PrePre--RomanRoman EraEraPrePre--RomanRoman EraEra• In Prehistory was an important focus for thesurrounding area.• It became important because its powerfullsiderurgy industry, where the copper and thesilver took a very important place.5JAVIER ZOREDAJAVIER ZOREDA -- ISMAEL MARTÍNISMAEL MARTÍN
It was conquered in 206 B.Cin the Battle of Ilipa.It was founded a smallroman city that in the next200 years became one of themost important citiesof the Iberian Peninsula.It came to have 200.000people at its most glorious time.RomanRoman EraEraRomanRoman EraEra6JAVIER ZOREDAJAVIER ZOREDA -- ISMAEL MARTÍNISMAEL MARTÍN
In 1235 AD, while Fernando III was King of Castilla,the city was conquered by christians.Under this king´s rule, Córdoba kept its glory and influence.Christian EraChristian EraChristian EraChristian Era7JAVIER ZOREDAJAVIER ZOREDA -- ISMAEL MARTÍNISMAEL MARTÍN
OriginOrigin ofof thethe MosqueMosque9JAVIER ZOREDAJAVIER ZOREDA -- ISMAEL MARTÍNISMAEL MARTÍN• The most importantmonument of Al-Andalus.• Origin: S VIII.• S X was the most importanttime of the Caliphate.• S XVI : Christians built aRenaissance cathedral.
StructureStructure ofof thethe MosqueMosque10JAVIER ZOREDAJAVIER ZOREDA -- ISMAEL MARTÍNISMAEL MARTÍN• Cathedral - Mosque.• Inaugurated the Caliphiststyle.• Dimensions: 23.000 m2• WORLD HERITAGE SITE
HistoryHistoryHistoryHistoryIt was set up in the year 25BC by the Romans under the name ofEmerita Augusta.It was one of the most prosperous cities by that time.During the Visigoth kingdom the city maintained most of its splendorand in the 6th century it became the capital of Hispania.In the year 713 AD it was conquered by the Muslim army and becamethe capital of the cora of Mérida.The city returned under the Christians power in 1230 AD when it wasconquered by Alfonso IX.14ELENA BAQUEROELENA BAQUERO –– SALVATORE NOCERINOSALVATORE NOCERINO
MainMain monumentsmonumentsMainMain monumentsmonuments1. The Alcazaba (and the Roman Bridge).2. The remains of the Forum.3. The remains of Circus Maximus (built in the 1stcentury BC).4. The aqueduct of Miracles.5. The Amphiteatre and the Roman Theatre.6. Cathedral of St. Mary Major (built between the 13thand the 14th centuries).15ELENA BAQUEROELENA BAQUERO –– SALVATORE NOCERINOSALVATORE NOCERINO
TheThe ForumForumTheThe ForumForum16ELENA BAQUEROELENA BAQUERO –– SALVATORE NOCERINOSALVATORE NOCERINOIt´s structure was really common in occidental romancolonies during the first imperial era.BUILDINGS LOCATED IN THE FORUM:Diana temple (dedicated for imperial cult).Mars temple (dedicated for imperial cult).The Forum Portico (located in Dianas temple, it wasbuilt in the 1st century; it contained various rooms wherestatues were located).A basilica (located in front of Diana´s temple).Thermes.
CircusCircus MaximusMaximusCircusCircus MaximusMaximus17ELENA BAQUEROELENA BAQUERO –– SALVATORE NOCERINOSALVATORE NOCERINOIt is a Roman hippodrome, used for chariot racing.It was built like the Circus Maximums in Rome and some otherscircus buildings throughout the empire.With more than 400m length and 30m width, it´s one of the bestpreserved examples of a Roman circus. It could house up to30.000 spectators.
TheThe AmphiteatreAmphiteatreTheThe AmphiteatreAmphiteatre18ELENA BAQUEROELENA BAQUERO –– SALVATORE NOCERINOSALVATORE NOCERINOBuilt in the 8 BC.Eliptic shape (126-102m)Arena 64-41mImma, Media and Summa cavea.Capacity: 15.000 aprox.Fosa bestiaria in the center, covered bywood and sand.
TheThe TheatreTheatreTheThe TheatreTheatre19ELENA BAQUEROELENA BAQUERO –– SALVATORE NOCERINOSALVATORE NOCERINOBuilt between 16 and 15 B. C. is one of the most well conserved roman constructions inthe world.It remained buried until the XIX century.
CuriositiesCuriositiesCuriositiesCuriosities Nowadays is a candidate to be WorldHeritage Site. Is the capital city of its region,Extremadura. "Submitit Cui Tota Suos Hispania Fasces"says its motto.20ELENA BAQUEROELENA BAQUERO –– SALVATORE NOCERINOSALVATORE NOCERINO
IndexIndexIndexIndex22PEDRO JIMÉNEZPEDRO JIMÉNEZ –– ERNESTO PÉREZERNESTO PÉREZ1.Location2.History3.Structure arquitecture4.Indoor art works
LocationLocationLocationLocation23PEDRO JIMÉNEZPEDRO JIMÉNEZ –– ERNESTO PÉREZERNESTO PÉREZ• Placed in San Lorenzo de ElEscorial, town situated in theprovince of MADRID.• This town is surrounded by severalmountains and valleys.
HistoryHistoryHistoryHistory24PEDRO JIMÉNEZPEDRO JIMÉNEZ –– ERNESTO PÉREZERNESTO PÉREZ• Built in 16th century under Philip IIrule, while Spain was still the 1stworldwide power.• It was built to commemorate the1557 AD Spanish victory at the Battleof St. Quentin (Picardy) againstHenry II, King of France.Altought it is called “Monastery”, it is also the royalmausoleum of Habsburg dinasty, includingCharles V of Germany, and a cathedral.
StructureStructure ArquitectureArquitectureStructureStructure andand ArquitectureArquitecture25PEDRO JIMÉNEZPEDRO JIMÉNEZ –– ERNESTO PÉREZERNESTO PÉREZ• The shape looks like a grill, in honour to the saint who died in it, San Lorenzo.• Juan de Herrera was the designer, who created a brand new style.• The style can be cosidered Renaissance, altought it mixes medieval elements.• It is sign of the Spanish supremacy, and the best Master Work of the empire.• The granite is the material used, due to the abundancy in the area.
IndoorIndoor roomsroomsIndoorIndoor roomsrooms26PEDRO JIMÉNEZPEDRO JIMÉNEZ –– ERNESTO PÉREZERNESTO PÉREZThe building has several sections, and each other had an exclusive use:• LIBRARY• PALACE• CONVENT• GARDENS• MUSEUM• MAIN STAIRS• MAUSOLEUMThe building isnowadays declaredWorld Heritage Site.
SANTIAGO de COMPOSTELASANTIAGO de COMPOSTELASANTIAGO de COMPOSTELASANTIAGO de COMPOSTELA27ISABEL PÉREZISABEL PÉREZ –– ANA HERASANA HERAS1. Location2. Historic Importance3. Way of Saint James4. Pilgrims5. “Compostelana”6. Cathedral of Santiago7. Customs
LocationLocationLocationLocation28ISABEL PÉREZISABEL PÉREZ –– ANA HERASANA HERAS
ImportanceImportanceImportanceImportance29ISABEL PÉREZISABEL PÉREZ –– ANA HERASANA HERAS• It has its origin in the shrine of Saint James.• The cathedral of Santiago de Compostela.• It is the final destination of the Way of St. James.• European influences.
WayWay of St. Jamesof St. JamesWayWay of St. Jamesof St. James30ISABEL PÉREZISABEL PÉREZ –– ANA HERASANA HERASIt is the pilgrimage route to the Cathedral of Santiago andone of the most important Christian pilgrimage places.
PilgrimsPilgrimsPilgrimsPilgrims31ISABEL PÉREZISABEL PÉREZ –– ANA HERASANA HERASMost travel by foot, bike or horse.They follow many routes, but the most popular one is the “Via Regia”.
“Compostelana”“Compostelana”“Compostelana”“Compostelana”The credencial is needed if you want to get “the Compostela”, that is a certificatethat proves that you have done the Way of Saint James.ISABEL PÉREZISABEL PÉREZ –– ANA HERASANA HERAS 32COMPOSTELACOMPOSTELA ((LatinLatin)) COMPOSTELACOMPOSTELA ((SpanishSpanish))ScallopScallop shellCredentialCredential
CathedralCathedralCathedralCathedral33ISABEL PÉREZISABEL PÉREZ –– ANA HERASANA HERASIt is a Roman Catholic Cathedral of the archdiocese of Santiago de Compostela.It was built most in granite.The main entrance is The Pórtico de Gloria in the Façade do Obradoiro.
CathedralCathedralCathedralCathedral34ISABEL PÉREZISABEL PÉREZ –– ANA HERASANA HERASKissKiss thethe saint’ssaint’s shouldershoulderSt.St. James’graveJames’graveSt. JamesSt. James statuestatue inin thethe altaraltar
BotafumeiroBotafumeiroBotafumeiroBotafumeiro35ISABEL PÉREZISABEL PÉREZ –– ANA HERASANA HERASIt is a famous censer found in this church.It is the largest censer in the world and it is used only in special occasions.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tr2vZ6WmHSw
TOLEDOTOLEDOTOLEDOTOLEDO37ALMUDENA ROGERALMUDENA ROGER –– ELISA GONZÁLEZELISA GONZÁLEZ
GeographicGeographic situationsituationGeographicGeographic situationsituation38ALMUDENA ROGERALMUDENA ROGER –– ELISA GONZÁLEZELISA GONZÁLEZRegion in central Spain.The capital of the province of Toledo.
HistoryHistoryHistoryHistory39ALMUDENA ROGERALMUDENA ROGER –– ELISA GONZÁLEZELISA GONZÁLEZThree cultures lived together in Toledo: the Christian, the Muslim and theJewish cultures, so the city has a lot of monuments and buildings from verydifferent artistic movements and religions.
ZocodoverZocodoverZocodoverZocodover40ALMUDENA ROGERALMUDENA ROGER –– ELISA GONZÁLEZELISA GONZÁLEZMuslim place: Zocodover squareArabic origin, the main economicand social point of the city.
El Cristo de la LuzEl Cristo de la LuzEl Cristo de la LuzEl Cristo de la Luz41ALMUDENA ROGERALMUDENA ROGER –– ELISA GONZÁLEZELISA GONZÁLEZThe best conserved mosque in Toledo.Built in 999 AD, typical muslim art.
Toledo’sToledo’s cathedralcathedralToledo’sToledo’s cathedralcathedral42ALMUDENA ROGERALMUDENA ROGER –– ELISA GONZÁLEZELISA GONZÁLEZ• Roman Catholic Cathedral built in the 13thcentury.• Situated in the centre of the city, it’ s the mostimportant architectonic structures in Europe.• The build process took 2 centuries.• Gothic style.
Santa María la BlancaSanta María la Blanca SynagogueSynagogue43ALMUDENA ROGERALMUDENA ROGER –– ELISA GONZÁLEZELISA GONZÁLEZJewish temple of the 12th century (origin).Catholic since the 15th century, and it isnow a museum.
Toledo’sToledo’s factsfactsToledo’sToledo’s factsfacts44ALMUDENA ROGERALMUDENA ROGER –– ELISA GONZÁLEZELISA GONZÁLEZToledo has been poblated for 5000 years.The Toledo’s Cathedral is the secondrichest Church in the world, after theVatican’s Church.There are 7000 visitors per day, the samenumber of people who live in the centre ofToledoOnce a year the people of the city let thevisitors go into their houses to see them.