Greece’s Golden Age Architecture Acropolis= hill, center of the original city-state/polis•Place for artistic creations, temples, citadelParthenon = white marble temple built in honor of Athena•Finest of Greek architecture, balanced proportions statue of Athena inside Columns = 3 orders. Doric -Ionic -Corinthian
History•Herodotus = 1st historian of Western world. Traveled to Babylonia, Phoenicia, Egypt. Writer and storyteller. Wrote about people and their countries. Told if he heard about it (2nd) or saw it (primary source) We still look at his work for answers. “Father of History”•Thucydides = Wrote “History of the Peloponnesian War”. Believed history was cyclical studying the past helps to understand human nature and not repeat mistakes. Worked to make history accurate and fair.
Art•Glorified human beings God/ Goddesses are ideal beauty, Human qualities and actions•Pride in the city-state Glory to the Polis•Beliefs in harmony, balance, order, & moderations search for clarity, calmness, freedom from details not necessary.•Belief in combining beauty and usefulness functional and beauty defined purpose and shapesPainting•Most are lost and damaged. Best are on vases. Red and Black figure pottery Mythological and everyday events
Sculpture – Two of history’s greatest sculptors…Myron = The Discus ThrowerPhidias = Statues of Athena Acropolis /Parthenon. Zeus at the temple of Olympia (1 of the 7 Wonders of Ancient World)
Greek TheaterDrama = Plays containing action or dialogue and involving conflict and emotion poetic formTragedies = main characters struggled against fate or events. Outside forces, defeat main character, heroes punished for displaying “hubris” = the sin of prideSophocles = Defended many traditional Greek Values.•Perfect example of tragedy = Oedipus Rex (kills dad, marries mom, stabs out own eyes)Euripides=Realist, questioned old beliefs and ideas.•Trojan Women showed pain of war, unlike earlier accounts that showed war to be adventurous, full of honor, courage, + heroes.•Medea= Tragedy of revenge. Medea seeks revenge on her unfaithful husband Jason.
Aeschylus = writes 80+plays•Oresteia – about Agamemnon’s family during the Trojan WarComedies = made fun of ideas and peopleAristophanes = Finest writer of Greek Comedy. Sharp wit. Clouds – makes fun of Socrates and Education
Philosophy= Study of basic human questions and existenceSocrates = Believed education was key to personal growth. No memorizing. Trained students to think for themselves question everything= “Socratic Method”. Public officials did not like him questioning gov’t during a time of war, so he was accused of “corrupting young minds”. Sentenced to death. Drinks hemlock to die.
Plato= Student of Socrates. Wealthy aristocrat. Recorded Socrates’ ideas. Founded the Academy in Athens to teach philosophy. Wrote dialogues called “Forms” and “Perfection” also “The Republic” which describes his idea of a perfect society and gov’t. People should be ruled by a small group of intelligent and educated people.
Aristotle= Founded school in 335bc. Was a student of Plato- taught Alexander the Great. Believed everything had to be studied logically. Collected facts, organized and categorized plants and animals. Believed all gov’ts could be good. (M, A, O, T, D), but it depended on the value of the leaders in power. Wrote the Ethics and Poetics analyzed Greek Drama.
Math, Medicine, and ScienceEratosthenes= calculated distance around earth. (Used sun rays angle to earth) Greek MathematicianPythagoras = Philosopher. Explained everything w/ math. Pythagorean TheoremEuclid = Geometric theories and statements. Father of Geometry. Writes Elements basis for many of today’s geometry textbooks
Medicine = began embalming bodies (Egypt)Hippocrates= Father of Medical Science. Wrote 60-70 medical studies. Observation, experiment, experience. Believed diseases NOT punishments from gods. Best cures = fresh air and proper diet. Hippocratic Oath = code of ethics for doctors.
Aristarchus = Planets moved around sun. Looked at sun and moon to calculate length of year. Failed to convince others.Archimedes = Calculates Pi ratio of circumference of a circle to diameter. Invented the compound pulley, created Archimedes water screw. Used math and physics for practical use.