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Byzantine Empire & Russia Vocabulary
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Byzantine Empire & Russia Vocabulary



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  • 1. Byzantine Empire Vocabulary Dowry- money and goods the wife brings to the husband at marriage Icon- holy picture or statue of Jesus, Mary or Saints Iconoclasts-believed worshipping icons was the same as worshipping idols Iconoclastic Controversy -debate between the defenders and opponents of icons
  • 2. Heresy – an opinion that conflicts with official church beliefs (goes against church teachings) • Excommunication – making someone no longer a member of the church (kicked outcannot go to heaven) • Mosaic – picture or design made from small pieces of enamel, glass or stone
  • 3. • Justinian – Emperor of Byzantine Empire (527565 A.D.) expands empire, suppresses revolt, gives women some rights; builds Hagia Sophia • Justinian Code– very important to European Law Code-Roman Laws Digest-Opinions on Laws Institutes-Guide for law students Novaella-New Laws
  • 4. Theodora – Justinian’s wife who advises him on laws and Nika revolt; expands women’s rights Hippodrome – where citizens could see wild chariot races and performance acts; location for Nika revolt
  • 5. • Belisarius – made general of army by Justinian after he leads the men who put down the Nika Revolt • Nika Revolt – riots were occurring over Justinian’s government and repression of the Nika rebellions; rioters were drawn to the Hippodrome and demanded to overthrow Justinian. Belisarius and his troops slaughtered the 30,000 rebels inside.
  • 6. • Greek Fire – liquid thrown at ships that explodes and lights the ships on fire • Ottoman Turks – conquer the Byzantine Empire and rename capital Istanbul Fall of Constantinople
  • 7. Russian Vocabulary Steppe – grassy plain w/out trees; black fertile soil. Natural highway for nomads Taiga – above the steppe; has great forests and rainfall
  • 8. • Boyars – nobles that made up a council to advise the princes who ruled Kievan Russia • Cyril & Methodius – Christian missionaries who gave the Slavs a written alphabet – Cyrillic alphabet
  • 9. Rus – people who took control of Novgorod – ruled over Kiev and Slavs “Rus”-Russia Rurik – leader of the Rus people in Russia Yaroslav the Wise – 1019 A.D.-1054 A.D. Ruled during a great period during Russian History; built many churches 1st Russian Law code
  • 10. Pravda Russkia – 1st Russian law code – contained tribal law and other customs Vladimir I – 980’s A.D. impressed with Christianity and Hagia Sophia; wanted to marry Ana (Byzantine Emperor’s sister); converts to Christianity; orders all Kievans to become Christian (Russian Orthodox Church); Father of Yaroslav the Wise
  • 11. Czar=Tzar – (comes from word Caesar) true leader of Byzantine + Roman Empire (Russian Ruler); absolute power “Third Rome” – Moscow; brings Christian orthodoxy to the whole world 1. Rome 2. Constantinople 3. Moscow/Russia
  • 12. • Ivan III – “Ivan the Great”; assert independence from the Mongols; 1st ruler of independent Russia; increased land; great military conquest • Ivan IV – “Ivan the Terrible”; arrested the boyars and gave land to his supporters; killed his own son and others; laid foundation for New Russian State; becomes first official Russian Czar • Mongols – Genghis Khan is the leader of the Golden Horde; they invade Kievan Russia and rule; they allow Russians to follow their own customs as they pay taxes and not revolt; Ivan III rids Russian of Mongols