Early Man Notes


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Early Man Notes

  1. 1. Early Man Textbook Pages #1-27
  2. 2. Prehistory is the time or era before written records were kept. Because these people didn’t write down their history we have to do our best to figure out what happened. Archaeology is the study of past societies through an analysis of what people have left behind. CULTURE - A set of beliefs, knowledge, and patterns of living that a group of people develop The study of human life and cultures.
  3. 3. Artifacts are objects that people left behind by humans. Artifacts give Limited Evidence, so archaeologists must make educated guesses about the prehistoric world. They use a hypothesis and then gather information to test it and draw conclusions. Tools and Weapons Art and Sculpture Pottery Jewelry Human Remains Ancient Buildings and Monuments
  4. 4. The remains of ancient plants and animals. By studying fossils archaeologists and anthropologists can learn about what people ate, what animals they had around, and their way of life. Carbon dating is a test used to date organic artifacts or things that were once alive. All living things contain a radioactive isotope of Carbon called Carbon 14 which they absorb from the sun while they are alive. Carbon 14 has a half-life of 5000 years. That means it takes 5,000 years for half of the Carbon 14 in something to break down. If we know how much Carbon 14 something has left we can count back to how much is had to begin with to determine the age of the artifact. Is limited to things 50,000 years old or less.
  5. 5. “Paleo” means old “Lithic” means stone Paleolithic= Old Stone Age This era was called the stone age because early man used stone to make his tools and weapons. Essential Knowledge: These clans got their food by Hunting and Gathering  They were Nomadic or Nomads. “Followed their Food” Once the food supply ran out they would move from pace to place in search of food and shelter. The role of men was to do the hunting. The role of women was gathering and caring for children. Lived in groups called clans of about 20-30 people, used caves for shelter.  Learned to make and control FIRE to keep warm and cook their food. Developed oral, or spoken language  Made cave art and statues, and invented the first simple stone tools.
  6. 6. Gathering was a more reliable source of food and so in Paleolithic society it is thought that it may have been Matriarchal, or female dominated. Women were often seen at the time as symbols of life and fertility. Many ancient religions were centered around the worship of the earth and the woman was often representative of the earth and life because of the fact that women gave birth. It is thought that early man often drew, or made representations of what he/she wanted to happen. Fertility statues for having many children, paintings of successful hunts etc.
  7. 7. Use of Fire Early man learned to use fire to adapt to his environment. It was probably discovered from friction, lightning, or accidental hitting two rocks together. Ice Ages Fire was very important during the ice ages. Without fire man would not have been able to survive. Cave Art Man has created art for a very long time. There is some argument as to what this art was for. Was it art as art, or art as a form of religion?
  8. 8. “Ardi” “Lucy” Early humans and other early human-like creatures that walk upright on two feet. (Australopithecus, Homo Habilis, Homo Erectus, Homo Sapiens, & Homo Sapiens Sapiens
  9. 9. Homo sapiens emerged in Africa between 100,000 and 400,000 years ago. Homo Sapiens means “Wise Person.” This group split into two distinct groups: Thought to have lived between 35,000-130,000 years ago. Used stone tools  Buried their dead. This suggests they had some primitive religious beliefs. Disappeared? – Cold weather? Killed off? Married stronger and smarter man? CRO-MAGNONS 10,000-35,000 years ago. Used tools and fire created CAVE ART  Lived in clans, and buried their dead. Neanderthals Homo Sapiens Sapiens
  10. 10. Modern Human Beings are called Homo Sapiens Sapiens The distinction between Cro-Magnons and Homo Sapiens Sapiens (modern people today) had disappeared by 10,000 bce. ICE AGE – ended about 10,000 years ago. Large parts of Earth’s surface were covered in ice. Sea levels dropped exposing LAND BRIDGES. People migrate across these land bridges. From Asia to Europe people crossed an exposed land bridge which today is the Bering Strait.
  11. 11. During the last ice age between 100,000 B.C. and 8000 B.C. the water level in the oceans dropped revealing a Bering Land Bridge connecting Asia and North America http://www.classzone.com/cz/books/ms_wh
  12. 12. MESO-LITHIC: Middle Stone Age “meso” means middles “lithic” means stone “Neo” means new “Lithic” means stone Neolithic means New Stone Age. The Neolithic Agricultural Revolution was the change from hunting and gathering to farming. It is thought that women discovered agriculture. Seeds planted = food Neolithic People: Agriculture and domesticated animals. Used Advanced Stone Tools  Developed Weaving (better clothing) Artisans -make crafts Made Pottery (for food storage) Domestication of Animals: In addition to growing crops Neolithic man also tamed animals for hunting (dogs) and other animals for their food such as sheep, cows, goats, etc Systematic Agriculture was the consistent growing of crops on a continuing basis. This created an Agricultural Surplus or Extra Food. Storage of Food Pottery and other devices were invented as ways to store extra food. This extra food was vital for feeding a growing population.
  13. 13. As farming technology improved people were able to grow the food they needed and even an extra agricultural surplus. Because of this not everyone had to work on providing food anymore and so people could do other things. Specialization of Labor – People doing different types of jobs and skills Because people could focus on one particular thing they were good at, technology and skills improved. Trade – exchanging goods for something in return As artisans (craftsmen) made goods, they began to exchange goods with other villages, and later cities, who had different goods. This was a barter system – trading goods and services for other goods and services.
  14. 14. Agriculture Better farming techniques (irrigation, fertilization, etc.) Systematic Agriculture More food Agricultural surplus More people not everyone HAS to be a farmer Government Written language Labor /Specialization leadership & laws records Artisans Priests & Religion Builders Structures temples, palaces, buildings Merchants Sell goods Traders Travel to sell goods. Cultural Diffusion Bringing ideas and other aspects of culture from one area to another . (Ideas, food, religion, technology, etc..)
  15. 15. Variations on Agriculture As agriculture spread different areas began to grow different crops that were suited to their environment. People settled near wide, fertile soil carrying RIVERS. These places where people began to settle down, grow crops, and start villages became known as the Cradles of Civilization. Most of these areas were in river valleys. This first was Mesopotamia between the Tigris and Euphrates River Valleys. Other river valleys include The Nile Valley in Egypt, the Indus River Valley in India, and the Huang He River Valley in China. Why River Valleys?
  16. 16. Why River Valleys? FRESH WATER  food (sustainer of life, “cradles of civilization” Dry Season  farmers learn to dig ditches/canals to bring water to fields =system of irrigation Wet Season  builds dikes to hold back river = flood control Techniques to improve farming and food quality: (irrigation, fertilization, seasonal planting (invention of the calendar)
  17. 17. Aleppo and Jericho are early cities in the Fertile Crescent studied by archaeologists. Found in ancient Palestine near the Dead sea. It was in existence by 8000 B.C.
  18. 18. is an example of a Neolithic settlement currently under excavation in Anatolia (Modern Day Turkey). Its walls enclosed 32 acres and up to 6,000 people. Grew many different crops and developed artisans and trade.
  19. 19. Is an archeological site begun in the Neolithic age and finished during the Bronze Age. Located on the Salisbury Plain in England. What it may have looked like at completion
  20. 20. As villages turned into cities, men took over the work of farming. Now men were the primary providers of food and women no longer filled that role. Because of this the role of women changed to that of family caregiver and society became mostly male dominated (patriarchal) in most cultures Copper – 6,000+ years ago The first metal used by ancient man was copper. This was a natural metal and could be cast into tools. Bronze Age - Later, copper was mixed with tin to make Bronze. Bronze was the metal of choice for a long time because harder metal for tools and weapons Iron Age –– about 3,200 years ago. The invention of iron occurs at different times around the world. It is a long difficult process to make iron, but it is a much stronger metal.