Mesopotamia Chart


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Mesopotamia Chart

  1. 1. MesopotamiaTextbook Pages 29-34, 72-83, 95-103
  2. 2. SumeriansSumer, Kish, Eridu, Uruk, Ur (Near the Persian Gulf)3000BCPictographs Cuneiform, stylusArches (keystone), ziggurats  temples baked brick in layersInvented plow, sailboat, circle in 360 degrees, wheelUsed levees and canalsCity-State  each had god(s)Monarch king, high priests, nobles, merchants, scholars, peasants, farmers, slavesUpper-class boys attended schoolPolytheism – gods – forces of nature no reward or punishment after death Gods: An – god of heaven Enlil – god of air + storm Enki – god of water and wisdomFlood Story – gods are unhappy with human life, send a flood
  3. 3. BabyloniansAkkad, Babylon1792 BCEActive Traders, Rights for WomenAdopted culture of Sumerians when they conquered themAstronomy/Astrology  HoroscopeHammurabi Law Code  “eye for an eye”Hammurabi – efficient leader, cared about people, wanted JusticePolytheistic  had Sumerian gods would sacrifice to gods for favorsShadowy afterlife like SumeriansPriests could tell future wealthy
  4. 4. HittitesAsia Minor, IndoEuropean Language1600BCE-1200BCEWarlike people invade from Asia MinorLooted city of BabylonRetreat to West Fertile Crescent1st to smelt ironOnly major crimes received death penaltyYou could pay fines for penaltiesHad significant religious freedom
  5. 5. Assyrians Ashur, Upper Tigris River, Ninevah 2000BCE, 900-650BCE, 700BCE Loot/destroy Babylon, 635BCE Civil WarSemetic Speaking from North MesopotamiaAdopt Sumerian cultureFierce effective warriors, 1st to use cavalry, had a standing armyExpand power into Egypt/Fertile Crescent height of power  Meso, Syria, Palestine, Nile ValleyLatitude//Longitude, Used circle, Medical Science, Mail serviceUsed terror to control enemies, enslaved people they conquered, killed enemy soldiers, deport populations cultural diffusionGoverned large EmpireRespect/feared other people’s godsGods controlled everythingKing of Assyria  responsible only to God AshurNineveh is Capital – double walled for protectionAshurbanipal’s Library at Nineveh  Epic of Gilgamesh
  6. 6. ChaldeansNineveh, Babylon612BCE capture NinevehConquer most of Fertile CrescentTrade, canals, buildingsHanging Gardens of BabylonSkilled astronomers predict solar/lunar eclipseCalculate length of the yearGate of Ishtar - GoddessNebuchadnezzar – Great Leader, builds Hanging Gardens of Babylon for his homesick wife
  7. 7. PersiansIndo-European language, Empire Indus R. to Europe539-331BCE Finally defeated by Greeks and Alexander the GreatEmpire stretched from Indus River to EuropeRoad System was used to connect Empire togetherImperial Bureaucracy- gov’t organized into different levels and tasks with a king at the top.Cyrus, Darius, Xerxes  expanded EmpireCollected taxes  laws fairly executedConquered people  let them keep their religion and lawsSecret Agents  Keep king informed, governors and military leaders were kept in checkZoroastrianism  good vs. evil, either rewarded or punished in the afterlife. Had influence of Judaism and Christianity
  8. 8. PhoeniciansWest Fertile Crescent, “Phoenicia”, Tyre and Sidon = Seaports, Carthage in Africa - Traders1000BCShips highly skilled sailors, greatest tradersLumber, skilled metal workers, invented glass blowing and purple dyePhoenician Alphabet  spread throughout Mediterranean. Model for later Western alphabetsCity-Stateeach with a different KingCopied culture and government of others (Egyptian and Babylonians)Afterlife sacrifice to please the gods, even children (extreme cases)
  9. 9. LydiansAsia Minor, West Asian Minor = Lydia600BC no empire1st to use coined money  created a money economyBarter = trading goods or services for other commodities
  10. 10. Hebrews/JewsCanaan, Enslaved in Egypt After 100BCE Hyksos kicked out Jews and are made slaves in Egypt for 400 yrs. Founder  Abraham Moses  Leads Exodus from Egypt, 10 Commandments Yahweh (God)  monotheistic Torah (1st 5 books of Old Testament)  Law Code Diaspora  the spreading out (forced or voluntary migration) of Jews from their homeland.