ATHENSAttic Peninsula – least fertile area in Greece.-Sea traders.-Coined money in 600s bce.SOCIETYCitizens – Athenian born men. Full political rights.Metics – Non-citizens born outside of Athens. Merchants/artisans.Free. Paid taxes. Could not own land or participate in government.Slaves – people captured in warGOVERNMENTMonarchyAristocracyOligarchy Tyranny DemocracyOligarchy – Ruled by the FewTyranny – ruled by person who takes power illegallyDraco – one of Athens 1st law codes 62bce. Harsh laws = DraconianLawsSolon – erased debt of poor. Made slavery illegal for debt. Releasedpeople from slavery. Courts made up of citizen jurors.
• DEMOCRACY -“Demo”= people• Cleisthenes – turned Athens into a democracy in 507bce. Divided citizens into 10 tribes.• -Elect Generals and 9 archons – 1yr. terms• - Each tribe selected 50 men to be in an assembly. (500). Served 1yr. and not more than once.• Each could speak and voice opinions.• Women and slaves could not vote.• *Direct democracy – all citizens participate directly in making decisions• Representative democracy – citizens elect representatives to govern for them.
• Athens had the Best NAVY• Persian War – Athens and Sparta team up to defeat the Persians.• Battle of Marathon• Peloponnesian War – Delian League – during the Peloponnesian War they were defeated by the Persians and Spartans. Starved.• Artists, writers, philosophers, architects.• Arts were very important in Athens and flourished.• Golden Age of Greece under Pericles – who was a great leader and orator. Also called the Age of Pericles
SPARTASOCIAL GROUPSEquals- controlled the polis. Land divided equally among families. hadHelots – conquered people to work landHalf-citizens – free, paid taxes, served in the army. Had no politicalpower. Farmers, artisans. Some became rich.Helots – lowest group, slaves. More helots than Spartans. Controlledwith force. Terrorized the Helots. Helots hated the Spartans.GOVERNMENTOligarchy – ruled by the few2 kings Military, matters at homeCouncil of elders – 28 males (laws, criminal court)Assembly – males over 30. educated Elect 5 ephors, 1 yr. terms Checked kings
MILITARY SOCIETY• Idea to have all men in military machine. Unfit babies were left to die. Age 7-17 military education, reading, writing. Away from home. Little food, treated harshly, taught to steal to survive, without being caught.• Age 18-20 trained for war• 20-30 military service• Remained available at home until 60yrs.• Sparta had the best ARMY – feared throughout the land.• Girls exercised to be fit for child birth. Have strong babies. Unfit children left to die.• Had little/no individual freedom• Simple life no art, literature, philosophy, or science• Did not have “finer things in life.”• Persian War – Athens and Sparta team up to defeat the Persian Army. Battle of Thermopylae – 300• Peloponnesian War – Peloponnesian League. 431 bce Spartans declare war on Delian League. 27 year war. Win. Starve out Athens.