• Muhammad – born into powerful Meccan
family. Orphaned and raised by uncle and
grand-father. In caravan trade. At age
40, angel Gabriel came to him while
meditating in a cave outside Mecca told
him to recite in the name of the Lord. He
was believed to be the last prophet and
recited the Koran. Taught his revelations to
the Arabic people.
• Allah – Islamic/Muslim word for God. They
believe it is the same monotheistic god as
the Jews and Christians
• Dome of the Rock – Holy site in
Jerusalem where Mohammad went up
• Arabic Alphabet – used by Mulsims.
Used to translate and save G+R texts.
Koran is written in Arabic
• Arabic Numerals – created by Muslims
and still used by western civilization
• Muslims – people who follow the religion
• Bedouins – Arab nomadic herdsmen –
organized into tribes
• Hijrah – journey made from Mecca to
Medina made by Muhammad in 622AD
• Qur’an (Koran) – Holy book of Islam.
Revealed to Muhammad by God during
Ramadan. Recorded in Arabic
• 5 Pillars of Islam – 1there is no God but
Allah, Muhammad is his prophet 2-Pray
5times a day facing Mecca 3-Give to the
poor 4- Fast during Ramadan 5 –pilgrimage
Hajj- pilgrimage to Mecca all
Muslims make once in their lifetime
Ramadan – holy month – fasting for
Muslims. Sunup to sunset. One small
meal is eaten
Mosques – Islamic building of
worship, no furnishings, just mats &
rugs no beautiful pictures
Jihad – “struggle to defend the faith” Holy
War – some believe that if you die in
struggle you go to heaven
Abu Bakr – chosen as successor of
Muhammed in 632AD. His oldest friend
Caliph – “successor to the prophet” –
helped to bring Arabic tribes together
Sunna – Muhammad’s example of the
proper living, “way of the prophet”
• Shari’a – Qur’an and Sunna laws. Muslim Law
• Sunni – accepted Mu-awiyah as caliph .
Believed in the 1st four “rightly guided caliphs”
– followers of Sunna ~90%
• Shi’ah/Shiite – Caliph needed to be a
descendant of the prophet. Do not recognize
• Imams – religious leader of Islam.
• Sufi – Muslim mystics. Tried to live simple lives
centered on Allah. Live a life of poverty and
devotion to spiritual path.
• Sultan – ruled the Turks – claimed to serve
• Astrolabe – allowed observers to chart the
position of the stars and calculate their own
position on earth age of exploration
• Minaret – towers attached to the outside of
mosques. 5 times a day a crier in the
minaret would call Muslims to worship.
• Al-Razi – one of the greatest doctors of the
• The Thousand and One Nights – collection of
Muslim folktales. Some of the most widely read
stories in history. “Sinbad the Sailor” “Aladdin”
and “Ali Baba and the Forty Thieves”
• Moors –Muslims who lived in Spain. Crossed into
France Battle of Tours. Also know as Berbers
• Battle of Tours – 732AD. Muslim Moors are
defeated by Charles Martel and his Frankish army.
Invasion of Muslims into Europe stopped.
• Ka’aba – in Mecca – where all Muslims face to
pray. Black box, holy site of black stone, During
Hajj one rite is to walk around Kaaba 7 times.