Growth of the Byzantine Empire• Constantinople: – Protection of eastern frontier – Easily fortified (defendable), on natural harbor. Overlooked the Bosporus Strait. – Away from Germanic invasions – Seat of power until Ottoman Conquest in 1453
• Crossroads of Trade: - Goods coming from Europe, Asia, Africa - Silk and paper industry thriving. - Taxes on trade and industry provide money for gov’t, army, and buildings -Cultural melting pot: (Roman law, Greek culture, and Orthodox Christianity)• Greek + Roman = Greco-Roman
Age of Justinian• Emperor Justinian (ruled 527-565AD) hoped to revive the glory and power of the Roman Empire.• The Justinian Code: Codification of Roman Law (4 parts) – Code: useful Roman laws – Digest: summarized Roman legal opinions – Institutes: guide for law students – Novellae: contained laws passed after 534AD * Significant influence on European law codes
• Empress Theodora: - Justinian’s wife - Urges him to change Byzantine law to give more rights to women. -women could own propertyequal to the value of their dowry.• Nika Revolt: - Rebellion that threatened to overthrow Justinian. He wanted to flee, Theodora encouraged him to fight. -Belisarius led the troops that crushed the revolt. Justinian makes him general of the army.
• Constantinople was a rich city with a strong navy. “Greek Fire” was thrown at ships and set them on fire. THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH• The West and East had different ideas about church practices. This led to a division (schism) in The Church. 1054AD
Major Disagreements between the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox ChurchesRoman Catholic- WEST Eastern Orthodox – EAST• No Married priests • Married priests allowed allowed • Icons rejected – later• Icons accepted accepted• Pope was supreme • Pope not supreme – authority local leaders supreme• Accepted the view that • Believed in supremacy the Holy Spirit combines both Father of the Father in the and Son (Council of Trinity Nicea)
Byzantine Culture• Passed on to future generations the learning of ancient Greece, Rome, and the East.• Cyril and Methodius went to teach the Slavs the Bible. They gave them an alphabet which is known as Cyrillic.• Mosaics and architecture. - Hagia Sophia- Church, one of the world’s biggest buildingsDECLINE – Many different groups invade the Byzantine Empire. 1453AD the Ottoman Turks capture Constantinople. End of Byzantine Empire