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Islam notes

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  • 1. #? ISLAM Textbook pages #260-281, 290-291
  • 2. A Leader Emerges
    • Angel Gabriel visited Mohammed and told him to “Recite in the name of the Lord!”
    • Mohammed was convinced that he was chosen to spread a monotheistic religion to the Arab people and reject all tribal gods.
    • Mohammed became Muslim , “one who submits to the will of God”
    • He spread the new religion of Islam , which united people and provide a sense of purpose.
  • 3. Islam – “surrender to Allah (God)”
    • Beliefs: According to Muslims …
      • Islam completes the teachings of Judaism and Christianity.
      • Mohammed is the last and greatest prophet. Others include: Abraham, Moses, Jesus
      • Allah - God, is the creator of heaven and earth
      • Priests are unnecessary; Muslims communicate with God directly through prayer.
      • Imams – Religious and community leaders (followed by Shiite)
  • 4.
    • - Sunna – Muhammad’s example of the proper living “way of the prophet”
    • - Koran (Qur’an) the Islamic holy book, contains the word of God as revealed to Mohammed and should not be questioned or changed (translations are discouraged) Recorded by Muhammed’s followers after his death.
    • - Salvation comes to those who follow a strict moral code – “Whoever strays bears the full responsibility of straying.”
    • - Shari’a – Koran teachings + Sunna = Muslim Law (followed by Sunni)
    • -No Pork -No gambling -No drinking -No marriage to nonbelievers
    • *Polygamy okay if man can care equally for all wives.
  • 5. Five Pillars of Islam
    • Creed: “there is no God but Allah,
    • and Mohammed is his prophet”.
    • Prayer: Five times a day facing Mecca.
    • Ka’aba – site in Mecca to face. (black box)
    • Alms to the poor and others in need.
    • Fast during Ramadan – Holy month
    • God reveals Koran to Muhammad.
    • Hajj - Pilgrimage to Mecca at least
    • once, for those financially and
    • physically able.
  • 6. Diffusion of Islam
    • Mohammed declared a jihad , or struggle against nonbelievers. Some believe if you die in the struggle you go to heaven.
    • Islam claimed Mecca and portions of Arabian Peninsula. Mecca and Medina were early cities.
    • Expansion continued after Mohammed’s death, but also spread through trade and travel, not just through conquest (jihad).
    • Islam spread into Asia, Africa, and into Spain.
    • Expansion despite… great distance, desert environments, and mountain barriers.
  • 7. Division (after the Prophet’s death, over who should rule)
    • Sunni – caliph chosen by Muslim leaders. Accepted Mu’awiyah as caliph and believed 1 st four were “Rightly Guided” Caliphs. Followers of Sunna, “way of the prophet”. (75-90% of Muslims)
    • Shi’ite (Shi’a) – believe caliph must be a descendant of the prophet.(Ali) Do not recognize the authority of the Sunna.
    • Sufi – Muslim mystics. Try to live simple life. (small sect). Live a life of poverty and devotion to spiritual path.
  • 8. Historical Turning Points
    • Sunni –Shi’a Division
    • Muslim conquest of Jerusalem and Damascus
    • Muslims are defeated at the Battle of Tours in 732ad and retreat back across the Pyrenees Mountains
  • 9. Culture
    • Architecture: Mosques (Domes and Minarets -towers attached to outside of mosque. Used to call Muslims to worship) and Mosaics
    • Dome of the Rock (Jerusalem)  believed to be site where Mohammed left for heaven. JEWS – believe site where Abraham was going to kill Isaac
    • Arabic alphabet : Greek and Roman texts translated and preserved. Create Universities.
    • - A Thousand and One Arabian Nights  famous collection of stories, some of most widely read in history.
  • 10.
    • Science: , Arabic numerals and zero ALGEBRA .
    • Medicine: blended knowledge of Asian and European
    • Geography: Improved ships, astrolabe – used to charts stars and position on earth, use of compass, age of exploration and discovery. Expansion of geographic knowledge.

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