Technologies to Improve Livestock Productivity in Drylands, Dr. Barbara Rischkowky, ICARDA
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Technologies to Improve Livestock Productivity in Drylands, Dr. Barbara Rischkowky, ICARDA

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  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
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  • I would like to know more about cactus for fodder .I am interested to grow it for livestock feed.if any body can help please email me in my id pbupase@rediffmail.com
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  • CC predict increasing temperatures, more extreme weather events and partly less rainfall and decreased availability of irrigation water
  • CC predict increasing temperatures, more extreme weather events and partly less rainfall and decreased availability of irrigation water
  • In addition Sourness especially in worm weather. Texture defects like holes especially in worm weather. Defects in cheese firmness because of the processing of cold milk. Pressing
  • The technologies introduced and developed within the M&M project include improved barley production, on-farm feed production, feed blocks, cactus and fodder shrubs, improved small ruminat production and pasture rehabilitation.
  • Excessive salting is due to the need to store the cheese on room temperature for a maximum of 7 days that is the period the collectors will take to gather the products of a given area before taking to the market. Technically with low salting under the current storage condition, the cheese will in fact develop problems in sourness and wholes or ‘eyes’ in the cheese. Farmers did not vote for sourness as a problem but they did so in matters of texture that is associated with presence of wholes. However a too salty cheese will have a lower price.

Technologies to Improve Livestock Productivity in Drylands, Dr. Barbara Rischkowky, ICARDA Technologies to Improve Livestock Productivity in Drylands, Dr. Barbara Rischkowky, ICARDA Presentation Transcript

  • IFAD/ICARDA Knowledge Exchange Workshop, 26-29 October 2009 Knowledge and Technology Exchange for Enhanced Quality of IFAD/ICARDA Operations in the NENA region Technologies to improve livestock productivity in drylands Presented by Barbara Rischkowsky on behalf of ICARDA's Livestock Research Section
  • Challenges for livestock production in drylands
    • Climate change scenarios predict increasing climatic variability and therefore increasing risk of crop failure
    • Ongoing processes of land desertification, including decreasing productivity of rangelands
    • Unfavorable land tenure and property rights (the commons)
    • Competition for arable land between human food, feeds or biofuel
    • Competition in the use of crop residues between livestock and conservation agriculture
    • Increasing incomes, human population and urbanization cause rises in the demand for livestock foods
    • Consumers and markets increasingly demand product quality & safety
    • Diseases remain a major constraint to productivity and to food safety
    • Inefficient extension, top down technology transfer (low adoption of available technologies)
  • Resulting areas for interventions
    • In line with our mandate we focus on small ruminant production
    • Improved ruminant feeding systems for producing quality animal products
    • Enhancing forage production and use from arable land
    • Rangeland monitoring, rehabilitation and grazing management
    • Product quality and processing
    • Characterization & sustainable use of SR genetic resources
    • Husbandry practices
    • Animal health service delivery
    • Problems:
      • High costs of supplements in dry years
      • Cereals used as feeds
      • Unbalanced rations
    • Solutions:
      • Low cost balanced diets for intensive and semi-intensive systems using available by-products and crop residues
        • Feed blocks
        • On-farm testing of rations for dairy sheep and fattening
    Feeding technologies : strategic feeding of low cost balanced diets
  • Effect of strategic feeding of urea-molasses feed mixtures on performance of ewes & lambs (Average of two years, 7 flocks in 3 villages) Strategic feeding of low cost balanced diets - example diet for dairy sheep in El Bab
    • Benefits:
      • Strategic supplementation resulted in a net gain of 19 $US per ewe compared to traditional feeding
      • In an average flock of 50 ewes using this technology would generate ~935 US$
    Technology for improved feeding: strategic feeding of low cost balanced diets Strategic feeding of low cost balanced diets - example diet for dairy sheep in El Bab
  • Feeding technologies: feed blocks Partial/total replacement of concentrate feeds Tunisia Iraq Tunisia
  • Feeding technologies: feed blocks Partial replacement of concentrates - 20 % Difference in feeding cost 74 g 63 g Daily gain FB 0 FB 250 g 500 g Concentrate feed A d - l i b Ad-lib Straw
    • Overall adoption rate: 13% to 54% in different countries
    • Internal rate of return: 67% for Iraq and 57% for Tunisia
    Economic Feasibility of Using Feed Blocks in Sheep Feeding Feeding technologies: feed blocks 58 1.41 30 71 1.48 20 87 1.56 10 IRR (%) B/C Ratio Discount Rate (%)
  • Urea-treated straw – a well known fully tested technology with a low adoption rate Feeding technologies – enhance the nutritive value of cereal crop residues
  • Opening urea-treated Straw (Um Mil village)
    • Advantage:
    • Raises quality of wheat straw to the quality of lentil straw
    • Easy to learn
    • Locally available material
    Feeding technologies – enhance the nutritive value of cereal crop residues
    • Disadvantage:
    • Labor intensive
    • Urea price has increased
    • Economic feasibility changes with rainfall
  • Alternative feed resources: spineless cactus
    • Water use efficiency
    • Drought tolerant
    • High in sugars, beta-carotene, pectins
    • High in water
    • Reduces the use of concentrate feeds
    • Alley cropping (cactus-barley) increased grain yield by 180%
  • Integration of Cactus and fibrous feeds- example of a typical feeding calendar in arid Tunisia Alternative feed resources: spineless cactus
    • Tunisia :
    • Adoption rate: 46%
    • IRR: 73-80%
    • Algeria:
    • Adoption rate: 40%
    • IRR: 71-99%
  • Alternative feed resources: fodder shrubs and trees
    • Benefit from tanniniferous fodder shrubs
    • Anthelmintic activity of tanniniferous species
    • Alley-cropping (higher cereal grain yield)
  • Fodder shrubs and trees – use in alley cropping
    • Return on investment
      • Cactus alley cropping with subsidy: 53%; without subsidy 17%
      • Atriplex alley cropping: 29%
    • Environmental benefits
      • Reduced soil erosion
      • Improved soil organic matter
      • Improved available soil moisture
      • Estimated environment benefit in Morocco: US$425/ha
    Fodder shrubs and trees – use in alley cropping
  • Technology for improved milking techniques
    • Problems in traditional milking
      • Health problems of women
      • Milk contamination
    • Solutions:
      • Simple milking ramp in combination with improved hygiene
        • Cleaning udders before milking
        • Teat immersion after milking
      • and
        • Feeding by performance
        • Performance recording
    • The benefits:
      • Comfortable milking
      • Cleaner milk
      • Better udder control
      • Mastitis detection
      • Higher quality products reflecting in better income
    • Obstacles:
      • Requires collaboration between farmers to make best use of the investment
      • Sharing limited to a small number of farmers because of timing of the milking
      • Cost-benefit ratio not easy to determine
    Technology for improved milking techniques
  • Technology for improved yogurt processing
    • Problems reported by dairy farmers in Syria:
      • Weak texture and bad transportability
      • Sourness of yogurt
    • Solutions:
      • Yogurt culture with different firmness
      • Use of a thermometer to avoid contamination
    • The benefits:
      • High quality yogurt and reduced milk spoilage due to contaminated starters
      • Firm texture, resisting transportation on bumpy roads
      • More net income
  • Technologies for improved cheese processing: case study in Mexico
    • The communities focus on cheese production with good market demand locally and as far as in the US (ethnic markets)
    • Main problems:
      • high contamination  cheese spoilage
      • cheese did not to melt well affecting marketability
      • Meting is critical in preparation of quesadilla, traditional breakfast
  • Solutions to the quesadilla problem
    • Technical changes:
    • Better hygiene
    • Pasteurization of milk (farmers had heard about it but did not use it)
    • Use of a suitable cheese culture to enable proper melting of the cheese
    Filtration Renetting Pre-pressing Under whey Cutting Row milk Molding End product Pressing Salting 10-15% solution Pasteurization 73°C/15sec Starter Ca Cl 2 Max 20g/100L
    • A simple modification of processing will reduce hand work like pre-pressing of the curd and will enhance the quality
    • Storing the rennet in refrigerator will maintain the activity of the enzyme
    • The benefits:
      • Comfortable processing
      • Better quality
      • Maintain the doze of rennet addition
      • better salt concentration
    Technologies for improved cheese processing: case study in Mexico
    • Key constraints
      • Low-yielding varieties
      • Quality seed availability
      • Inappropriate production methods
      • Ineffective extension
      • Lack of institutions
    • Solutions
      • High-yielding forages
      • Seed production
      • Best practices
    Technologies for fodder production: example Afghanistan
  • High-yielding forages identified: grasspea & vetch
  • Grain Straw 1 2-year average, 3 replicates High-yielding forages identified: grasspea & vetch
  • Demonstrating high yielding forages – field days
  • Participation in the fodder project 600 participating households in 13 villages
  • Testing and demonstrating forages in Syria – field days (IFAD research grant)
  • Testing and demonstrating forages in Syria – field days (IFAD research grant)
    • To replace traditional methods monitoring vegetation cover
    Original Image Processed Image Digital Charting Technique Based on Digital Image Processing Monitoring and assessment of rangeland condition at local scale
  • Multi-Purpose Pastoral Species Maintaining biodiversity - Characterization and Conservation
  • Perennial Legumes and Grasses Maintaining biodiversity - characterization and conservation
  • Shrub Plantations Alley Cropping Water Harvesting Techniques Land Scarification Direct Seeding Rehabilitation Techniques
  • Sustainable Development of Depressions in Pastoral Ecosystems Barley
  • Grazed Area
  • Protected Area in a depression
  •  
  • Percent Cover
  • Impact of resting technique on rangeland productivity of the communal rangelands of Chenini, Tunisia Introducing resting (no grazing) through CDP Indicators Free grazing Protected Plant cover (%) 38.7 52.4 Species richness (%) 22 52 Biomass production (kg DM/ha) 236 2135 Range value (FU/ha) 32 120
    • Technology packages for community development
  • Livestock-related successful technologies in the M& M Project Barley & On-farm Feed Production Cactus & Fodder Shrubs By-products Feed Blocks Natural Pastures Enhancement & Rangeland Management People centered research Flock management
  • Major technologies used in M&M Communal management Improved rams Cactus Forage mixtures Elucidate the risk factors associated with these diseases Shrubs and fodder trees Reproduction (Use of sponges, ram effect) Feed blocks Vetch Identification of major animal diseases affecting livestock Resting, deferred grazing Early weaning Urea straw treatment Dual purpose barley Animal health management Rangeland improvement and management Flock management Alternative feed resources Improvement of on-farm feed production
  • Community based Rangeland Rehabilitation: Syrian Badia – GEF Project Milk processing facility Rangeland Rehabilitation Techniques Participatory-approach Small ruminants dipping facility
  • The Women Livelihood and Dairy Goat Project in Afghanistan and Pakistan
    • Tested/Introduced interventions:
    • Restocking
    • Improving genetic material
    • Supplementary Feeding
    • Introduction of improved forage crops
    • Plantation of fodder trees
    • Improved dairy processing
    • Animal health care
  • Thank you
  • Technology for improved cheese processing in Syria
    • Problems:
      • Eye formation
      • Sourness and/or off flavor
      • Risk of Brucellosis
    • Solutions:
      • Milk pasteurization prior to cheese making
      • Use of thermometers
    • The benefits:
      • Hygiene & high quality product reducing risks to transmission of diseases
      • Improved marketability and increased net income
  • Venezuela
    • The communities focused on cheese production with good market demand at the local market
    • Main problem reported by farmers are
      • excessive salting
      • undesirable texture
      • Inadequate rennet quality & quantity
  • Solutions to jointly overcome salting and other problems Rennetting Pre-pressing Under whey Cutting End product Cutting Second cut Molding Pasteurization 73°C/15sec Starter Ca Cl 2 Max 20g/100L Filtration Salting 8% solution Row milk Pressing salting
  • Shannon Wiener Diversity Index It combines two quantifiable measures; 1. the species richness S (the number of species in the community) 2. Abundance N (is the total number of individuals in the sample).
  • Impact of Atriplex plantation on the consumption of feed resources
  • Assessing the livestock technologies
  • High-yielding forages identified: cowpea
  • Grain Fodder 1 2-year average, 3 replicates High-yielding forages identified: cowpea