The cuisine of_latvia


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The cuisine of_latvia

  2. 2. Latvia is located in a temperate climatic zone with fairly long and cold winters and warm, short summers. Due to the harsh climate and relatively poor soil quality Latvians have always worked hard to provide food for THE themselves and their families. Food has thus always been assigned great value by Latvians. Bread has a specialCUISINE place in the Latvian consciousness, and respect for it is encouraged OF from early childhood. LATVIA Although Latvian cuisine has traditionally been based on agricultural produce, meat also features prominently in the Latvian diet. People living along the 500 km of Latvian coastline have always been involved in fishing, and fish has been an integral part of their diet. Fish are also caught inland, but these freshwater species are considered more of a delicacy, in the same way as crayfish are.
  3. 3. THE CUISINE OF LATVIAFOOD PREPARATION ANCIENT COOKING pork. Of course, game meat – beaver,Women were the cooks in traditional TRADITIONS deer, wild boar, duck, goose – and overLatvian homes and responsible for If we look back over 1000 years, then we 25 different species of fish were alsofeeding the household three times a day. learn that the Baltic and Finno-Ugric eaten. As there are no sources of salt inLonger days in summer meant that tribes inhabiting the territory of Latvia Latvia, it was obtained through trade orpeople worked for longer, and thus ate subsisted mainly from grains – rye, barter and was used sparingly. Food wasfour meals a day. At first, food was pre- wheat, barley, oats, millet and hemp. also made more flavoursome through thepared in clay potswhich were placed Crushingin the fire or on grain usingthe open hearth. a rubbingOver time, caul- stone.drons hung abovethe hearth andbread ovens forbaking leavenedbread becamepopular. BakingLatvian foods are rye bread oncharacteristically hot stones.bland, without ause of strongspices, and have areasonably highfat content. As aresult of the terri-tory of Latviabeing ruled by the German aristocracy for Porridges, patties and leavened bread use of caraway seeds, onions, garlic andseven centuries, Latvian peasants learned were made from these grains. People also white mustard. It is probable that if weto use new ingredients and to prepare ate peas, beans, turnips, black radishes, tasted these ancient foods today, theyfood in different ways. For example, one linseed and its oil, wild carrots and garlic. would seem to us to lack salt and otherof the most popular Latvian foods Stock farming developed alongside agri- spices. The only sweetener used wastoday – sautéed sauerkraut – is a tradi- culture, and the Latvian diet thus also honey, but the most popular dessertstion inherited from the Germans. consisted of fowl, beef, horse meat and were probably wild berries and hazelnuts.
  4. 4. THE CUISINE OF LATVIACOOKING Today potatoes, prepared in different home such as rye bread, cottage cheese,100 YEARS AGO ways, are still a very popular component rügußpiens (curdled milk), and sometimesMore detailed information about the of the Latvian diet. also fried meat or patties. After lunch,traditional Latvian diet stems from the In autumn, the cellar of each farm was people would usually have a nap before19th century. At this time a plant from used to store dried sausages and pork, beginning work again. On returningNorth America was spreading quickly – and barrels of salted cabbage, cucumbers, home in the afternoon, soup or porridgethe potato. Thanks to potato farming, mushrooms, meat and herring. These was eaten with a drink of rügußpiens. OnChurning Removingbutter in bread from1926. the oven in 1927.Latvian peasants no longer had food were used as ingredients for meals Sundays the diet consisted of stewedshortages in winter and spring, when throughout winter. meat, white bread, pîrågi (bacon rolls),stores of grain had been depleted. It is In summer, when there was a lot of out- pancakes, sweetened cottage cheese orbelieved that the most common meal for door work to be done further away from berry jelly with milk.Latvian coastal fishing families in the home, people would eat a moderate19th century was boiled potatoes with breakfast, for example, milk porridge.cottage cheese and herring or pilchards. Lunch consisted of food brought from
  5. 5. THE CUISINE OF LATVIA FOOD AT TRADITIONAL LATVIAN CELEBRATIONS The most typical ancient foods eaten by Latvians are still found today at traditional Latvian celebrations. These celebrations are related to annual seasonal events, and to the rhythm of farming in the northern hemisphere, which is dependent on the solarLATVIAN year. This is why Latvian food and drink at traditional celebrations are those which areEATING CUSTOMS the most convenient to prepare at any given time of year. Food and drink were alsoSimilar eating customs were widely traditionally assigned mythological significance, although few Latvians would be able tospread in rural areas up until World War talk about this significance today.II. After the War, more and more countrydwellers came to live in cities, andLatvians began to structure their eating foods that do not need to be cultivated, THE HARVEST FESTIVALschedules around work, as is the case in only gathered. Since long ago people in In autumn, when the harvest had beenmany other industrialised countries. Latvia pick berries in the summer time – brought in and food was abundant, farmsToday people often no longer prepare wild strawberries, bilberries, raspberries, would usually celebrate the harvest festi-meals at home. However, many ancient loganberries – and cranberries, mush- val. Because of this, weddings wereeating customs are still practiced today, rooms and nuts in the autumn. Many usually held in autumn. After the harvest,and ancient foods are still eaten by Latvians like to eat honey, and bee-keep- a piglet or ram was often slaughtered andLatvians daily and on special occasions. ing traditions have developed over the a feast was organised. The new season’sLatvians have always been great fans of centuries. Today Latvian farms often have sauerkraut was eaten and bread wasdairy products. Milk, rügußpiens, cottage their own bee hives, and honey produc- baked from the newly harvested grains.cheese, cream, cheese and butter used to tion is the business of many farms. In Bread baked from the flour made from thebe eaten in every house almost at every turn, among coastal dwelling families, first harvest was assigned particularmeal, and this tradition has continued. smoking fish at home is still popular, and powers. When eating this bread, a wishLatvians have always been able to find in many areas people eat smoked eel- was made, which would be fulfilled.many delicious edible foods in the wild: pout, flounder, eel, lamprey and cod. Whenever a domestic animal was slaugh- tered, the meat which could not be eatenJa n i celebrations ¯‚ straight away was salted and dried, orin the 1920s. made into sausages. Blood and pearl barley were used to make special blood sausage, and brawn was made by boiling meat off-cuts. Pîrågi (bacon rolls) filled with diced fatty bacon and onion are still baked today for almost all Latvian celebrations. Various sweet platter breads are also baked, which are topped with rhubarb, apples, berries in summer and sweetened cottage cheese or dried apples in autumn.
  6. 6. CHRISTMAS DINNER Christmas, another tradition inherited from THE CUISINE OF LATVIASpecial foods were eaten at the winter the Germans. Today one of the most popu-solstice, a celebration to mark the days lar Christmas meals is roast pork withbecoming longer. Many of these foods can sautéed sauerkraut. A modern festive tablestill be found on contemporary Latvian also often includes carp, and fish scales are CELEBRATINGChristmas tables. A popular dish used to be placed in pockets and purses, so that the THE SUMMERa boiled pigs head with boiled pearl barley, new year brings a lot of money. According SOLSTICEalthough today the most popular traditional to Latvian tradition you should eat nine Today the most popular celebration inChristmas dish is boiled grey peas with meals at Christmas for the coming year to Latvia is Jåñi or the summer solstice. Thispieces of fried meat and fatty bacon, usual- be rich, although today this ritual is per- marks the shortest night of the year,ly eaten accompanied by a drink of rüguß- formed only rarely. when throughout Latvia special Jåñi folkpiens or kefîrs (curdled or cultured milk). EASTER EGGS songs are sung, floral wreaths are made,This dish can be found in many restaurants At the time of the spring solstice, or and countless bonfires burn until theand cafés in Latvia all year around. All of the Easter, food stores would usually have morning. The main Jåñi foods are freshpeas boiled at Christmas must be eaten by been running low, so eggs were saved for caraway cheese and beer, which is foundthe morning, otherwise there will be a lot some time before Easter. Boiled eggs, on every Jåñi festive table. Usually thetears shed in the new year. Another special coloured with brown onion skins and dec- table will also be laden with pîrågi, sweetChristmas food is the once-popular blood orated with scratched designs have been platter breads, various meats and manysausage with pearl barley, because its the main Easter food for many centuries. other modern foods, which suit contem-rounded bend is reminiscent of a circle, Many families still boil and eat their own porary Latvian celebrations.symbolising the solar year. In western Latvia home coloured eggs at Easter. Another Because it is an outdoor celebration, ana traditional Christmas snack is sklandu once popular Easter food – sprouted increasing list of modern picnic foods areraußi (tarts filled with a mashed potato and grain – today no longer appears on the being eaten at Jåñi, for example, friedcarrot). In the last 100 years it has also table as a festive delicacy, but is used as sausages, barbecued meat and variousbecome popular to bake gingerbread at décor instead. salads.
  7. 7. THE CUISINE OF LATVIA course, which at a Latvian wedding and birthdays can be sautéed pork ribs, pork chops, schnitzel, roast, steak, rolled veal or rissoles with boiled potatoes andAT THE LATVIAN sautéed sauerkraut. These are served with THE CONTEMPORARYWEDDING TABLE a sauce made from a milk or cream base. LATVIAN MENUAnother Latvian celebration that should Dessert is usually made of berries or a On an average day Latvians usually eat abe mentioned are weddings, which since milk jelly with a sweet sauce. After moderate breakfast before going to work.ancient times have been associated with midnight the guests are offered the “New People drink a morning coffee or tea andan abundance of food. Also today food is Wife’s Torte”, which is served with eat sandwiches with cheese, sausage,a large component of a Latvian wedding. coffee. tomatoes or cucumber.A scenefrom the filmLatvian Weddingin Nı ¯ca(Latvießukåzas Nîcå),produced in1931 byA.Rustei˚isandK.Linde. For many Latvians the day is not imagin- able without a drink of milk, which is usually drunk at breakfast. A boiled egg or omelette is also a popular breakfast dish for many.It is hard to imagine a Latvian wedding If you find yourself at a large Latvian Lunch in Latvia is eaten between middaywithout the ancient festive dishes – party, then assume that you will have to and three: this is dependent on what timepîrågi, sweet platter breads and beer. do a lot of eating, drinking and singing. In the day has begun. People usually eat aThere are also usually at least five types many homes you will have the opportu- hot lunch, which consists of a type ofof salad on the table, various meat-based nity to drink herbal tea (made from a fried meat (pork chops, rissoles, sautéedsnacks and a lot of fruit. It is traditional range of herbs, not just peppermint or fillet, steak, chicken) or fish (salmon,to eat ground meat pîrågi together with camomile), which will possibly have been trout, cod, pilchard), potatoes (boiled,broth or meatball soup as a first course at gathered by your hosts during the fried, or mashed), boiled rice or buck-weddings. This is followed by the main summer. wheat, and a fresh salad. Sour cream is
  8. 8. usually eaten as an accompaniment, or a THE CUISINE OF LATVIAsauce using cream as a base. Some peoplealso eat soup as an entrée, which in Latviais usually made with pork (or can also bemade with a fish stock), adding onions At lunch time Latvians drink fruit juices, DRINKSand carrots. Meat soups may also contain kefîrs (cultured milk), milk, tea or coffee. Many Latvians drink innumerable cups ofpotatoes, beets, sauerkraut, beans, peas, On arriving home from work, a second tea or coffee during the day, usually with-sorrel or fresh nettles. Many different kind lunch, or supper, is made. This is eaten out milk. Fruit juices or spring water areof desserts are eaten. These usually are around six or seven in the evening. At also drunk. Spring water has now becomemade of dairy products and fruit, with this time there is a large diversity in the so popular that it can be found in almostgelatine or potato starch added. Latvian home – supper can consist of every office. In the last ten years more On traditional soup, various salads, or can be a hot meal and more families do not purchase spring seasonal holidays (similar to lunch), or a more traditional water from the shop, but rather collect special food is food, for example, a milk-based soup. water for the whole week from natural often served in However, many people who do not wish springs instead. Two of the most popular restaurants. to spend a lot of time preparing food after traditional Latvian drinks today are Would you like work buy ready-made or frozen foods, or rügußpiens (curdled milk with no other to taste a eat a number of sandwiches or buns additives) and kefîrs (cultured milk). Ma rtini roast ¯ ‚ together with a cup of tea. Latvians also Other popular traditional drinks include goose? enjoy eating pastries and other bakery kvass (a non-alcoholic drink made from products, and pizza has also become a yeast), fresh or fermented birch juice and popular and easy meal to prepare. beer. Beer is a traditional Latvian beverage – it is impossible to imagine ancient or con- temporary Latvian celebrations without it.
  9. 9. THE CUISINE OF LATVIA meet in a tavern in the evening, celebrate and in many homes, when cutting the a wedding or the summer solstice. first slice from a loaf of bread, the end is Another special strong alcoholic called a ‘farmer’s son’. Young women beverage made in Latvia is Rîga Black compete to eat this slice, so that theyBeer is the most commonly mentioned Balsam, first made in the 18th century may marry a ‘farmer’s son’ – someonedrink in Latvian folklore, and has innume- and based on an ancient recipe used by who has their own home and farm.rable folksongs dedicated to it. In Latvia Rigan pharmacists. The ingredients in- Another belief is that a loaf of breadbeer was traditionally brewed from barley clude various herbs, and because of this should be sliced from the fatter end, inand hops. Honey was also often added the liqueur is dark, has a thick con- order for the eldest daughter to be theduring the brewing process, and the sistency, is fragrant and is considered first to marry.product was then called medalus (honey medicinal. Today people still hold a number of beliefs about salt. Each Latvian knowsA peasant that if a food has too much salt added,brewing beer the cook is in love. If salt is spilled on thein 1928. table or on the floor, then there will be a quarrel in the house. Sitting down to a meal is a serious busi- ness, which requires people to be calm and act with decorum, to demonstrate respect for the food and for those who have worked to put it on the table – the The taste of ploughman and the cook. The place of Rîga Black honour is at the head of the table, where Balsam the head of the house usually sits. Those will take you who sit at the corner of the table should back to the be afraid of being cursed – that they will 18th not be married for seven years. And century. everyone knows that if a spoon or fork fall to the ground, a female visitor will arrive, whereas if a knife falls, the visitor will bebeer). Juniper berries or wormwood were BELIEFS ASSOCIATED a male.also added to give the beer flavour. Today WITH EATING You are welcome at our table and wethere are many types of beer which are There are many beliefs and customs asso- wish youproducts of breweries throughout Latvia. ciated with food and eating in Latvia. One LABU APETÈTI!The most popular are Aldaris, Césu, of the most important features of LatvianPiebalgas, Térvetes, UΩavas, Bauskas and “eating etiquette” is to offer food to oth-Låçpléßa beers. Beer is the most popular ers around you if you yourself are eating.alcoholic beverage drunk when friends Latvians are enthusiastic bread eaters,
  11. 11. THE CUISINE OF LATVIACOLD APPETISERS PORKIN ASPIC 1kg (2lb., 3oz) pork, 50g (1.75oz) flavouring vegetables water to cover meat. Cover saucepan and it settle, and skim fat from the top. Rinse (onion, carrot, parsley, bring to the boil, skimming off any foam. bowls in cold water. If you wish for the celery), Add peeled flavouring vegetables and salt, aspic to have a garlic flavour, add a clove pepper, bay leaves, salt. then simmer on low heat with the of minced garlic to each bowl. Arrange saucepan partly covered. Add pepper and boiled carrot and parsley in the bowls.Choose meat from a young, relatively bay leaves towards the end of cooking. Add meat and pour over broth. Place in afatty piglet (knuckles and a piece of side Remove from flame when meat separates cool room to set. Before serving, upturnor shoulder). Chop knuckles in half, cut easily from the knuckles. the pork in aspic on a shallow dish. Serveup the side or shoulder. Wash all of the Remove meat from broth, separate from with vinegar, mustard and horseradish.meat. Place in a saucepan and add cold bone and cut into cubes. Strain broth, let Veal in aspic is prepared in the same way.
  12. 12. “HERRING THE CUISINE OF LATVIA COLD APPETISERSIN A JACKET” HERRING WITHVEGETABLES Soak herring and peel off skin. Slice fillet into angled pieces. Dice vegetables and arrange to cover a fish plate in a slight 1 salted herring, mound. Arrange the pieces of herring on 150g (5.25oz) boiled vegetables top of the mound with the points coming (carrot, beetroot, together in the centre. Mix sour cream, green peas), horseradish, salt and sugar and pour 100g (3.5oz) sour cream, diagonally over the herring. Spread 10 g (0.35oz) horseradish, chopped spring onions. Cut hollow cone salt, sugar to taste, shapes from a boiled carrot to decorate spring onions. the centre or one side of the dish.
  13. 13. JňITHE CUISINE OF LATVIA 1kg (2lb., 3oz) skim milk dry cottage cheese,COLD APPETISERS 5l milk, 100g (3.5oz) sour cream, 2 eggs, SUMMER SOLSTICE 100g (3.5oz) butter, salt, caraway seeds. CHEESEHeat milk, stirring occasionally, until thetemperature reaches 90-95 0C (194-203 0F). Grind or process cottage cheeseand add to milk. If the cottage cheese issweet, mix with rügußpiens (curdled milk)for the whey to separate more easily.Continue to heat at 85-90 0C (185-194 0F)for 10-15 minutes. When a clear wheyseparates, remove from heat, and allowcheese to sit. Pour off liquid. Place cheeseinto a dampened linen cloth. Holdingcorners of the cloth together, roll cheeseback and forth to allow any extra liquid toseparate out before the cheese coolsdown. Put cheese in a bowl. Mix sourcream with eggs, salt and caraway seedsand gradually add to cheese, mixing witha wooden spoon. Add the mixture to asaucepan with melted butter, and stircontinuously over a low flame for 10-15 time will make the cheese harder). Place Jåñi cheese is served with butter or honeyminutes, until cheese is smooth and cheese in a dampened linen cloth. Gather or as a snack with beer. If you wish toshiny, and has a temperature of 75-80 0C corners of the cloth together and tie, store the cheese for a longer period, rub(167-176 0F). (The lower the temperature smooth out any folds, and place under a with salt, wrap in paper or plastic wrapand shorter the heating time, the softer weight in the refrigerator. When cheese and store in a cool, dry place. The cheeseand more crumbly the cheese will be. A is cool, remove from cloth, place on a can also be spread with butter and bakedhigher temperature and a longer heating shallow dish and slice. in a hot oven until brown.
  14. 14. THE CUISINE OF LATVIA SOUPS SORREL SOUP Soak pearl barley for 6-8 hours in coldNOTE: the dark green sorrel leaf resem- water. Dice pork. Put pork and grits in ables spinach in look and taste. However, saucepan, add water to cover and cooksorrel has a lovely tart flavour that can’t until the meat is almost tender. Chopbe replaced in this recipe. 250g (8.75oz) pork, sorrel, onions and carrots and sauté in but- 800g (28oz) water, ter. Add sautéed vegetables, parsley and 300g (10.5oz) sorrel, salt to the saucepan, and continue cooking 30g (1.05oz) carrot, until meat is tender. Before serving, sprin- 20g (0.7oz) onion, kle with chopped dill or parsley and add 10g (0.35oz) parsley, sour cream. You may substitute 200g (7oz) 20g (0.7oz) fat, of diced potato instead of pearl barley. Boil 20g (0.7oz) pearl barley, potatoes with the meat. Steam sorrel sep- 1-2 eggs, arately and add it to the soup when the salt, sour cream, meat and potatoes are tender. Decorate dill and parsley. with a boiled egg.
  15. 15. THE CUISINE OF LATVIA HOT FOODS GREY PEAS WITH BACON 200g (7oz) grey peas, 60g (2.1oz) smoked or unsmoked streaky bacon, 40g (1.4oz) onion, salt. Soak peas, then cover with hot water and boil until tender. Dice bacon and onion and sauté. Serve drained peas in individ- ual clay bowls, adding fried bacon mix- ture to each serving. Serve with a drink of rügußpiens (curdled milk). Beans with fresh bacon are also prepared in this way.
  16. 16. THE CUISINE OF LATVIA HOT FOODS SAUTÉED SAUERKRAUT 400g (14oz) sauerkraut, water, 50g (1.75oz) carrot, 30g (1.05oz) onion, 50g (1.75oz) butter, salt, sugar.Melt butter in a large saucepan. Chop onions in an uncovered pan, adding wateronion and sauté it in butter until light only after some time. Cook sauerkraut forbrown. Chop sauerkraut into smaller 2-3 hours. In the last 20 minutes, addpieces and add to the saucepan. If you grated carrots. When sauerkraut is ten-want the sautéed sauerkraut to be light in der, add salt and sugar to taste. (If thecolour, cover sautéing onions with sauerkraut is not as dark as you wouldboiling water, cover the saucepan imme- like, add caramelised sugar to the pan).diately and cook over a low flame. If you Serve with roast pork, chops and otherwant the sauerkraut to be darker, sauté fatty meat dishes.
  17. 17. THE CUISINE OF LATVIA FOR 10 PEOPLE 1,5-2kg (3.2-4.3lb.) pork HOT FOODS (the side, with ribs), 50g (1.75oz) onion, 50g (1.75oz) carrot, 25g (0.875oz) parsley, salt, ground pepper. BAKED PORK Make a series of 6-7 cm long cuts diago- RIBS nally across ribs or cut membrane across each of the ribs, so that meat can be eas- ily divided after roasting. Rub with salt and pepper and bake for 1 hour as you would a pork roast. If meat is fatty, WITH remove skin and layer of fat. After baking, divide into portions (two ribs to each SAUTEED SAUERKRAUT serve), place in a serving bowl, pour over the pan juices and serve with boiled AND BOILED POTATOES potatoes an sautéed sauerkraut.
  18. 18. FISHTHE CUISINE OF LATVIA 500g (17.5oz) fish (mackerel, perch, pilchards, etc.), HOT FOODS 140g (4.9oz) flavouring vegetables (onion, parsley, carrot), 260g (9.1oz) milk, COOKED 2 tablespoons vegetable oil, 2 tablespoons sour cream, chopped parsley or dill, salt, pepper, bay leaves. INMILK Cut fish into pieces, cut onion into rings, WITH coarsely grate carrot, chop parsley. Layer fish pieces with vegetables in a saucepan, BOILED sprinkling each layer with vegetable oil, POTATOES salt and pepper. Pour over hot milk, add bay leaf and simmer over low heat for 10- 15 minutes. Add sour cream at the end of cooking. Serve fish with the cooking liquid and boiled potatoes. Sprinkle with chopped herbs before serving.
  19. 19. THE CUISINE OF LATVIA DESSERTSDEBESSMANNA WHIPPED CRANBERRY DESSERT WITH MILK 75g (2.65oz) cranberries (or other berries), 200g (7oz) water, Rinse cranberries. Crush and squeeze out juice. Pour mixture into a bowl and cool 50g (1.75oz) sugar, juice. Place cranberry solids in a sauce- rapidly. Whip mixture until it becomes 30g (1.05oz) semolina. pan, cover with water, boil for five min- light and airy and has doubled or tripled utes and strain. Add sugar. Gradually add in volume. Serve in deep dessert dishes semolina, stirring constantly. Heat until with cold milk. semolina thickens, then add cranberry
  20. 20. THE CUISINE OF LATVIA VERSION 2: 80-100g (2.8-3.5oz) dry rye bread, DESSERTS 20g (0.7oz) sugar, 15g (5.25oz) butter, 50g (1.75oz) loganberry jam, 60g (2.1oz) cream, vanilla essence. LAYERED Finely grate rye bread, add half of the sugar and fry in melted butter on the pan, stirring frequently. Allow mixture to cool. Beat cream with remaining sugar andRYE BREAD vanilla essence. Layer rye bread, jam and whipped cream in serving dishes, sprinkle rye bread on top and decorate with whipped cream. Serve with a drink of milk.DESSERTVERSION 1: 75g (2.625oz) dry rye bread, 50g (1.75oz) loganberry jam, 20g (0.7oz) sugar, 60g (2.1oz) cream, cinnamon, vanilla essence.Finely grate rye bread, mix with cinnamonand half of the sugar. Beat cream, addingsugar and vanilla essence gradually, untilmixture forms stiff peaks. On a shallowdish arrange layers of bread, jam andwhipped cream, finishing with a layer ofbread which is decorated with whippedcream. Serve with a drink of milk.
  21. 21. THE CUISINE OF LATVIA BREADS AND PASTRIES RYE BREAD NOTE: This recipe is intended for baking bread in a traditional wood-fired bread oven. However, you can also bake the bread in an electric or gas oven using a baking tray.
  22. 22. TO BAKE APPROXIMATELY Before baking, sift flour and leave at room THE CUISINE OF LATVIA10 LOAVES OF BREAD: temperature. When baking bread for the 10kg coarse rye flour, first time, you must make the starter. BREADS AND ~ 5-7l water, Add sifted flour to buttermilk (both must PASTRIES pinch of salt, be room temperature), stir in 50g sugar, 1-1.5 hours, the time will depend on the caraway seeds to taste. cover and allow to ferment in a warm sourness of the dough and the season. place for 8-12 hours. Then add 500-700g After baking the bread the abrkasis (aFOR THE STARTER: flour to near boiling water and beat thor- small piece of left over dough which is 250g (8.75oz) coarse rye flour, oughly to form a porridge of medium made hard by kneading in extra flour) is 250g (8.75oz) buttemilk, thickness (to make the mixture thicker, left for a week in a cool place. Next time 50g (1.75oz) sugar. you can gradually add more flour). Add this will become the starter. To assist its the starter, beat, cover and leave to fer- fermentation, dissolve in warm waterNOTE: The amount of ingredients can be ment in a warm place for 8-9 hours or before use.reduced as long as the parts ratio is until the mixture sours. The oven is lit when the dough begins tomaintained. When the starter is ready, make the leav- rise. To check if the oven is too hot, en. Mix one third of flour intended for throw in a handful of flour. If the flour baking with hot water and beat with a immediately burns to a black colour, wooden spatula until the mixture then the oven must be cooled. The oven is smooth. Cool to 35-400C, is the right temperature for baking when then add starter and contin- the flour becomes brown in 5-6 seconds. ue to beat until the mixture Each loaf is made to have a weight of 2- is smooth again. Sprinkle 4 kg. Sprinkle flour on the bread-shovel, over thick layer of flour, then with wet hands take enough dough cover and put in for one loaf, place on the bread-shovel a warm place and form it into a loaf shape. Smooth the to rise for 10- top with wet hands, and score 2-3 lines 12 hours. into the sides, so that the loaf does not When the leaven has a pleas- crack. There must be no less than a palm ant sour taste and has increased in width space between each loaf when volume, begin to knead, slowly adding all baking. of the flour, until it has all been kneaded Bake bread for 1-2 hours, the length of in and the dough is elastic and does not time is determined by the size of the stick to your fingers or the container. The loaves. You can tell if the loaf is ready by dough must be firm, because as it rises it listening to the sound when knocking on will become softer. Smooth dough, cover the underside of the loaf. After removing and put in a warm place to rise, until it loaves from the oven, wet the tops with has increased in volume by one third or water, cover with a linen cloth and allow half of its original volume. Let it rise for to cool.
  23. 23. THE CUISINE OF LATVIA Sift flour onto a pastry board, rub through lard or margarine. Heat water to BREADS AND 20-25 °C (68-77°F), add sugar and salt PASTRIES (10-15g (0.35-0.525oz) of yeast can also be added), and knead into a stiff dough that can be easily rolled. Roll dough into a sheet of 2-3mm thickness, cut out round shapes 10-15cm (4-4.8 inches) in diameter. Fold up edges of each round to a height of 1-1.5cm (0.4-0.6 inches), and place on a greased baking tray. Fill each case with potato filling and then carrot filling. Brush with beaten egg and bake in a moderate oven for 10-15 minutes, until the top has browned and pastry is dry and crusty. Potato filling: Boil peeled pota- toes in salted water, drain, mash through a sieve. Add boiled SKLANDU milk and butter and mix well. Carrot filling: Boil unpeeled carrots, then peel, mash through a sieve. Add salt, sugar, sour cream and flour and mix RAUÍI well. Sklandu raußi can be baked with only the potato or only the carrot filling. Alternatively, add grated fresh carrot, salt, sugar, eggs, sour cream and flour to VEGETABLE TARTS mashed potato and mix well.400-500g (15.75-17.5oz) coarse rye CARROT FILLING: or wheat flour, POTATO FILLING: 350-400g (12.25 -14oz) carrot, 200g (7oz) water, 250g (8.75oz) potato, 50 g (1.75oz) sugar, salt, 50g (1.75oz) lard or margarine, 25g (0.875oz) milk, 25g (0.875oz) sour cream, 10g (0.35oz) sugar, salt, 15g (0.525oz) butter, 2 eggs, 1 egg. salt. 15g (0.525oz) flour.
  24. 24. THE CUISINE OF LATVIA BREADS AND PASTRIES Sift flour. This removes any impurities and aerates to assist the growth of the yeast fungus. Mix yeast with warm water and flour and put in a warm place to rise for 15-20 minutes. Dissolve salt and sugar in water or milk which has been heated to 30-35 0C (85-95 0F), add beaten eggs, yeast, sifted flour (leave approximately 5- YEAST 6% of flour for kneading and shaping) and stir to form an even dough. Add melted butter and knead, until the dough springs back from your hands and edges of the bowl. Pat down the dough, sprinkle withDOUGH FOR PÈRÅGI flour. Cover the bowl with a lid or clean cloth and put in a warm place to rise. After 1 hour the dough will have nearly doubled in size. Punch down dough to release carbon dioxide, which hinders growth of the yeast fungus, and continue BACON ROLLS to rise for 1 hour. Best results will be achieved if the temperature of the dough AND SWEET is 25-30 °C. The dough is ready when its volume has BREADS increased by 2–2.5 times, and if when pressing the dough, the impression slow- ly fills out, and if the dough has a pleas- ant smell and taste. If the dough is left to rise for too long, its consistency becomes thinner, and it tastes and smells slightly fermented. The bread often collapses 100g (3.5oz) yeast, while baking, or can taste sour. Dough 150g (5.25oz) water or milk, that has over-risen can be corrected by 25g (0.875oz) flour, adding a little liquid and flour and re- 1-2 eggs. kneading.
  25. 25. PÈRÅGITHE CUISINE OF LATVIA BREADS AND PASTRIES BACON ROLLS Prepare dough without a starter (see above). After dough has risen, divide into 30-35g (1.05 – 1.225oz) pieces, roll into round balls and leave on a pastry board for 10-15 minutes to rise. Press each piece flat, place bacon filling in the centre, press together edges of dough above or at the side of filling. Roll with both hands to even out filling; make the shape long with slender ends and bend into a half-moon. Place on a greased baking tray, leave to rise, brush with beaten egg and bake in a hot oven. Brush with melted butter once removed from the oven.450-500g (17.5oz) flour, 250g (8.75oz) milk or water, Bacon filling: 25g (0.875oz) yeast, Cut rind off bacon. 75g (2.625oz) margarine, FILLING: Dice bacon and onion 25g (0.875oz) sugar, 350g (12.25oz) smoked streaky bacon, and sauté (sauté only for a 5g (0.175oz) salt, 50g (1.75oz) onion, short period, so that fat does not run off), 1 egg. ground pepper. add pepper and mix well.
  26. 26. THE CUISINE OF LATVIA BREADS AND PASTRIESDOUGH:450-500g (15.75-17.5oz) flour, 250g (8.75oz) milk, APPLE SLICE 25g (0.875oz) yeast, 100g (3.5oz) butter or margarine, 100g (3.5oz) sugar, 2 eggs, 5g (0.175oz) salt, cardamom. Prepare dough without a starter (see until crust has browned and apples are above). Roll risen dough into a sheet 1 – soft. When cool, sprinkle over icing sugarTOPPING: 1.5cm (0.4 – 0.6 inches) thick. Place on a and slice into square or rectangular pieces. 800g (28oz) apples, greased baking tray, smooth and allow to Dried apples may be substituted for fresh 50g (1.75oz) sugar, rise. Peel apples and slice. Arrange slices in apples, in this case the apples must be 2g (0.07oz) ground cinnamon, neat rows on dough. Brush with melted soaked before use. The dough may also be 50g (1.75oz) butter, butter. Mix cinnamon and sugar and sprin- spread with a thin layer of sour cream and icing sugar. kle over apples. Bake in a moderate oven sugar before adding apples.
  27. 27. THE CUISINE OF LATVIA LINDEN BLOSSOM BEVERAGES TEA 3g (0.105oz) dried linden blossoms (Tilia cordata Mill.), 15g (0.525oz) sugar or honey, 250g (8.75oz) water. Pour cold water over linden blossoms. Bring to the boil, steep for 10-15 min- utes. Strain. Sweeten with sugar or honey. HERBAL VITAMIN TEA TEAS 1 tablespoon drogas 3 parts dried nettle leaves (Urtica dioica L.), 3 parts dried carrot, 3 parts dried rosehips, 1 part dried blackcurrants,CARAWAY SEEDTEA 300g (10.5oz) water. 5g (0.175oz) caraway seeds Add drogas to cold (Carum carvi L.), water, boil for 10 15g (0.525oz) sugar, minutes, allow to 250g (8.75oz) water. steep for 2-4 hours in a wellAdd caraway seeds to boiling water. Boil sealed container ingently for five minutes, allow to steep for a cool place. Strain.10-15 minutes. Caraway seed tea can be Drink 1 glass 2-3served with milk or cream. times per day.
  28. 28. The Latvian Institute promotes knowledge about Latvia abroad. It produces publications in several languages on many aspects of Latvia. For further information please contact the Latvian Embassy or consulate in your country or the Latvian Institute: Latvijas institüts, Ka¬˚u iela 7, Rîga, LV 1050, Latvia. Phone: (+371) 6750-3663, Fax: (+371) 6750-3669 E-mail: ; ; This publication is based on recipes from personal archives, Latvian Bakers Association, and from “Latvießu nacionålie édieni” by ˆ. Masi¬üne and A.Pasopa, Avots, 1986, Rîga. Thanks to M.Briede, I.Brinkmane and E.Gråvîtis for consultations. Food in photographs prepared by Daina Lapiña. π The Latvian Institute, 2004 π Text and concept: Ieva Pîgozne-Brinkmane π Layout: Uldis Sosnovskis English translation: Marianna Maija Auliciema Chief editor: Raimonds Cerüzis Editor: Ieva Pîgozne-BrinkmanePhoto credits: Ancient Environment Workshop, K.Kalns (Diena), A.Korsaka, P.Korsaks, Latvijas Balzams, A.Liepiñß (Diena), R.Puriñß (Diena), A.Tone, I.Znotiñß (Diena). Historic photos: P.Korsaks personal archive, Latvian Museum of History: No.28485 by M.Pluka, No.11085 by A.Punka, No.8593 and No.5379 by J.Students. ISBN 9984-736-27-X