THE HISTORY <ul>Minoans culture appeared between 3000 and 1400 BC. The Minoans civilization was born in Crete. His name was discovered by Sir Arthus Evans. The Minoans grew wheat. The civilization was destroyed due to an earhquake. The three palaces were important Minoan Knossos,Maila and Phaistos. Mycenaean culture developed in chalk. Their king was king Minos. Miyceaeans Greece ended up on Bolcase. After the Miyceaeans came the Dorians </ul>
THE HISTORY <ul><li>Archaic Greece not had kings. Oligarchy dominaded government. Had Greeks polled so they started to send Greek to build cities in Europe. Founded Crete and Greece. His soldiers were called Persian and the aristocracy who ruled with the support of poor people called oligarchy . </li></ul>
THE HISTORY <ul>Cleisthenes was an Athenian politician who introduced the democracy govermment in ancient Greece. They met in monarchies. The institution chosen by the lot was the Assembly </ul>
In 490 BC the Persians attacked Athens. Everybody was very frightened, because the Persians were great fighters. Darius I of Persia , King of Kings led them. All the men in Athens marched out to meet the Persians at Marathon. They thought they would lose. But the Athenians won. BATTLE OF MARATHON
BATTLES OF THERMOPYLAE, SALAMIS AND PLATAEA In 480 BC the Persians attacked again.This time with their king Xerxes. The cities in Greece banded together and formed a league to fight the Persians. But the Persians were too much , so they lost. This battle is called Thermopylae. At the following battles they won. These battles were Salamis and Platea.
TAXES The Athenians convinced the other Greek cities that they needed to keep the strong Greek navy together in case the Persians came back again. At first everyone thought this was a good idea, except the Spartans, who refused. But the Persians did not come back. After a while, some of the cities refused. But the Athenians used their big navy to make the other cities keep sending money.
The Athenians also spent some of the money on their own city. No Athenians had to pay taxes anymore. They used the money from the other cities to build great temples like the Parthenon .
The other cities in Greece were angry.Some cities took sides with Athens, others with Sparta. There was a big war, from 431 BC to 404 BC. This is called the Peloponnesian War. But finally, with the help of the Persians, the Spartans won and the Athenians lost. PELOPONNESIAN WAR
In the north of Greece, in a country called Macedon, King Philip had noticed that the Greeks were very weak , so he attacked the Greek city-states and conquered them. Philip was assassinated in 336 BC. KING PHILP
ALEXANDER THE GREAT Philip's son, Alexander, became king, and he also ruled Greece. Alexander was only 20 when he became king. He not only held onto Greece, he also took a big army of Greeks and Macedonians, attacked the Persian Empire and he conquered it. He conquered first Turkey, then Phoenicia, then Israel, then Egypt, then further east all the way to Afghanistan and India.
In India Alexander and his troops turned back. But a lot of the soldiers died on the way back, and in 323 BC, Alexander himself died of a fever, in Babylon. He was 33 years old.
Alexander died without any sons old enough to rule, and so he divided his empire in three main parts: Egypt, which was ruled by a man named Ptolemy, Seleucia , which was ruled by a man named Seleucus, and Macedon and Greece. These men were his generals. EGYPT, SELEUCIA, MACEDONE AND GREECE.
Although these three kingdoms often fought each other, still the Hellenistic period was one of prosperity and learning. A great university was founded at Alexandria, in Egypt.
I n the Late Bronze Age there were monarchies. After this period monarchies dissapeared but in Sparta the monarchy survived. The spartan monarchy had two kings. One king might stay home, while the other was away fighting battles. Fighting battles was what the Spartans did best. Greeks said that in a battle one Spartan was worth several other men. MONARCHIES
<ul>OLIGARCHIES </ul><ul><ul><ul><li>-Right after the Dark Ages. Between 1000 and 500 B.C. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul>-Oligarchy means the rule of the few, and those few are generally the people who are richer and more powerful than the others, what you might call the aristocrats or the nobles. -Were generally bad for the poor, but they are pretty good for women, at least for rich women from powerful families. -For a person to be part of the oligarchy,sometimes they may be elected, and sometimes they are born into their position, and at other times you might have to have a certain amount of money or land in order to be in the council.This group of people meets every so often - every week or every month- In these meetings to decide important questions, and to appoint somebody to deal with things </ul>
<ul>TYRANNIES </ul><ul>-The tyrannies develop at the end of Archaic Greece and beginning of Classical Greece. 650-400 B.C. -The deference between oligarchy and tyranny is: in an oligarchy, each of the aristocrats is always trying to get more power than the others. But the other aristocrats keep them from doing it. But if one of the aristocrats thinks of asking for help from the poor people, he can get ahead that way, and may make himself tyrant. So a tyrant is like a king, but a king who does not have the law or religion behind him, and only rules because the poor people support him. Tyrants are something like Mafia bosses like the Godfather. </ul>
<ul>TYRANNIES </ul><ul>-The oligarchies hated tyrannies -The tyrants had promised the poor people that he would do good things for them, so they would support him. Usually the tyrant promised one or two of these things: 1) cancellation of debts 2) abolition of debt-bondage 3) redistribution of land. </ul>
<ul>TYRANNIES </ul><ul>-In English today, tyrant means a bad king, because the aristocrats hated tyrants, and in ancient Greece only the aristocrats could write. -Pisistratus and Syracuse were two tyrants </ul>
<ul>DEMOCRACY </ul><ul>- Democracy means the rule of the people -The democracy works where each individual person has a vote about what to do. -Democracy began in Athens in 510 BC -The people that participated in the political life of the Greek city-states could vote were free adult male citizens who owned land or owned their own houses (that is, the richer people). </ul>
<ul>DEMOCRACY </ul><ul><li>-Most democracies sooner or later ended up choosing a few men who would do most of the voting, and the rest only came when there was a really important vote. In Athens this took a year. </li></ul>
Name some Greek city- states is Mycenae, Sparta, Pylos, Athens, Corinth, Ithaca, and so on. </li></ul>
DIFFERENT GREEK AND ANIMALS <ul><li>The Greek said that people were different from animals because animals ate their foot raw, and people ate theirs cooked and people have rational thought, but animals do not. </li></ul>
DIFFERENT THE MEN AND WOMEN <ul><li>Many Greek thought really only men had rational thought, and women were more irrational, like animals. Because of this, boys went to school in ancient Greece, but girls generally stayed at home with their families. </li></ul>
THE FOREIGNERS <ul><li>The Greek called all foreigners barbarians, even if they were very civilized like the Egyptians or the Persians. </li></ul>
GROUPS IMPORTANT <ul><li>The two most important groups of citizens are teenaged boys and young men.
Teenaged boys were those who had passed puberty but had not yet grown beards say about 15-20 years old, while young men had grown beards but were not yet married saya bout 20-30 years old. </li></ul>
DIFFERENT MEN AND SCLAVE <ul><li>The Greek made this distinction less than others, because a slave can become free, and a free person can become a slave. </li></ul>
AGORA <ul><li>The main activities of the city took place in the Agora, which was the central marketplace in most Greek city-state. </li></ul>
ALEXANDER THE GREAT <ul>He was the son of Philip of macedonia. Alexander, at the age of twenty, conquered the Persian Empire. After the battle, he took care to help the families of his dead soldiers and visited all of his wounded soldiers. He won the loyalty of his troops from his actians.Alexander proved himself to be an incredible military commander. When he died, of a fever at 33 years old, his empire was ruled by Ptolemy and Seleuc. </ul>
ARISTOTLE <ul><li>Aristotle 384 BC-March 7,322 BC was an ancient Greek philosopher, student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. </li></ul>
DRACO <ul><li>Draco was a Greek lawmaker who introduced the first written code of law in ancient Greek. Draco´s code included very severe laws. Under his system of law, almost all crimes called for the death penalty, even very minor offences. His laws were unpopular and most of them were rewritten by his successor, Solom.
Both the dates and places of his birth and death are unknown. </li></ul>
PERICLES <ul><li>Pericles was born into an aristocratic family in 494 B.C. He was a statesman and general of Athens. In addition, he instituted for public service and jury duty.
Pericles is also famous for the rebuilding of the Acropolis. </li></ul>
SOLON HIPPARCHUS <ul><li>Solon was a democratic reformer of Athens. He created a new, fairer system of dealing with debts. He no longer allowed those not able to play their debts to be forced into slavery. He replaced many of the harsh passed by Draco, the previous leader of Athens. In addition, he instituted a system of appeal in the courts for those who felt wrongly convicted </li></ul>
THALES <ul><li>Thales of Miletus ca.635 BC-543 BC, also known as Thales the Milesian, was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher and one ot the seven sages ot Greek. Many regard him as the first philosopher in the Greek tradition as well as the father of science. Thales is said to have desd in his seat, while watchinh an atthletic contest. </li></ul>
PTOLEMY <ul><ul><li>Claudius Ptolemaeus, known in English as ptolemy, was an ancient geographer, astronomer, and astrologist who probably lived and worked in Alexandria, off the coast of Egypt. Ptolemy was the author of several scientific treaties, two of which have been of continung importance to ages of islamic and european science. </li></ul></ul>
ANAXAGORAS <ul><li>Anaxagoras (c.500 BC- 428 BC) was a
pre-Socratic Greek philosopher who was likely born about 500 BC. He died about 428 BCD </li></ul>
HIPPOCRATES <ul><li>Hippocrates was born around the year 460BC on the greek island of kos. He is refered to as the father of western medicine in recognition of his lasting contributionns to the field as the founder of the hippocratic school of medicine. Hippocrates is credited with being the first person to believe that diseases were caused naturally and not as a result of supertition and gods. He died ca.370 BC inlarissi,greek </li></ul>
HERASTOSTHENES Eratosthenes (276 BC - 194 BC) was born in Cyrene , but worked and died in Ptolemaic Alexandria. Was a Greek mathematician, geographer and astronomer. He is noted for devising a system of latitude and longitude and computing the size of the Earth. He made several important contributions to mathematics and science. He died in 194 B.C, at the age of 82.
EUCLID Very little is known about the life of Euclid. Both the dates and places of his birth and death are unknown. Euclid of Alexandria is the most prominent mathematician of antiquity best known for his treatise on mathematics The Elements. The long lasting nature of The Elements must make Euclid the leading mathematics teacher of all time. For his work in the field, he is known as the father of geometry and is considered one of the great Greek mathematicians.
HYPATIA OF ALEXANDRIA Hypatia of Alexandria (c. 380 - 415) was a philosopher, mathematician, and teacher who lived in Alexandria. She was the daughter of Theon, the last fellow of the Museum of Alexandria. Several works are attributed to her but none has survived. Hypatia's contributions to science are reputed to include the invention of the astrolabe and the hydrometer.
Hypatia was murdered in March 415 in the Alexandrian church of the Caesareum by a mob led by a Christian magistrate named Peter.
Born in Eleusis, a district of Athens, in 525 BC. Aeschylus (525-456 BC) was an ancient Greek playwright. He wrote his first plays in 498 BC. He is often recognized as the father or the founder tragedy, and is the earliest of the three Greek tragedians whose plays survive. He expanded the number of characters in plays to allow for conflic between them; previously, characters interacted only with the chorus. Unfortunately, only seven of the estimated 70 plays written by Aeschylus have survived into modern times. AESCHYLUS
Aeschylus was killed in 456 BC when an eagle (or more likely a Lammergeier), mistaking the playwright's bald crown for a stone, dropped a tortoise on his head (though some accounts differ, claiming it was a stone dropped by an eagle or vulture that likely mistook his bald head for the egg of a flightless bird). s bird).
Sophocles was an ancient Greek playwright, dramatist, priest, and politician of Athens. Sophocles is the second of the three great Greek tragedians. He was the son of Sophilus, the owner of successful weapons factory. Sophocles was born in 496 B.C in Colonus near Athens, Greece. Sophocles won awards while in school for music and wrestling. He was very beautyful. He was also a general for the Athenian Empire in the Peloponnesian Wars. He died in 406 BC in Athen s . SOPHOCLES
ARISTOPHANES Aristophanes was a Greek Old Comic dramatist. He is also known as the Father of Comedy and the Prince of Ancient Comedy. The place and exact date of his birth and of his death are unknown He wrote forty plays, eleven of which survive; his plays are the only surviving complete examples of Old Attic Comedy .
PLAUTUS Titus Maccius Plautus (254 BC - 184 BC, born at Sassina, Umbria) was a comic playwright in the time of the Roman Republic. The years of his life are uncertain. Twenty-one of his plays survive. His most typical character is the clever slave who manipulates his master, reversing the master-slave dynamic expected of such relationships in the Roman world. Most characters in Plautus' play are stock characters such as Senex (the old man). Plautus' work gave ideas to many playwrights afterwar.
XENOPHON Xenophon was a soldier, mercenary and Athenian student of Socrates and is known for his writings on the history of his own times, the sayings of Socrates, and the life of Greece. Xenophon was born in Attica into a land-owning family of moderate oligarchs. He participated in the Peloponnesian War. Xenophon died at Corinth, or perhaps Athens, and his date of birth and death are uncertain.
HERODOTUS Herodotus of Halicarnassus was an historian who lived in the 5th century BC. He was born in c. 484 BC in Halicarnassus, Greece. He is famous for his writings on the conflict between Greece and Persia, as well as the descriptions he wrote of different places and people he met on his travels. Herodotus wrote “A History of the Persian Wars.” He was exiled from Halicarnassus , so he died in Thurii, Italy, in 425 BC.
<ul>EURIPIDES </ul>Euripides was one of the three great tragedians of classical Athens, along with Aeschylus and Sophocles. He is believed to have written over 90 plays, 18 of which are extant.Fragments of most of the other plays survive, some of them substantial. Is known primarily for having reshaped the formal structure of traditional Attic He died in winter 407/6 BC; ancient biographers have told many stories about his death, but possibly it was his first exposure to the harsh Macedonia winter that killed him
THUCYDIDES <ul>Thucydidies (between 460 and 455 BC-circa 400 BC, was an ancient Greek historian, and the author of the History of the Pelopo- nnesian War,which recounts the 5 th century BC war between Sparta and Athens. This work is widely regarded a classic, and represent the first work of its kind </ul>
DEMOCRITUS <ul>Democritus was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher (born at Abdera in Trace around 460 BC; died in 370 BC ). Democratus was a student of Leucippu, and co-originator of the belief that all matter is made up of various imperishable indivisible elemens which hecalled “atomos”,from which we get the English word atom </ul>
XENOPHANES <ul>Xenophanes of Colopho(570 BC– 480 BC) was a Greek philoso- pher,poet,and social and religius critic. Our knowledge of hisviews comes from his surivng poetry, all of which are fragments passed down as quotations by later Greek writers. </ul>
HERACLITUS <ul>Agreek philosopher ofthe late 6 th century BCE Heraclitus criticizes his predecessor and contempo- raries for their failure to see the u- nity in experience. He claims to an- nounce an everlasting Word(Logos) according to whitch alll things are one, in some sense. Opposites are necessary for life,but they are unified in a system of balanced exchanges </ul>
LEUCIPPUS CLEISTHENES <ul>Leucippus or Leukippos (first hald of 5 th century BC)was the originator of atomism,the philosophical belief that every- thing is composed entirely of vari- ous imperishable, indivisible ele- ments called atoms. He was born at Miletus or Abdera. </ul>
HOMER <ul>A man named Homer lived right at the end of dark ages,in the 8 th century BCE.(During 700 BCE.) Over 2700 years ago, the poet Homer collected and wrote down many of the ancient legends told by the traveling storytellers. Homertook all the stories about king Odysseus and put this collection of storiesw together in one book,which he named The Odyssey. </ul>
ANTIPHON <ul>Antophon of Rhamnus in Attica (480-403 BC) was the earliest of the Attic oratorsw and a statesman who took up rhetoric as a profession. The assertions that he was a Sophist and a contemporary of Socrates are dispued by some historians </ul>
DEMOSTHENES ANAXIMANDER <ul>Demosthenes (384 BC 322BC) is generally considered the gratest of the Attic orators, and thus the gratest of all Ancient Gre- ek orators. His writings provide an insight into the life and culture of Athens at this period of time. </ul>
<ul>PLATO </ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Plato (428/427 BC 348/347 BC), whose original name was Aristocles, was an ancient Greek philosopher, the second of the great trio of ancient Greeks, succeeding Socrates and preceding Aristotle who between them laid the philosophical foundations of Western culture. Plato was also a mathematician, writer of philosophical dialogues, and founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the western world. </li></ul></ul></ul>
<ul>SOCRATES </ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Socrates (June 4, ca. 470 BC - May 7, 399 BC) was a Greek (Athenian) philosopher. The character of Socrates provides an illustration of a historical conundrum. If Socrates ever wrote a single word, it has not survived. As such, the entirety of modern knowledge concerning Socrates must be drawn from a limited number of secondary sources, such as the works of Plato, Aristotle, Aristophanes and Xenophon. Aristophanes was known as a satirist , </li></ul></ul></ul>
<ul>THEMISTOCLES </ul><ul>Themistocles was a general and politician who convinced the Athenian assembly to take the revenue from their silver mines and built a large navy. He led this navy to victory against the Persians at the Battle of Salamis. Despite his great leadership in Athens, he later lost favor with his fellow citizens and was ostracize. He found refuge with the Persians where he later died. </ul>
<ul>PROTAGORAS </ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Protagoras (ca. 490 420 BC) he was born in Abdera, Thrace, in Ancient Greece. He was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher and is numbered as one of the sophists by Plato. In his dialogue Protagoras, Plato credits him with having invented the role of the professional sophist or teacher of virtue. </li></ul></ul></ul>
<ul>PARMENIDES </ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Parmenides of Elea (5th century BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher born in Elea, a Greek city on the southern coast of Italy. He is reported to have been a student of Xenophanes, and the founder of the Eleatic school, which also included Zeno of Elea and Melissus of Samos </li></ul></ul></ul>
<ul>EPICURUS OF SAMOS </ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Epicurus (341 BCE, Samos 270 BCE, Athens) was an ancient Greek philosopher and the founder of Epicureanism, a popular school of thought in Hellenistic Philosophy that spanned about 600 years. Of his over 300 written works only a few fragments and letters survive; much of what we know about Epicureanism comes from later followers or commentators. </li></ul></ul></ul>
<ul>PYTHAGORAS </ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pythagoras (approximately 569 BCE - 475 BCE, ) was an Ionian mathematician and philosopher, known best for the Pythagorean theorem which bears his name. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul>Known as "the father of numbers", Pythagoras made influential contributions to philosophy and religious teaching in the late 6th century BC. </ul>
<ul>ZENO OF ELEA </ul><ul>Zeno of Elea (ca. 490 BC ca. 430 BC) was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher of southern Italy and a member of the Eleatic School founded by Parmenides. Called by Aristotle the inventor of the dialectic, he is best known for his paradoxes. Little is known for certain about Zeno's life. Although written nearly a century after Zeno's death, the primary source of biographical information of Zeno is the dialogue of Plato called the Parmenides. </ul>