• Loess – yellow fertile soil deposited on banks of
the Huang He River
• Yu the Great – 1st Xia ruler who improved
agriculture and flood control
• Animism – belief that everything
has a spirit
• Oracle Bones – priests carve questions in bones,
heat up, read cracks for answers
• Calligraphy – Chinese art of writing.
• Feudalism- System of land control. Nobles grant
land to lesser people that actually belongs to king.
• Mandate of Heaven – gods have chosen and given
the right to rule to kings. Used to claim power.
• Dynastic Cycles – cyclical occurrence of different
• Confucius- Founder of Confucianism. Writes the
• Confucianism- Philosophy stressing
relationships and respect.
• Laozi – Founder of Daoism. Write the Dao de Jing.
• Daoism/Taoism- Philosophy stressing ideas to
withdraw form the world and contemplate nature
• Bureaucracy – government organized into different
levels and tasks
• Yin/Yang – Dualism of forces. Light/Dark,
• Autocracy – government where the ruler has
• Qin Shi Huangdi – Cheng – leader of Qin Dynasty.
Creates Great Wall and Terracotta Soldiers
• Legalism – philosophy stressing strict
laws + harsh punishments
• Civil Service System – Administrative government
with tests to get jobs.
• Liu Bang – Commoner who became a
general and overthrows Qin Dynasty.
• Empress Lii – Liu Bangs wife ruled after her husband
died. Ruled in place of her son the emperor.
• Emperor Wudi- Liu Bang’s great-grandson took over
after Empress Lii and expands the
Empire through warfare.
• Xiongnu – Nomads known for archery skills on
horseback who attack the Han Dynasty.
• Silk Road – trade route connecting
China to the Mediterranean Sea (Han)
• Grand Canal – Canal build connecting Huang He to
Yangtze. (Sui Dynasty)
• Empress WuZhao/WuZetian –
1st woman to be Emperor. Expands
empire, controls Korea,
helps trade. (Tang)
• Acupuncture- Medical practice of inserting needles
into the body to relieve pain.