NAPOLEON BONAPARTE Gorka Seoane. 4º ESO 2009-10. IES FRAY PEDRO DE URBINA
The beginning of the emperorNapoleon Bonaparte was born in Ajaccio in 1769, son of Carlo Bonaparteand Maria Letizia Ramolino.His family was part of the local bourgeoisie, then in Paris Napoleonstudied in the militar academy. When the revolution started, he returnedto Corsica, but his rivality with a nationalist representant forced the exileof Napoleon.
The CampaignsIn Paris, Bonapartefinished with some revoltsagainst the Convention;after that, he received anarmy to march to Italy,there Napoleon defeatedthe Austrian army and hegot Lombardy for Franceand two Papal states.In Egypt Napoleondefeated the English armyin the pyramids battle andthe Ottoman army; afterthat, Bonaparte took thecontrol of Egypt and someOttoman cities as Acre.
Napoleon takes the powerThe army in Egypt was left in chargeof Jean Baptiste Kléber. Unknown toBonaparte, the Directory had sent himorders to return to ward off possibleinvasions of French soil, but poor lines ofcommunication meant the messages hadfailed to reach him. By the time he reachedParis in October, Frances situation hadbeen improved by a series of victories. TheRepublic was bankrupt, however, and theineffective Directory was unpopular for theFrench population.The Directory discussedBonapartes "desertion" but was too weakto punish him.In Paris Napoleon and Sieyes were decidedto prepare a coup d’etat. At the beginning,the new consul would be Sieyes butNapoleon was faster and he took thepower, and he proclaimed himself consulforerver, it made Napoleon the mostpowerful person in France.During the consulate Napoleon tried torestore the order, lost during the revolution,fighting against the Austrian army inLombardy and selling the Louisiana to solvethe bankrupt.
Napoleon’s EmpireTo consolidate his charge ofconsul, Napoleon decided tochange the consulate to anhereditary empire, to avoidconspirations, and Napoleonproclamed himself emperor ofFrance.
Napoleon against EuropeNapoleon wanted to defeat England, heneeded the sea control to invade England,so he asked Spain to figth against England,but the two naval armies were defeated inTrafalgar battle. After that, Napoleon forgothis rivality with England and he decided toinvade Europe, he conquered the NaplesKingdom, finishing with the United Provincesand founding the Holland Kingdom and theRihne Confederation.Prusia and Russia attacked theConfederation but Napoleon defeated thetwo armies, so he expanded the empire withWestfalia and some Prusian’s territories, andhe had the main harbours of Europe underhis control.The biggest expansion of the empire was in1810 with an alliance with Austria and thesupport of the Irilic Provinces, Bremen,Lubeck and all the Papal States.
Independence WarNapoleon wanted to isolate England from Europe andthe only country loyal to England was Portugal, so hedecided to attack Portugal.To attack Portugal he had to pass through Spain, and hemade an alliance with Spain, but Napoleon decided toinclude Spain in his empire, and Jose, his brother, wasproclaimed king of Spain. The people didn’t accept thenew king, and the war against Napoleon was official. In that war, Napoleon put his best troops, but he had tofigth with another countries and he withdrew the armyfrom Spain where he lost part of his army, and at the endJose was deposed.
The Russian CampaignNapoleon was angry with the Tzar because he didn’t make themaritime blockade against England, so he decided to invade Russiathe 23th of June of 1812.The Russian army decided to go back and avoid the figth, Napoleonwon some battles but when he arrived to Moscow, the city wasburned and he must return to France with the problem of theRussian winter.Napoleon started this campaign with 670.000 soldiers, only 40.000returned to France.
The end of the empire After the defeat with Russia, Russia, Austria, Sweden, Spain, Portugal and the United Kingdom created an alliance against Napoleon. In Leipzig, Napoleon fougth against the alliance, that doubled the French army, and Napoleon was defeated, losing 120000 soldiers. With an army of 100.000, France couldn’t resist the attacks of the alliance. After that defeat, Napoleon was exiled to Elba island.
But Napoleon returned to Pariswhere he prepared an army of200.000 soldiers to fightagainst England, Prussia andHolland in the Belgiancampaign, but Napoleon wasdefeated in the battle ofWaterloo.Finally, Napoleon was exiled tothe Saint Helena island, wherehe died in 1821 at the age of51 years old.