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The Persian Wars = Greeks vs. Persians-Greeks in Asia Minor rebel against the Persians.-Darius (Persian leader) crushed Greek revolts in Asia Minor.-Darius conquers Macedon and Thrace.-Persians invade mainland Greece. The Athenians (whowere outnumbered) still defeated the Persians at the Battle of Marathon.
Persian Wars continued… Darius’ son Xerxes, again tries to conquer Greece. Xerxes brings a large army to fight against the Greeks. 300 Spartans fight an army of the Persians. They fend off the Persians for days, but eventually are defeated at the Battle of Thermopylae. All 300 Spartans died, refusing to surrender.
Persian Wars continued… Xerxes’ army marched to Athens and destroyed it. The Athenians and Spartans joined forces to defeat the Persians. The Greek Navy sunk many Persian ships in the Aegean Sea. At the Battle of Salamis, the Persian Ships were led into the narrow Straits of Salamis and were unable to maneuver. The outnumbered Greeks won! Athenians rebuilt their city and entered a time of great cultural achievement. (Golden Age) Athens began to create its own Empire by controlling other small city states.
The Age of Pericles Athens used “diplomacy” to form the Delian League an alliance of city-states with Athens as the leader. Eventually 140 city-states were contributing money and ships to the league. Pericles was a general, orator, and leader of Athens. GREAT LEADER! Democracy! Athens achieved probably the most completely democratic gov’t in history. (no women/slaves) Pericles created colonies in the Mediterranean Sea. Kept a strong navy, standardized weights + measures. Pericles used Delian League money for Athens. Like building the Parthenon.
The Peloponnesian War The Spartans created the Peloponnesian League to counter act the Delian League. Tension grew between Sparta and Athens until war broke out in 431bc. Sparta invades. The siege of Athens continued for years. Starve out the Athenians. A plague broke out in Athens killing many people including Pericles. The war lasted for 27 years!
The Peloponnesian War continued… Sparta, with the help of Persia, blocked Athens’ food Supply. Starving Athenians eventually surrendered to Sparta in 404bc. After the Peloponnesian War, Greece was very unstable and wars between the city-states continued. THE END! (for today)