“VULNERABLE SENIOR CITIZEN HOUSING PROVIDED BY THE STATE OF CHILE,RISK EVALUATION AND IMPROVEMENT THROUGH ARCHITECTURE AND DESIGN ” Marcela Pizzi - John Chalmers - Viviana Fernández - Daniel Bunout - Paulina Osorio - Valentina Avendaño - Macarena Cusato - Karen Rivera University of Chile
HypothesisSeniors autonomy in performing Basic Activities of Daily Living, (BADL)and risk is directly related with architectural and equipment design.In these terms functionality depends not only on physiological aspectsbut is also is affected by the formal characteristics of the environment.With an adequate diagnosis it is posible to develop guidelines for moreaproppriate designs for this age group.
ObjectivesContrast dimensional characteristics of the built environment andperformance of BADL in representative cases of housing providedby the State of Chile to autonomous seniors.
Senior Public Policies in Chile1990 Needs are acknowledged for the first time Special Attention Programs sets aside 2% of social housing stock from government programs. Does not include special design conditions1997 Senior Condominiums 1 level housing (25m2) with some adaptions plus common spaces.2007 for independent seniors (Condominiums) for dependent seniors (Long stay establishments)2012
LOCATION1990 Special Attention Program1997 Condominiums for Seniors2007 Supervized Housing
1997 Condominiums for Seniors“La Primavera” 8 cases
2007 Supervized Condominiums“Tuteladas San Ramón“ 8 cases
Based on the Katz Scale which considers self-care tasksPersonal Hygiene and groomingDressing and undressingSelf feedingFunctional transfers (getting into and out of bed or wheelchair,getting onto or off toilet, etc.)Bowel and bladder managementAmbulation (walking without use of an assistive device(walker, cane, or crutches) or using a wheelchairKatz, S; Ford, A.B.; Moskowitz, A.W.; Jackson, B.A.; Jaffe, M.W; 1963
We identified de spaces and equipment directly related to the activitydescribing in detail the operations needed for each of them, andidentify risk during performance.Operations Dressing and Functional Personal Hygiene Use of Toilet Self feeding Undressing Transfers and groomingOpen closets Reach Cutlery Sit on toiletUnhang clothes Reach pots and Pans Open Main Door Bathing Raise from toilet Enter houseOpen Drawers Reach Food Close Main Door Heat WaterClose Drawers Wash Utensils Move Between rooms Enter or get out Enter Bedroom shower or tub Enter Bathroom Open water taps Enter Kitchen Reach Shower Go to patio Reach soap Reach towels Hand Washing Heat Water Open water taps Reach soap Wash hands Wash body Wash hair Reach towels
E R Requirements Imposed to the senior by the activityD D Disfunctions Incoherencies between the housing design and senior’s functionalityI I Impacts Consequences on senior’s autonomyMM Morphology Relation between housing design and Impacts on seniors
We developed data collection instrumentsIdentification
Valued Impact for activity performanceFear 1Discomfort 1Difficulty 1Pain 1Chooses not to perform 5
MethodologyObjective Professionals Based on KnowledgeSubjetive Seniors Based on his/her life experiencesBased on References Based on disciplinary knowledge andDocuments codes
In a first level analysis of the data from the point of how many operationspresent problems in their preformance, we can tell the most conflictiveactions
In a second level of analysis, looking for the presence of Requirements ,we find out those most relevant related to Height – Equilibrium –Strength – Mobility and Clenching
In a third level of analysis, we search for the Impacts, (Consequences)such as Fear - Discomfort - Difficulty Pain and Inhibition (Chooses orcannot perform).
Major FindingsExterior SpacesNeed of Outdoor Spaces Related to the Unit