STANDARD WHI.2aThe student will demonstrate knowledge of early development of humankind from the Paleolithic Era to the agricultural revolution bya) explaining the impact of geographic environment on hunter-gatherer societies.b) listing characteristics of hunter-gatherer societies, including their use of tools and fire.Textbook pages A first-hand, or eyewitness, account of an event More accurate than a secondary source. Ex: Artifacts, human remains, written records from the time.A second-hand source of informationNot as accurate as a primary sourceEx: Textbook, hearing information from others than an eyewitness. Prehistory is the time before written records were kept. Because these people didn’t write down their history we have to do our best to figure out what happened. With LIMITED EVIDENCE scientists must use the information they have to make educated guess and draw conclusions.
The study of past societies through an analysis of whatpeople have left behind. CUTLURE - A set of beliefs,knowledge, and patterns of living that a group of peopledevelop Artifacts are objects that people left behind. Artifacts give Limited Evidence, so archaeologists must make educated guesses about the prehistoric world. They use a hypothesis and then gather information to test it. Pottery Tools and Weapons Art and Sculpture Human Remains Ancient Buildings Jewelry and Monuments
The study of human life and cultureThe remains of ancient plants and animals.By studying fossils archaeologists and anthropologists can learn about whatpeople ate, what animals they had around, and their way of life.Carbon dating can be used to date organic artifacts, or things that were once aliveAll living things contain a radioactive isotope of Carbon called Carbon 14 which theyabsorb from the sun while they are alive.Carbon 14 has a half-life of 5000 years. That means it takes 5,000 years for half ofthe Carbon 14 in something to break down.If we know how much Carbon 14 something has left we can count back to how much ishad to begin with to determine the age of the artifact. Is limited to things 50,000years old or less.
Humans and other early human-like creatures that walkupright on two feet.Homo sapiens emerged in Africa between 100,000 and 400,000 years ago.Homo Sapiens means “Wise Person.”This group split into two distinct groups:Neanderthals and Cro-Magnons and followed by Homo Sapiens Sapiens Thought to have lived between 35,000-130,000 years ago. Used stone tools, and buried their dead. It is thought they had some primitive religious beliefs. Disappeared? – Cold weather? Killed off? Married stronger and smarter man?
10,000-35,000 years ago. Distinction between Cro-Magnons and Homo Sapiens Sapiens (people today)had disappeared by 10,000bce.Used tools and fire, created CAVE ART, lived inclans, buried dead. Homo Sapiens NeanderthalsModern Human Beings (PEOPLE) SapiensAppeared in Africa between 100,000-400,000 years agoBegan to migrate outside of Africa 100,000 years ago.ICE AGE – ended about 10,000 years ago. Large parts of earth’s surfacewere covered in ice. Sea levels dropped exposing LAND BRIDGES. Peoplemigrate across these land bridges.
During the last ice age between 100,000 B.C. and8000 B.C. the water level in http://www.classzone.com/cz/books/ms_whthe oceans dropped revealinga land bridge connecting Asia and North America
“Paleo” means old “Lithic” means stonePaleolithic= Old Stone Age. This era was called the stone agebecause early man used stone to make his tools and weapons.Paleolithic man lived in groups called clans.These clans got their food by Hunting and GatheringOnce the food supply ran out they would move to a differentarea. They “Followed their Food” Because they moved fromplace to place they were Nomadic or Nomads. The role of menwas to do the hunting. The role of women was gathering andcaring for children.Essential Knowledge:Were Nomadic: Wandered from place to place in search of food andshelter.Invented the first tools and weapons including simple stone tools.Lived in groups called clans of about 20-30 people, used caves for shelter.Learned to make and control fire to keep warm and cook their food.Developed oral, or spoken languageMade cave art and statues.MESO-LITHIC: Middle Stone Age “meso” means middles “lithic” means stone
Gathering was a more reliable source of food and so inPaleolithic society it is thought that it may have beenMatriarchal, or female dominated.Women were often seen at the time as symbols of life andfertility. Many ancient religions were centered around theworship of the earth and the woman was often representativeof the earth and life because of the fact that women gavebirth. It is thought that early man often drew, or made representations of what he/she wanted to happen. Fertility statues for having many children, paintings of successful hunts etc.
Use of FireEarly man learned to use fire to adapt to his environment.It was probably discovered from friction, lightning, or accidental hittingtwo rocks together.Ice AgesFire was very important during the ice ages. Without fire man would nothave been able to survive.Cave ArtMan has created art for a very long time. There is some argument as towhat this art was for. Was it art as art, or art as a form of religion?
STANDARD WHI.2aThe student will demonstrate knowledge of early development of humankind from the PaleolithicEra to the agricultural revolution byc) describing technological and social advancements that gave rise to stable communities. “Neo” means new “Lithic” means stone Neolithic means New Stone Age.The Neolithic Period is defined by the invention of agriculture (farming).The Neolithic Agricultural Revolution was the change from hunting and gathering to farming.It is thought that women discovered agriculture. Seeds planted = foodSystematic Agriculture was the consistent growing of crops on a continuing basis.Domestication of Animals: In addition to growing crops Neolithic man also tamed animalsfor hunting (dogs) and other animals for their food such as sheep, cows, goats, etc. . .Developed Agriculture & Domesticated AnimalsUsed Advanced Stone ToolsDeveloped Weaving (better clothing) ArtisansMade Pottery (for food storage)
Agricultural Surplus – Extra FOODAs farming technology improved people were able to grow the food theyneeded. Because of this not everyone had to work on providing foodanymore and so people could do other things.ArtisansPeople who made crafts such as textiles (fabrics), pottery, jewelry, etc. . .People could do what they were good at instead of having to farm.Specialization of Labor – People doing different types of jobs and skillsBecause people could focus on one particular thing technology and skillsimproved.Storage of FoodPottery and other devices were invented as ways to grow extra food. Thisextra food was vital for feeding a growing population.Trade – exchanging goods for something in returnAs artisans made goods they began to exchange goods with other villages,and later cities, who had different goods. This was a barter system –trading goods and services for other goods and services.
An agricultural surplus led to the emergence of civilization Culture The way of life of a group of people Rise of cities Artistic Activity Growth of Temples, Pyramids, Government.Palaces, Painting, and Sculpture Usually monarchs Use of Writing Emergence of First was Religion Cuneiform in Priests take an Sumer New Social active role. Structure Different social classes emerge
Agriculture Better farming techniques (irrigation, fertilization,etc.)Better farming techniques Systematic AgricultureSystematic Agriculture more food =Agricultural surplusMore food more peopleMore people not everyone HAS to be a farmer, there can beSpecialization of labor trades, Artisans (weavers, metal workers,pottery makers, builders)Builders = creation of structures (temples, palaces, buildings, etc.)People need leadership and laws = GovernmentArtisans create crafts = Merchants Sell goodsTraders Travel to sell goods. Also bring ideas and other aspects ofculture from one are to another Cultural DiffusionNeed for communication and records ~3000BC writing systemcreated
Variations on AgricultureAs agriculture spread different areas began to grow differentcrops that were suited to their environment.These places where people began to settle down, grow crops, andstart villages became known as the Cradles of Civilization.Most of these areas were in river valleys. This first wasMesopotamia between the Tigris and Euphrates River Valleys.Other river valleys include The Nile in Egypt, the Indus in India,and the Huang He in China.
Why River Valleys?water food (sustainer of life, “cradles of civilization”Dry Season farmers learn to dig ditches/canals tobring water to fields =system of irrigationWet Season builds dikes to hold back riverTechniques to improve farming and food quality:(irrigation, fertilization, seasonal planting (invention of thecalendar)
Aleppo and Jericho are examples of early citiesin the Fertile Crescent studied byarchaeologists.Found in ancient Palestine near the Dead sea. Itwas in existence by 8000 B.C.
is an example of a Neolithic settlement currently underexcavation in Anatolia (Modern Day Turkey).Its walls enclosed 32 acres and up to 6,000 people.Grew many different crops and developed artisans and trade.
Archeological site begun in the Neolithic age and finished in the Bronze Age Located on the Salisbury Plain in England What it may have looked like at completion http://video.nationalgeographic.com/video/player/news/history-archaeology- news/uk-stonehenge-vin.html
As villages turned into cities, men took over the work of farming.Now men were the primary providers of food and women no longer filled thatrole.Because of this the role of women changed to that of family caregiver andsociety became mostly male dominated (patriarchal) in most culturesCopper – 6,000+ years agoThe first metal used by ancient man was copper. This was a natural metal and could be cast intotools.Bronze Age - Later, copper was mixed with tinto make Bronze. Bronze was the metal ofchoice for a long time because harder metal fortools and weaponsIron Age –– about 3,200 years ago. Theinvention of iron occurs at different timesaround the world. It is a long difficult processto make iron, but it is a much stronger metal.