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  • 1. Finland The land of a thousand lakes
  • 2. The formation of the bedrock In the centre of the earth there's magma, a melted stone mass which crystallizes into different types of igneous rock if it starts rising closer to the earth’s surface. If the magma is pushed up it cools down and slowly solidifies into plutonic rock which is formed deep down in the bedrock, but it can be found on the surface if old mountains have eroded in the course of millions of years. Granite is the most common rock in Finland and was formed in just that way. Granite is very hard and does not crack and is unusually resistant to pressure and impact.
  • 3. Rapakivi Rapakivi granite is quite a rare type of granite. It's mostly found in the south of Finland and on Åland. Rapakivi is a Finnish word and it means ”disintegrated rock”. The different heat expansion coefficients of the minerals that the rock contains make the Rapakivi very crumbly.
  • 4. The Ice Age in Finland In Finland we have a lot of signs in nature from the ice age. For example, roche moutonnées, tills, ridges, lakes, giant's kettles and glacial erratics. Roche moutonnées: rock formations created by the passing of a glacier Till: loose material mixed and mashed by the moving ice. When the ice melted it fell onto the ground. Ridges: A ridge is a narrow height which can have different origins, mainly eskers, horsts and tills
  • 5. The Ice Age in Finland Lakes: the Finnish lakes were formed when the ice was moving Giant's kettles: As the water flowed under the ice, there was a stream that whirled round and caused rocks to drill holes in the bedrock Glacial erratic: A large block of stone that moved with the ice and when the ice melted it remained where the melting ice left it, sometimes in a very strange position, even standing on its edge The last glacial period started 100 000 years ago and ended 10 000 years ago.
  • 6. Giant’s kettles A kettle is a shallow hole in the bedrock formed by streaming water that made rocks rotate in a swirl for a long period of time during the melting of the ice. The rock that formed the kettle is usually still at the bottom or beside the hole and is unusually smooth and egg formed. In some kettles you can happen to find old coins, because people used to think that it would give you luck if you gave a coin as an offering.
  • 7. Our excursion to Hopom träsk ”Hopom träsk” is a fault line lake. When the Scandies were formed 400 million years ago the bedrock broke and the eastern side of the lake rouse vertically. During our excursion we were able to see Giant erractic, Roche moutonnées, Kettles, Till and Rapakivi as well as the fault.
  • 8. The climate in Finland Four seasons In Finland we have four seasons, winter, spring, summer and autumn. The longest season is the cold and dark winter that lasts from November until March.
  • 9. Autumn In autumn the leaves fall off the trees and it gets darker again. It rains a lot and the temperature starts to sink down to +10 degrees and below. The birds that have lived in Finland over the summer fly away to warmer seas and countries. Höst
  • 10. Winter In winter the temperature can drop to -30 degrees if not lower. It can be colder in northern Finland, but usually it is cold in the whole country. It often snows a lot in winter. Because of the global warming some winters are warmer than before and the snow easily turns into slush. Vinter
  • 11. Spring In spring, which usually starts in March or April, the snow and ice melt away and the temperature rises. It is lovely to see the flowers bloom and the grass and the leaves grow again after a long winter. Vår
  • 12. Summer Summers are relatively warm but short. Some are rainier and some warmer than others. In Finland there have been many summers when it has been just as warm as in Italy! It may come as a surprise, but Finland is close enough to the Atlantic Ocean to be continuously warmed by the Gulf Stream. The Gulf Stream combines with the moderating effects of the Baltic Sea and numerous inland lakes to explain the unusually warm climate compared to other regions that share the same latitude, such as Alaska, Siberia and southern Greenland. Finns usually consider May to be the starting point of summer and August the end of it. Sommar
  • 13. There are big differences between northern and southern Finland. Finland is located within the northern temperate zone. North of the Arctic Circle, where a third of Finland lies, one can see the sun all day in the middle of summer. In winter, the sun rises over the horizon, but it doesn’t rise at all in northern Finland. The main factor influencing Finland's climate is the country's geographical position between the 60th and 70th northern parallels in the Eurasian continent's coastal zone.
  • 14. Climate data for Finland In the Köppen climate classification, the whole of Finland lies in the boreal zone characterized by warm summers and freezing winters. Within the country, the temperatures vary considerably between the southern coastal regions and the extreme north, showing characteristics of both a maritime and a continental climate. Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Record high °C 10.9 11.8 17.5 25.5 31.0 33.8 37.2 33.8 28.8 19.4 14.1 10.8 37.2 Record low °C −51.5 −49.0 −44.3 −36.0 −24.6 −7.0 −5.0 −10.8 −18.7 −31.8 −42.0 −47.0 −51.5 Source: http://ilmatieteenlaitos.fi/lampotilaennatyksia