2. • Muhammad – born into powerful Meccan
family. Orphaned and raised by uncle and
grand-father. In caravan trade. At age
40, angel Gabriel came to him while
meditating in a cave outside Mecca  told
him to recite in the name of the Lord. He
was believed to be the last prophet and
recited the Koran. Taught his revelations to
the Arabic people.
• Allah – Islamic/Muslim word for God. They
believe it is the same monotheistic god as
the Jews and Christians
3. • Dome of the Rock – Holy site in
Jerusalem where Mohammad went up
• Arabic Alphabet – used by Mulsims.
Used to translate and save G+R texts.
Koran is written in Arabic
• Arabic Numerals – created by Muslims
and still used by western civilization
• Muslims – people who follow the religion
4. • Bedouins – Arab nomadic herdsmen –
organized into tribes
• Hijrah – journey made from Mecca to
Medina made by Muhammad in 622AD
• Qur’an (Koran) – Holy book of Islam.
Revealed to Muhammad by God during
Ramadan. Recorded in Arabic
• 5 Pillars of Islam – 1there is no God but
Allah, Muhammad is his prophet 2-Pray
5times a day facing Mecca 3-Give to the
poor 4- Fast during Ramadan 5 –pilgrimage
5. Hajj- pilgrimage to Mecca all
Muslims make once in their lifetime
Ramadan – holy month – fasting for
Muslims. Sunup to sunset. One small
meal is eaten
Mosques – Islamic building of
worship, no furnishings, just mats &
rugs no beautiful pictures
6. Jihad – “struggle to defend the faith” Holy
War – some believe that if you die in
struggle you go to heaven
Abu Bakr – chosen as successor of
Muhammed in 632AD. His oldest friend
Caliph – “successor to the prophet” –
helped to bring Arabic tribes together
Sunna – Muhammad’s example of the
proper living, “way of the prophet”
7. • Shari’a – Qur’an and Sunna laws. Muslim Law
• Sunni – accepted Mu-awiyah as caliph .
Believed in the 1st four “rightly guided caliphs”
– followers of Sunna ~90%
• Shi’ah/Shiite – Caliph needed to be a
descendant of the prophet. Do not recognize
• Imams – religious leader of Islam.
• Sufi – Muslim mystics. Tried to live simple lives
centered on Allah. Live a life of poverty and
devotion to spiritual path.
8. • Sultan – ruled the Turks – claimed to serve
• Astrolabe – allowed observers to chart the
position of the stars and calculate their own
position on earth  age of exploration
• Minaret – towers attached to the outside of
mosques. 5 times a day a crier in the
minaret would call Muslims to worship.
• Al-Razi – one of the greatest doctors of the
9. • The Thousand and One Nights – collection of
Muslim folktales. Some of the most widely read
stories in history. “Sinbad the Sailor” “Aladdin”
and “Ali Baba and the Forty Thieves”
• Moors –Muslims who lived in Spain. Crossed into
France Battle of Tours. Also know as Berbers
• Battle of Tours – 732AD. Muslim Moors are
defeated by Charles Martel and his Frankish army.
Invasion of Muslims into Europe stopped.
• Ka’aba – in Mecca – where all Muslims face to
pray. Black box, holy site of black stone, During
Hajj one rite is to walk around Kaaba 7 times.