforts to increase cassava productivity
      Genebanks: The principal resource for breeding
    • Cassava Biodiversity
      Wild Manihot species are unique sources of genes that could be used through breeding with marker assisted selection, and/or genetic transformation
      BUT:
      search first in M. esculenta
      M. Bonierbale
    • Cassava Genomics Tools
      Mapping Tools
      • Several mapping populations linked to breeding
      • ~ 450SSRS, 301 AFLP-RFLPs, 17 Genes
      • MAS for CMD and Post Harvest Deterioration
      • New gene based microsatellite markers identified at CIAT (1391) in 2008 and at USDA –IITA (846) in 2009
      • SNP markers being developed at CIAT, U. Arizona, U. Maryland and U. Pretoria
      BAC Libraries
      • 3 libraries with 5X, 10X, and 11X coverage
      • Deposited at Clemson Genome Center
      • Used so far by CIAT and EMBRAPA
    • Cost of whole genome sequencingView in 2009
      1995
      10,000,000,000
      June, 2007: Watson Genome -$2 Million. 454 technology
      1,000,000,000
      1998
      100,000,000
      10,000,000
      2005
      Complete Genomics (2009 ) - $5,000
      1,000,000
      100,000
      2010
      10,000
      May 19, 2009: $1 Per Gene, Knome Launches $24,500 Genome Service
      1,000
      2015
      1000 $ Genome
      100
      Adopted from Chan(2005), Mutation research.573:23-50)
    • 4. The way forward
      Organizational
      Technical
    • 4. Organizational
      Move from project mode to integrated programmode for core activities (basic breeding, agronomy, pest management)
      Participatory centralization for germplasm management
      A world genebank that can be freely exchanged (also technical)
      Revitalize national program capacity in conservation, breeding and “seed” systems
      A molecular platform that includes broad developing country participation (e.g. the Integrated Breeding Platform of GCP)
      Involve private sector to a greater extent
      Building capacity for sustainable success!
    • 4. Technical
      Breeding capacity
      Phenotypic characterization
      Access to genomics facilities
      Bioinformatics capacities
      Low cost rapid propagation expertise
      Capacity to transfer genes from cassava to specific genotypes (cisgenic products)
      Development of transgenic products and how to manage the whole process
      Access to biosafety fields
    • Reducing costs
      Access to technologies
      Accelerate breeding
      Integration with germplasm banks
      Integration with breeding
      CGIAR and Regional Infrastructures
      Phenomics
      Genotyping
      GM
      Microarray
      Proteomics
      Sequencing
      Rapidly Evolving Technologies
    • Breeding can be made much more efficient , but . . .
      The need for multi-location, multi-year advanced testing (3 yrs?) places a lower limit.
    • Traits for added value
      • Farmers produce cassava with 30% added value.
      • Stronger market demand
      7.8
      5.8
      4.8
      4.0
      Crude protein content (%) DM basis
      3.2
      2.6
      2.0
      1.4
      Variation in crude protein content of roots of 133 cassava clones
      Fuente: Teresa Sánchez
    • Reducción en el deterioro fisiológico de postcosecha enel híbrido inter-específico M. esculenta x M. walkerae(14 días luego de la cosecha)
      MCOL 1505: 27.8%
      MBRA 337: 9.48%
      CW 429-1: 0%
      CM 523-7: 51.9%
      Fuente: C. Egesi
    • Average % amylose in the starch: 0.0-2.9%
      “Waxy” cassava
      • “Waxy” maize has an added value of about 30% in the marketplace
      Stems
      Fuente: Fernando Calle / Nelson Morante
    • Grainswithcavities
      Normal grains
      Reduction in fermentationcosts
      Small grains
      Ease of accessforenzymes
      Fuente : José A. Arroyave
    • Summary:What’s limiting progress in breeding?
      Low support to NARS/CGIAR for cassava R&D
      Constraints on international shipment of germplasm (esp. LA to Africa)
      Integration of molecular tools with field breeding
      Success with dihaploidtechnology – trait discovery; deleterious recessives; breeding systems
      Ability to induce flowering – produce more crosses
      Regulatory environment for transgenics
      Targeted gene insertion via cisgenics
    • How?
      Developing capacity in national programs
      A long-term vision within the CG
      Developing markets that drive demand
      Public-private alliances
      North-South collaboration
      TEAMS + TOOLS + TIME
    • THE VISION: Harvesting the sun -- A multi-purpose crop that meets the needs of food security and income generation for growers . . . and food, feed, fuel and diverse industrial uses in the marketplace, through eco-efficient management systems.