Are Baby Boomers Healthier than                  their Parents?11th Global Conference of the International Federation of A...
Overview Conceptual Framework Methods Impact of Social Change Health Differences Implications
Conceptual Framework         Why Study Cohort Differences? Demographic Theories of Social Change  − Generational Units (M...
MethodsMethods                      Comparing same age-group at                             two different time points• 198...
Impact of Social Change
Key Changes to the Social ContextFactors related to changes in values and lifestyle Post World War II      Economic Secu...
Educational Attainment                      Baby Boomers and their Parents at Age 45-54                            50     ...
Registered Marital Status                         Baby Boomers and their Parents at Age 50-59                    90       ...
Household Structure                  14                  12                  10   Percentage %                            ...
Employment Status                   Baby Boomers and their Parents at Age 50-59                         80                ...
Employment Status by Gender                        Baby Boomers and their Parents at Age 50-59                   90       ...
Children Ever Born                           Females – Pre-war Cohort and Baby Boomers                                    ...
Implications for Health Reduced social support    Higher proportions divorced    Fewer children    Higher proportions ...
Impact of Social Change        - Lifestyle
Increased Food Variety & Food Availability
Changes to Physical Activity Levels   Activity                 Calories Burned Activity               Calories Burned     ...
Changes in Lifestyle PatternsLoss of predictable routineDemise of the 1950s meal system
Variables• Self report data   – Have you ever been told by a doctor or nurse that     you have ... ?   – Do you have any o...
Comparison of Risk Factors                   80                   70                   60    Percentage %                 ...
Comparison of Chronic Conditions                   35        **                   30                   25    Percentage % ...
Multiple Chronic Conditions by Cohort                          Pre-War Cohort                              Baby Boomers   ...
Self-rated Health by Cohort                  90                                                                           ...
Gender Differences – Asthma and Migraine                  14                           **                  12             ...
Gender Differences – High Cholesterol                    16                                            **                 ...
Gender Differences – Alcohol Risk                  70                  60                  50   Percentage %              ...
Gender Differences - Smoking                     70                     60                                                ...
Use of Other Health Practitioners                    12                    10          **                     8           ...
Private Health Insurance                 60                 50                 40  Percentage %                           ...
Private Health Insurance                                   – Gender Differences                  60                       ...
Conclusion Chronic conditions – worse health Self-reported health – better health                                       ...
Wittert 2006
Acknowledgements and Contact DetailsAcknowledgements• This research was funded through an Australian  Research Council Lin...
Limitations re Equivalence of Variables• SRH – extra category in 2008• Diabetes - Diagnostic criteria  – In 1989-90 - ≥7.8...
Notes on Multi Stage Area Sampling and               weights used in the NHS•   Multistage sampling is a complex form of c...
2 j.buckley ifa are b bs healthier than parents_may12_v4
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2 j.buckley ifa are b bs healthier than parents_may12_v4

  1. 1. Are Baby Boomers Healthier than their Parents?11th Global Conference of the International Federation of Aging 28May to 1st June, 2012 Dr Jennifer Buckley Dr Lisel O’Dwyer Professor Graeme Hugo University of Adelaide, Australian Population and Migration Research Centre
  2. 2. Overview Conceptual Framework Methods Impact of Social Change Health Differences Implications
  3. 3. Conceptual Framework Why Study Cohort Differences? Demographic Theories of Social Change − Generational Units (Mannheim) − Cohort Flow, Inter-cohort comparison (Ryder) − Ageing and Society Paradigm (Riley et al) Socio-cultural Theories of Social Change − Late Modernity (Giddens) − Risk (Beck) Non-biological factors which influence the ageing process Differences in ageing patterns between cohorts
  4. 4. MethodsMethods Comparing same age-group at two different time points• 1989-90 Australian NHS data 1989-90 (n=54 576) Age Range in Census Year * * Birth Cohort ** ** **• 2007-08 Australian NHS 1989-90 2007-08 data (n=20 788) * * * *• Surveys use a stratified 1927-1936 – 53-62 ** ** ** Pre-war Cohort n=1458 multistage area sample 1946-1955 – 53-62 Baby Boomers n=2498
  5. 5. Impact of Social Change
  6. 6. Key Changes to the Social ContextFactors related to changes in values and lifestyle Post World War II  Economic Security  Welfare State  The Pill  Feminism  Communications technology Transformation of everyday institutions  Education  Religion  Marriage  Family  Work
  7. 7. Educational Attainment Baby Boomers and their Parents at Age 45-54 50 46,1 45 43,4 40 35 Percentage % 30 24,7 25 20 18,5 15 10 6,2 5 3,4 0 Highest Year of Post secondary quals Bachelor or higher Secondary School Parents of Baby Boomers Baby BoomersSource: ABS 1981; 2006
  8. 8. Registered Marital Status Baby Boomers and their Parents at Age 50-59 90 80 70 60 Percentage % 50 40 30 20 10 0 Married Sep/Div Never Married Widowed Pre-war Generation Baby BoomersSource: ABS; NHS 1989-90; 2007-08
  9. 9. Household Structure 14 12 10 Percentage % * * 8 ** ** ** 6 * * 4 * * 2 ** ** ** ** 0 Lone person households Two and three family Group Households households Pre-war Cohort Baby BoomersSource: ABS Census, 1986; 2006
  10. 10. Employment Status Baby Boomers and their Parents at Age 50-59 80 70 60 Percentage % 50 40 30 20 10 0 Pre-war Generation Baby Boomers Employed Unemployed Not in Labour ForceSource: ABS; National Health Survey, 1989-90; 2007-08
  11. 11. Employment Status by Gender Baby Boomers and their Parents at Age 50-59 90 80 70 60 Percentage % 50 40 30 20 10 0 Pre-war Generation Baby Boomers Pre-war Generation Baby Boomers Male Females Employed Not in Labour Force UnemployedSource: ABS; National Health Survey, 1989-90; 2007-08
  12. 12. Children Ever Born Females – Pre-war Cohort and Baby Boomers Age 50-59 70 60 50 Percentage % 40 30 20 10 0 None 1 2 3 or more Pre-war Cohort Baby BoomersSource: ABS Census, 1986; 2006
  13. 13. Implications for Health Reduced social support  Higher proportions divorced  Fewer children  Higher proportions living alone Multiple commitments extended over longer time  The sandwich generation  Women in paid work and caring More uncertainty in relation to work and relationships More diversity  Education  Family structures  Experiences  Marital status
  14. 14. Impact of Social Change - Lifestyle
  15. 15. Increased Food Variety & Food Availability
  16. 16. Changes to Physical Activity Levels Activity Calories Burned Activity Calories Burned Walk to colleague’s Email Colleague 1 min 2 4 office – 1 min Ride Elevator – 2 mins 3 Take stairs – 2 min 19 Order take-out – 1 min 1 Cook meal 70 Load dishwasher – 10 23 Wash dishes 80 min Watch TV - 35 Play cards 52 Go to car wash 35 Wash car at home 104 Play video game 53 Play basketball 280 Mow lawn/ride-on 88 Mow lawn/power mower 280 mowerSource: OECD ......
  17. 17. Changes in Lifestyle PatternsLoss of predictable routineDemise of the 1950s meal system
  18. 18. Variables• Self report data – Have you ever been told by a doctor or nurse that you have ... ? – Do you have any other long term health conditions? * * ** ** **• Multiple Conditions variable * * – Arthritis * * – Kidney disease – Diabetes ** ** ** ** – Depression – COPD – Asthma
  19. 19. Comparison of Risk Factors 80 70 60 Percentage % 50 * * 40 ** ** ** 30 * ** * 20 ** * ** * ** 10 ** ** ** ** 0 Insufficient Obesity (BMI High Blood Current Alcohol Risk High Exercise ≥30) Pressure Smoking Cholesterol Pre-war Cohort Baby Boomers**p=<.001Source: ABS; NHS 1989-90; 2007-08
  20. 20. Comparison of Chronic Conditions 35 ** 30 25 Percentage % ** 20 * * ** ** ** 15 ** ** ** ** * 10 * * 5 * * 0 Arthritis ** Hearing Asthma Diabetes Back Migraine COPD ** Kidney ** ** Loss problems - Disease Disc Pre-war Cohort Baby Boomers**p=<.001; *p=<.05Source: ABS; NHS 1989-90; 2007-08
  21. 21. Multiple Chronic Conditions by Cohort Pre-War Cohort Baby Boomers 4,7 .5 4,0 9,1 ** ** * * 30,3 ** ** ** ** 53,7 * * 33,2 64,5 * * ** ** ** ** 0 1 2 3 or more 0 1 2 3 or more**p=<.001Source: ABS; NHS 1989-90; 2007-08
  22. 22. Self-rated Health by Cohort 90 ** 80 70 60 Percentage % * * 50 ** ** ** 40 * * 30 * ** * 20 10 ** ** ** ** 0 Poor-Fair Good-Excellent Pre-war Cohort Baby Boomers**p=<.001Source: ABS; NHS 1989-90; 2007-08
  23. 23. Gender Differences – Asthma and Migraine 14 ** 12 10 * Percentage % * * 8 ** ** ** 6 * * 4 * * 2 ** ** ** ** 0 Females Males Females Males Asthma Migraine Pre-war cohort Baby Boomers**p=<.001; *p=<.05Source: ABS; NHS 1989-90; 2007-08
  24. 24. Gender Differences – High Cholesterol 16 ** 14 12 Percentage % 10 8 6 4 2 0 Males Females Pre-war Chort Baby Boomers**p=<.001Source: ABS; NHS 1989-90; 2007-08
  25. 25. Gender Differences – Alcohol Risk 70 60 50 Percentage % 40 ** * * 30 ** ** ** 20 * * * 10 * * 0 ** ** ** ** No Risk Low Risk Med-High No Risk Low Risk Med-High Risk Risk Females Males Pre-war Cohort Baby Boomers**p=<.001; *p=<.05Source: ABS; NHS 1989-90; 2007-08
  26. 26. Gender Differences - Smoking 70 60 ** 50 Percentage % ** 40 * * ** 30 ** ** ** ** 20 * * ** 10 * * 0 ** ** ** ** Smoker Ex-smoker Never Smoker Ex-smoker Never smoked smoked Females Males Pre-war Cohort Baby Boomers**p=<.001Source: ABS; NHS 1989-90; 2007-08
  27. 27. Use of Other Health Practitioners 12 10 ** 8 * * Percentage % 6 ** ** ** ** * * ** 4 * * ** 2 ** ** ** ** 0 Chiropractor Dietitian Naturopath Acupuncturist Osteopath Pre-war Cohort Baby Boomers**p=<.001Source: ABS; NHS 1989-90; 2007-08
  28. 28. Private Health Insurance 60 50 40 Percentage % * * 30 ** ** ** 20 * * 10 * * ** ** ** ** 0 No private Hospital cover Both hospital Ancillary cover health cover only and ancillary only cover Pre-war Cohort Baby BoomersSource: ABS; NHS 1989-90; 2007-08
  29. 29. Private Health Insurance – Gender Differences 60 * 50 40 Percentage % * * * 30 ** ** ** 20 * * 10 * * * 0 ** ** ** ** No Hospital Hospital Ancillary No Hospital Hospital Ancillary Private & only only Private & only only Health ancillary Health ancillary Cover Cover Females Males Pre-War Gen Baby Boomers*p=<.05Source: ABS; NHS 1989-90; 2007-08
  30. 30. Conclusion Chronic conditions – worse health Self-reported health – better health * * Gender differences ** ** * * Policy * * – Strategies for obesity and physical activity – Equitable access to health care and services ** ** ** ** – Effective integration of private and public health provision
  31. 31. Wittert 2006
  32. 32. Acknowledgements and Contact DetailsAcknowledgements• This research was funded through an Australian Research Council Linkage grant• To Graeme Tucker and Rhiannon Pilkington for their assistance with the National Health Survey dataContact DetailsJennifer BuckleyEmail: jennifer.buckley@adelaide.edu.au
  33. 33. Limitations re Equivalence of Variables• SRH – extra category in 2008• Diabetes - Diagnostic criteria – In 1989-90 - ≥7.8 mmol L * * – In 2007-08 –≥ 7.0 mmol L ** ** ** – We have not adjusted for this difference * * * * ** ** ** **
  34. 34. Notes on Multi Stage Area Sampling and weights used in the NHS• Multistage sampling is a complex form of cluster sampling. Instead of using all the elements contained in the selected clusters you randomly selects elements from each cluster. Constructing the clusters is the first stage. Deciding what elements within the cluster to use is the second stage.• How the ABS does it: household surveys conducted by the Australian Bureau of Statistics begin by dividing metropolitan regions into collection districts, and selecting some of these collection districts (first stage). The selected collection districts are then divided into blocks, and blocks are chosen from within each selected collection district (second stage). Next, dwellings are listed within each selected block, and some of these dwellings are selected (third stage). This method means that it is not necessary to create a list of every dwelling in the region, only for selected blocks. In remote areas,• Stratified multi-stage area sampling frame of private dwellings – therefore does not allow statistical treatment as a simple random sample. This dealt with by using replication methods to estimate variances for the complex sample design and weighting procedure used in the NHS. The replicate weights are a series of variables that contain the information on the primary sampling unit and the strata used in the sampling design that allows correct calculation of the standard errors when analysing complex survey data.• Weighting

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