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  • Agribusiness that works : outgrower schemes with supply-driven growth Create a market for the smallholders that can begin small but grow rapidly Promise to buy their produce, live up to that promise and the supply base will grow rapidly (example of DECA) Provide advice and planting material and support No lands rights issues, low investment levels, limited infrastructure requirements, limited management costs, limited work ethic issues


  • 1.  
  • 2. Novozymes in brief
  • 3.
    • Two different pathways:
    • Large scale cassava focused production systems like in Asia producing ethanol for use a e.g. transport fuel
    • Small scale – e.g. integrated agro-forestry systems producing ethanol for use in cook-stoves, as well as misc. food, feed and other energy products
    Cassava based ethanol in an African context
  • 4.
    • Reduce deforestation due to charcoal production
    • Reduce accidents and negative health effects relating to indoor use of kerosene, wood or charcoal
    • Improve access to affordable energy
    • Stimulate local agriculture through smallholder/outgrower schemes
    Benefits of small scale agro-forestry systems producing ethanol to replace charcoal
  • 5.
    • 100% family sector growers
      • Agro-forestry systems
      • Degraded & abandoned plots
      • Diverse mix of trees and crops
      • Increased food quantity and quality
      • Raw materials for energy products
    • Community pre-processing centres
      • Buying, training, technical assistance, pre-processing, storage, logistics
        • Fruit & Veg  consumed locally
        • Cassava  dried chips
        • Oilseeds  raw plant oil
        • Beans  dried & packed for cities
        • Waste  animal feed and biofertilizer
    • BioProcessing Centre
      • Production of ethanol
        • Household cooking fuel
      • Production of Pure Plant Oil
        • Diesel substitute in converted generators
    • Cookstove Manufacturing Facility
    Outline of a potential smallholder/outgrower based system
  • 6. Smallholder agro-forestry concept with integrated food, feed and fuel production
  • 7. The Fuel Ethanol Process
  • 8. Raw Materials for Ethanol Production
    • Ethanol can be fermented from sugars
    • Sugars can be produced by enzymes from starchy raw materials
    • Starchy raw materials can be any cereal grains or starchy plant roots
    • Examples:
      • Corn, wheat, millet, sorghum, rye, barley, rice, cassava
  • 9. Starch in cassava Protein middle lamella Outer wall (  -Glucan and pentosan) Inner cell wall (  -Glucan) Starch granules Protein matrix
  • 10. General overview of starch conversion to ethanol
  • 11. 3 types of enzymes required
    • Viscosity reducing enzymes
      • Viscozyme Cassava R
      • Viscozyme cassava C
    • Alpha-Amylase
      • Liquozyme SC, SC DS and 4X
    • Gluco-Amylase
      • Spirizyme Fuel
      • Spirizyme Ultra
      • Spirizyme Excel
  • 12. Three stages where enzymes are added Milling /Slurry make up Cooking Fermentation Type of enzyme added Viscosity reducing enzyme Alpha-Amylase Gluco-Amylase Enzyme name
    • Viscozyme cassava R
    • Viscozyme cassava C
    1. Liquozyme SC 2. Liquozyme SCDS
    • Spirizyme fuel
    • Spirizyme ultra
    • Spirizyme Excel
    Main Purpose Reduce viscosity due to non starch polymers
    • Reduce viscosity due to starch polymers
    • Converts starch to dextrin
    To convert dextrin to glucose Other Benefits 1. Enable mash to be pumped 2. Avoids gel formation 3. Lower heating and cooling cost
    • Processes starch to be suitable for fermentation
    • Enables better mixing of enzymes
    • Avoids gel formation
    Enables yeast to consume the glucose and generate ethanol Working Temp 50-55°C 84-86°C 32-35°C
  • 13. Ethanol yield from starch: Cassava example   Yields from 1 ton raw material     Cassava Roots Chips Starch % Starch 25 65 85 100% theoretical       Ethanol, litres 180 468 612 93% efficiency       Ethanol, litres 167 435 569
  • 14. Milling & Cook: Slurry formation and initial breakdown of starch
    • Grind cassava into smaller particles (flour)
      • Increase surface area (accessibility to the enzyme)
    • Mix flour with water to form a slurry
      • Form a uniform mixture
      • Add enzymes to reduce viscosity
      • Add enzymes to start transformation of flour into dextrin
    • Cook slurry at high temperature use jet or steam
      • Flour absorbs the hot water and becomes “mash”
      • Mash becomes thick (viscous) – becomes gelatinized
    • Hold at temperature
      • Allow time for enzymes to break starch into short chain dextrins
  • 15. Initial breakdown of starch into shorter dextrin chains Alpha-Amylase enzyme randomly cleaves large chain dextrins into a mixture of shorter chain dextrins Alpha-amylase Shorter dextrin chains Large Dextrin chains DP6 DP4 DP3 DP2
  • 16. Further breakdown of dextrins into fermentable sugars: Two main process options
    • Pre-fermentation saccharification
      • Pre-fermentation saccharification in separate tank for a few hours at optimal conditions
    • Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation
      • Sugars are generated with the yeast present
      • O ccurs at typical fermentation conditions
    Saccharification: Breakdown of dextrins into glucose
  • 17. What does Gluco-Amylase do? Gluco-Amylase breaks short chain dextrins into simple fermentable sugars that yeast can convert into ethanol Long chain sugars (Dextrins) Simple sugars
  • 18. Typical cost breakdown for cassava-based ethanol production – example from Asia
  • 19. How Novozymes can assist you
    • Provide enzymes solutions designed for starchy raw materials – and including for cassava
    • Share our vast global process experience with our customers
    • Continuously develop new enzymes and process technologies
  • 20. Thank You for your attention Please visit our website www.bioenergy.novozymes.com Technical service contact: [email_address]