Session 3.1 Review of Genetic Tools and Knowledge that could Contribute to Cassava Productivity and to Special Uses: Fuel, Food, Industrial Starches and Feed by Clair Hershey, FAO
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Session 3.1 Review of Genetic Tools and Knowledge that could Contribute to Cassava Productivity and to Special Uses: Fuel, Food, Industrial Starches and Feed by Clair Hershey, FAO

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Session 3.1 Review of Genetic Tools and Knowledge that could Contribute to Cassava Productivity and to Special Uses: Fuel, Food, Industrial Starches and Feed by Clair Hershey, FAO Session 3.1 Review of Genetic Tools and Knowledge that could Contribute to Cassava Productivity and to Special Uses: Fuel, Food, Industrial Starches and Feed by Clair Hershey, FAO Presentation Transcript

  • Genetic tools and knowledge for cassava productivity and special uses
    What is the status of cassava production and how did we get here?
    Lessons learned along the way
    Where do we want to go from here?
    What are the tools, knowledge and systems that we going to employ to get us there?
  • Weeds
    Degradedsoils
    Fundamental for food security
    Intercropping
    Lowfertility
    Lowbutstableyields
    Traditional cultivation
  • Development of managementpackages and new varietiesforhigh and efficientproductivity has a history of almost 40 years in IARCs and longer in some NARS
    Management
    +
    Genetic Improvement
  • Fundamental for income generation and rural development
    Well managed cassava
    Commercialplanting in sub-humidconditions
    Commercialplanting in acidsoils
  • 1. Status of technology
    Applied breeding techniques well established
    Flow of improved varieties for many regions and markets
    Optimum management packages (soils/agronomy) defined for many regions and systems
    Steady yield increases in many countries
    Molecular tools advancing rapidly
  • Global yield trends (t/ha) for cassava
    Source: FAOSTAT
  • Yield trends (t/ha) in six cassava-producing countries
  • Yield trends - overview
    • Cassava is rapidly diverging into a traditional crop for food security and an industrial crop
    30-40 t/ha is possible under very good management in many environments
    70-80 t/ha is possible in exceptional conditions
  • However . . .
    Many people believed that by the 90s, national programs would be able to take over most breeding functions and IARCs could focus on upstream and strategic research; trait discovery for deployment by NARS.
    By the mid 90s, the effects of cutbacksin the system were becoming evident
  • Emerging problems for Cassava in Asia:
    The need for continued vigilance
    New Cassava pests and diseases
    • Mealy bug
    • Whitefly
    • Otherdiseases
  • Critical contributions of the Americas
    Diversity of cultivated cassava
    Diversity of wild species
    Diversity of pests and diseases
    Diversity of bio-control agents
  • New challenges: Impact of climate change oncassavasuitable environments
    Global cassava suitability will increase
    5.1% on average by 2050… but many major areas of current production suffer negative impacts
    Source: A. Jarvis, CIAT
  • 2. Lessons learnedAn overview
    Sustained investment in research pays off
    +/- 20-year lag between initial research investment and substantial returns for breeding + management technology
    Genetic improvement and management contribute more or less equally to yield gains
    Integration of production and market demand
    . . . markets drive intensified management
    Most countries are not anywhere close to yield potential
    There is no status quo – the world evolves and research efforts need to keep up
  • 3. Where to from here?
    What do we want to be able to offer in the next 20 years?
    to growers
    to processors and consumers
    What do research organizations need to do to deliver these products?
  • 3. What growers need
    High yield potential in a wide range of environments
    Effective management of biotic and abiotic constraints
    Cost-effective, eco-efficient crop and soil management practices
    • Plant traits that enable efficient management
    • Efficient propagation systems
    • Root traits with a ready market
  • 3. What processors and consumers need
    Year-round access to a uniform, quality product at a fair price
    Specific starch traits
    Good post-harvest storage
    Ease of processing (root form, peel traits, fibre content)
    High efficiency of conversion (according to specific end-uses)
  • 4. How are we going to get there?Challenges and Opportunities
  • 4. How are we going to get there?Challenges and Opportunities for the research community
    “Africa has only 70 scientists per million inhabitants compared to 4380 scientists per million inhabitants in Japan”
    Dr Papa AbdoulayeSeck, Director General of the Africa Rice Center (WARDA)
  • 4. How are we going to get there?Challenges and Opportunities for the research community
    Serious decline in funding in last 20 years
    Many once-strong NARS cassava programs have made serious cutbacks in personnel and operations
    Training of the new generation has lagged
    Few national programs able to produce/manage crosses (About 50,000 – 100,000 seeds managed for every successful new variety developed)
    In CGIAR – the trend away from interdisciplinary core-funded teams to special projects
    Limited private sector support in most countries
  • 4. How are we going to get there?Challengesand Opportunitiesfor the research community
    Train young staff with advanced degrees
    Commit to long term support for research
    A system that fully integrates management and genetic improvement
    A system that fully integrates molecular tools with plant breeding
    Work to develop market demand
  • Research efforts to increase cassava productivity
    Genebanks: The principal resource for breeding
  • Cassava Biodiversity
    Wild Manihot species are unique sources of genes that could be used through breeding with marker assisted selection, and/or genetic transformation
    BUT:
    search first in M. esculenta
    M. Bonierbale
  • Cassava Genomics Tools
    Mapping Tools
    • Several mapping populations linked to breeding
    • ~ 450SSRS, 301 AFLP-RFLPs, 17 Genes
    • MAS for CMD and Post Harvest Deterioration
    • New gene based microsatellite markers identified at CIAT (1391) in 2008 and at USDA –IITA (846) in 2009
    • SNP markers being developed at CIAT, U. Arizona, U. Maryland and U. Pretoria
    BAC Libraries
    • 3 libraries with 5X, 10X, and 11X coverage
    • Deposited at Clemson Genome Center
    • Used so far by CIAT and EMBRAPA
  • Cost of whole genome sequencingView in 2009
    1995
    10,000,000,000
    June, 2007: Watson Genome -$2 Million. 454 technology
    1,000,000,000
    1998
    100,000,000
    10,000,000
    2005
    Complete Genomics (2009 ) - $5,000
    1,000,000
    100,000
    2010
    10,000
    May 19, 2009: $1 Per Gene, Knome Launches $24,500 Genome Service
    1,000
    2015
    1000 $ Genome
    100
    Adopted from Chan(2005), Mutation research.573:23-50)
  • 4. The way forward
    Organizational
    Technical
  • 4. Organizational
    Move from project mode to integrated programmode for core activities (basic breeding, agronomy, pest management)
    Participatory centralization for germplasm management
    A world genebank that can be freely exchanged (also technical)
    Revitalize national program capacity in conservation, breeding and “seed” systems
    A molecular platform that includes broad developing country participation (e.g. the Integrated Breeding Platform of GCP)
    Involve private sector to a greater extent
    Building capacity for sustainable success!
  • 4. Technical
    Breeding capacity
    Phenotypic characterization
    Access to genomics facilities
    Bioinformatics capacities
    Low cost rapid propagation expertise
    Capacity to transfer genes from cassava to specific genotypes (cisgenic products)
    Development of transgenic products and how to manage the whole process
    Access to biosafety fields
  • Reducing costs
    Access to technologies
    Accelerate breeding
    Integration with germplasm banks
    Integration with breeding
    CGIAR and Regional Infrastructures
    Phenomics
    Genotyping
    GM
    Microarray
    Proteomics
    Sequencing
    Rapidly Evolving Technologies
  • Breeding can be made much more efficient , but . . .
    The need for multi-location, multi-year advanced testing (3 yrs?) places a lower limit.
  • Traits for added value
    • Farmers produce cassava with 30% added value.
    • Stronger market demand
    7.8
    5.8
    4.8
    4.0
    Crude protein content (%) DM basis
    3.2
    2.6
    2.0
    1.4
    Variation in crude protein content of roots of 133 cassava clones
    Fuente: Teresa Sánchez
  • Reducción en el deterioro fisiológico de postcosecha enel híbrido inter-específico M. esculenta x M. walkerae(14 días luego de la cosecha)
    MCOL 1505: 27.8%
    MBRA 337: 9.48%
    CW 429-1: 0%
    CM 523-7: 51.9%
    Fuente: C. Egesi
  • Average % amylose in the starch: 0.0-2.9%
    “Waxy” cassava
    • “Waxy” maize has an added value of about 30% in the marketplace
    Stems
    Fuente: Fernando Calle / Nelson Morante
  • Grainswithcavities
    Normal grains
    Reduction in fermentationcosts
    Small grains
    Ease of accessforenzymes
    Fuente : José A. Arroyave
  • Summary:What’s limiting progress in breeding?
    Low support to NARS/CGIAR for cassava R&D
    Constraints on international shipment of germplasm (esp. LA to Africa)
    Integration of molecular tools with field breeding
    Success with dihaploidtechnology – trait discovery; deleterious recessives; breeding systems
    Ability to induce flowering – produce more crosses
    Regulatory environment for transgenics
    Targeted gene insertion via cisgenics
  • How?
    Developing capacity in national programs
    A long-term vision within the CG
    Developing markets that drive demand
    Public-private alliances
    North-South collaboration
    TEAMS + TOOLS + TIME
  • THE VISION: Harvesting the sun -- A multi-purpose crop that meets the needs of food security and income generation for growers . . . and food, feed, fuel and diverse industrial uses in the marketplace, through eco-efficient management systems.