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1.4 session by becerra cassava ethanol ciat

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  • 1. Cassava breeding potential for bioethanol Becerra López-Lavalle, L.A. , Dufour, D., Sánchez, T. and H. Ceballos
  • 2. Outline • Introduction • High, stable and reliable productivity • Novel traits • Processing methods X root quality interactions • Perspectives
  • 3. Outline • Introduction • High, stable and reliable productivity • Novel traits • Processing methods X root quality interactions • Perspectives
  • 4. Cassava origin Low Soil Fertility Flooded land Slopped Land Degraded Soils
  • 5. Cassava modern production Sub-humid environment Acid –Soil environment Near Hanoi, Vietnam Guan-Xi Province, China 19’000,000 hectares
  • 6. Cassava modern production Sub-humid environment Acid –Soil environment Near Hanoi, Vietnam Guan-Xi Province, China 19’000,000 hectares 233,000 Tonnes
  • 7. Main uses of Cassava Fresh - boiled Cassava leaves Fufu Farinha - Gari Human consumption
  • 8. Main uses of Cassava Chicken factory Near Hanoi, Vietnam Pressed cake Dry chips for animal feed Animal feedstock
  • 9. Main uses of Cassava Bio-Ethanol Fried-Chips Goren-Krupuk Starch Industrial use of Cassava
  • 10. Tropical/Sub-tropical crop Main cassava production regions in the world
  • 11. Outline • Introduction • High, stable and reliable productivity • Novel traits • Processing methods X root quality interactions • Perspectives
  • 12. Crop Potential Breeding successfully increased fresh-root (FR) productivity & dry- matter (DM) content. We now need STABLE -DM contents SM 1433-4 South-China 5 84 t/ha FR in a 9.5 ha commercial field (~25 t/ha DM)
  • 13. Crop Potential Fresh root yield (t/ha) Dry matter content (%) Dry matter yield (t/ha) SM 2775-2 53.8 32.1 17.3 SM 2775-4 35.3 35.9 12.7 SM 2775-2 37.3 30.7 11.5 SM 2775-4 27.1 36.9 10.0 At two location: Codazzi (Cesar) and Barrancas (Guajira) At five location: Patalito, Sto Thomas & Molinero (Atlantico), La Union (Sucre) and Chinu (Cordoba) The case of “watery” roots for ethanol
  • 14. Crop Potential Fresh root yield (t/ha) Dry matter content (%) Dry matter yield (t/ha) SM 2775-2 53.8 32.1 17.3 SM 2775-4 35.3 35.9 12.7 SM 2775-2 37.3 30.7 11.5 SM 2775-4 27.1 36.9 10.0 At two location: Codazzi (Cesar) and Barrancas (Guajira) At five location: Patalito, Sto Thomas & Molinero (Atlantico), La Union (Sucre) and Chinu (Cordoba) The case of “watery” roots for ethanol High Dry Matter content does not seems critical to ethanol production
  • 15. Outline • Introduction • High, stable and reliable productivity • Novel traits • Processing methods X root quality interactions • Perspectives
  • 16. Cassava “Novel” traits Amylose-free (“waxy”) starch mutation •Amylose is difficult to degrade •Amylose-free starch should cost less to convert into ethanol
  • 17. Cassava “Novel” traits
  • 18. Less amylose = more ethanol
  • 19. Less amylose = more ethanol
  • 20. Cassava “Novel” traits Fermentability: assess their potential in bio-ethanol, bio-plastics, sweeteners
  • 21. CM 523-7 Rayong 60 NEP WAXY Without enzyme With enzyme0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 Clone Total ethanol (ml ethanol / kg starch) Cassava starch fermentation: with and without starch 4 1/3 days Total ethanol (mL/Kg of starch)
  • 22. Small granule/high amylose NormalStarchSmallgranuleStarch
  • 23. Small granule/high amylose NormalStarchSmallgranuleStarch • A small granule and a rough surface facilitate the action of enzymes (less consumption of enzymes, lower costs of conversion). • But higher amylose content would increase costs….
  • 24. Waxy Small granules StarchViscosity(5%) 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 0 5 10 15 20 Temperature (minutes) Viscosity(cP) 0 20 40 60 80 100 Small granule/high amylose RVA Amylogram
  • 25. Starch-less mutation Source: L. Carvalho EMBRAPA Brazil
  • 26. Outline • Introduction • High, stable and reliable productivity • Novel traits • Processing methods X root quality interactions • Perspectives
  • 27. Bio-ethanol production Ethanol factory in Thai Nguan near Khon Kaen (Thailand)
  • 28. Bio-ethanol production Ethanol factory in Thai Nguan near Khon Kaen (Thailand) 5.27 kg of fresh root produce one liter of ethanol 1.4 – 1.5 bath / kg fresh root 25 bath / lt of ethanol produced
  • 29. Fermentation Distillation & dehydration Ethanol SugarcaneSugarcane juices Ethanol from corn or cassava is more expensive because starch need to be degraded to the equivalent of sugar cane juices Boiler Maize or Cassava Starch degradationLiquefaction & saccharification
  • 30. Slurrytank Sorce of satrch Grinding Jet cooker >100 °C (5-8’) Secondary Liquefaction (95 °C – 90’) Thermo-stable Alpha-amylase (Liquefacction) Glucoamylase (Saccharification) Fermentation Saccharification 60°C(8-10horas) Yeasts Solids Distillation& dehydration Storage tank
  • 31. Slurrytank Sorce of satrch Grinding Jet cooker >100 °C (5-8’) Secondary Liquefaction (95 °C – 90’) Thermo-stable Alpha-amylase (Liquefacction) Glucoamylase (Saccharification) Fermentation Saccharification 60°C(8-10horas) Yeasts Solids Distillation& dehydration Storage tank New enzymes Liquefaction + saccharification
  • 32. Slurrytank Sorce of satrch Grinding Fermentation Solids Distillation& dehydration Storage tank Saccharification 60°C(8-10horas) Yeasts New enzymes Liquefaction + saccharification New enzymes + yeasts Liquefaction + saccharification + fermentation
  • 33. Solids Distillation& dehydration Storage tank
  • 34. Medium throughput fermenters
  • 35. 0 20 40 60 80 100 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Time (minutes) HidrolisisIndex(%) Digestion rate of different cassava starches (1.0 ml of pacreatic α-amilase) pH 6.9 at 37°C ~80% ~30%
  • 36. 0 20 40 60 80 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Time (minutes) Hidrolisisindex(%) ~60% ~30% Digestion rate of different cassava starches (0.5 ml of StargenTM 2) pH 4.0 at 37°C
  • 37. Root processing vs. quality • Starch degrading enzymes and yeast are being improved. • The process to convert starch into ethanol constantly changes. • As in maize, there are genetic differences in cassava for ethanol production (small starch granule). • We are in a unique position to analyze the best germplasm – processing method to maximize economic benefit and reduce negative impact on the environment. • What is the potential of “sugary” cassava?
  • 38. Outline • Introduction • High, stable and reliable productivity • Novel traits • Processing methods X root quality interactions • Perspectives
  • 39. Cassava Bio-ethanol perspective • Cassava is a competitive raw material for bio-ethanol production in Asia (Thailand, China, Vietnam, Indonesia?, Australia?) • A large % of the ethanol production cost is constitute by the enzyme and yeast. • Advances in microbiology and enzymology can significantly reduce ethanol production cost from starches
  • 40. Cassava Bio-ethanol prespective • There are clones with low dry matter content but maximum productivity per hectare that can now be used in ethanol production • Different mutants could reduce costs of conversion from root to ethanol (including “sugary”?)
  • 41. Energy crops: farms of 1-100 ha Sweet potato Sweet sorghum Cassava Banana Sugar cane Coffee residues Small rural communities Micro-plants 1.000 – 2.000 lt/day 5 – 10 t crop/day < – 1 ha crop/day Central Plant (dehydration) Transport Ethanol (99,5%) Ethanol (50%)
  • 42. Cassava Bio-ethanol perspective • For ethanol production a key issue is the continuous supply of feedstock all year round. • Processing of fresh roots (low dry matter?) at harvest time and dried chips during off- season is one potential alternative.
  • 43. Cassava Bio-ethanol perspective • Combining feedstock from different crops. For instance, cassava/sweet-sorghum has proved advantageous. • We need to further analyze the by-products and their potential use for animal feeding.
  • 44. Thank you