Greece After the Golden Age• Greece entered a time of struggle.• Competition between the city-states (Polis) weakened Greece.
Macedonia• Macedon was a rising Kingdom north of Greece.• Macedonians were strong warlike people.• They lived in villages. Each was led by a local noble.• Kings could rule only with the support of the nobles.• Nobles would supply troops for the army.
Philip II of Macedon• When Philip was young he was held as a hostage in Thebes (Greece) for 3 years. **He greatly admired Greece and learned about the organization of the Greek army.• 359bc Philip became king of Macedon.• Philip didn’t want to rely on the nobles so he raised his own army. He copied the use of phalanx from the Greeks. Best-disciplined army in• Macedonian history.
Philip of Macedon continued…• First Philip restored order in Macedon.• Then Philip took control of several Athenian colonies in Northern Greece.• Then he wanted to take mainland Greece.• Some thought he was a savior to unify Greece, others were scared for their freedom.• In 338bc he defeated Thebes and Athens uniting Greece under his rule.• He organized Greece cities and planned to invade Persia. He was assassinated first in 336bc.
Alexander the Great• Alexander the Great was Philip’s20yr. old son.• Alex was a well educated and armytrained man. He was a student of Aristotle.• He was prepared to be a great leader when his father, Philip, died.• His courage and strength in battle won him the loyalty of his troops.• After his father’s death he crushed rebellions in Greece and sought to take over the world!
Alexander the Great continued…• Alex conquers… Persia, Asia Minor, Syria, Egypt, and Mesopotamia.• He hoped to bring all lands under one Empire.• For four years his troops pushed East. All the way to the Indus River. There, his troops had enough of fighting and refused to go any farther. Alex begged them; they said no.
Alexander the Great continued…• Alex led the army to the India Ocean and split the army into 2. 1– went back by Sea exploring the Persian Gulf. 2 – Alex led the others back through the desert where many died from exposure & no food or water.• Throughout his empire Alex spread Hellenistic Culture. (Greek + Asian). Women and the middle class benefited the most from it.• Alex got sick when he was in Babylon. He died in 323bc at age 32. His Generals fought over and split up his empire.