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Research proposal

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  • 1. 1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.0 INTRODUCTION Art is beautiful, art is also a subjective thing which is very difficult to interpret. Everything that we see and make is a branch of art in the face of this earth. All people love the beautiful and wonderful things but not all things that look beautiful in the eyes of someone that would look good even in the eyes of others because each person has a different perception and outlook on art. Indirectly they acknowledged that to produce a product of art, talent, ability and appreciation and understanding of paramount importance. Ability is something that can be learned and in shape while talent is something that stands on its own as a result of donations from God. Both are closely intertwined in the production of a product of art that has a high aesthetic value. Art is difficult to defined as same as people are difficult to value every human being to choose his own way to define, still could be said that art is a medium of the selection process and the result, a value that determines what is right is reflected through the medium to convey whether the beliefs, ideas , taste, feeling is the most effective form of medium that want to used. Nowadays, art is an expression of human creativity which is that is the most widely known and regarded as the benefits of human creativity. Though, it is difficult to define art because of every human being has its own rules and restrictions for each of their works. According to Herbert Read (the meaning of arts book), art is a way of giving rise to the production of happiness, enjoyment and aesthetic beauty which is art is an expression.
  • 2. 2 Aesthetic value here, is referring to the concept of pleasure resulting from the impact of the appreciation of the beauty of the visual arts. Satisfaction and enjoyment as well as the difficulties and joys are also included in this beauty. Art is one thing that is free to do. There is no requirement or rule set. anyone can and is entitled to do art includes org adults, people who are elderly and children. No matter who they are, whatever their job, if they have the talent and passion, of course they can give ideas and produce good art. According to Aristotle, art is imitation of nature but nature should be ideal. He mention that the resulting artwork is mainly due to human nature and the universe as a reference to raise the elements of beauty in art. This study focused on the visual arts in which many things can be manipulated in the visual arts. Visual arts are art forms that produce a variety of works, including ceramics, painting, sculpture, printmaking, photography, graphic design, fashion design and fine art. All forms of visual art to be learned from the beginning and those who wish to deepen way of art must have a foundation in the visual arts. To learn the art, people can develop aesthetic values such as imagination, creativity, critical thinking, innovative and inventive. Art also can make people appreciate the beauty of the environment, national heritage and contribute to the development of self, family, community and country. Art also able to integrate the components to complete the construction of the right brain and left brain. Therefore, it can propel the development as a whole in terms of physical, emotional, intellectual and spiritual place. According to The British Academy (June 2014), they realize that art is increasingly affecting the world. anywhere in the art can be seen and produce. People can not restrict the freedom of expression because it is a unique and can not be produced by everyone. As in Malaysia, street art was quite easy to be found on the walls of buildings. His art is
  • 3. 3 taking steps to make this art as a resource to show her appreciation for what they have learned. 1.1- BACKGROUND OF STUDY This study is more geared to making art produced by children. Very important for children to learn and master the art since childhood because of their small can in the form of master talent in them. Various aspects and interests can be found in the teaching of visual arts to children. Among these are the cognitive aspects of visual arts activity in which an organized and planned to produce a child who has the ability to solve problems and be able to evaluate and make wise decisions. Physical aspects of the design was to provide effective training to the hand muscles and coordination psychomotor hands immediately with the help of the use of tools and materials. Besides, creativity was a training project that was open. It helps students to develop their creativity. This activity has favored process than the end result. Children are born with the different intelligent so, it is not fair if people judge children that interested in art and have a skill are not have a future. The opportunities must be given to them to prove it. According to Howard Gardner (1991), he said "we are all able to know the world through language, logical-mathematical analysis, spatial representation, musical thinking, the use of the body to solve problems or to make things, an understanding of other individuals, and an understanding of ourselves. Where individuals differ is in the strength of these intelligences - the so-called profile of intelligences -and in the ways in which such intelligences are invoked and combined to carry out different tasks, solve diverse problems, and progress in various domains." Gardner says that these differences "challenge an educational system that assumes that everyone can learn the same
  • 4. 4 materials in the same way and that a uniform, universal measure suffices to test student learning. Indeed, as currently constituted, our educational system is heavily biased toward linguistic modes of instruction and assessment and, to a somewhat lesser degree, toward logical-quantitative modes as well." From the point of view perception, students can use the human sense to enhance and sharpen the senses through the making of art, the product objects that are around them. While, the social and economic aspects, the students can interact and enhance the ability to socialize but to raise their self-confidence. This study is to generate the minds of children so that they are free to create artwork without restricted or prohibited by adults. At the same time the study also aims to nurture them appreciate art in a way that they lead visual arts activity in the right place. This method can be applied in pre-school teachers and primary school teachers so that they are trained to be given the freedom of artistic activity among children. More correctly, the teacher can not say "no" or "wrong" in any paintings but should provide guidance or contribute ideas on the child. In addition, the production of which is devoted to subjects uniform PSV among children in elementary school can nurture and train them not to doodle all over the place . Indirectly , they also will learn things faster. This is because they can practice what they learn in the classroom can be applied in a uniform that they wear. Indirectly , thinking they can grow and learning process will become more attractive as scribbling shirt itself is not uncommon things they do. Not only that, but they can also wipe it after the strike through . Teachers will serve as mentors, it is because the teacher will show examples using a uniform and told it should be divided and can not strike through . Here , teachers or counselors play an
  • 5. 5 important role in educating them or discipline yourself not to scribble in place that should not be . 1.2- PROBLEM OF THE STATEMENT Children who love to scribble is regarded as a negative act. Actual act of defacing the initial process of children learning to write and draw. Often begins with a sketch of one regarded as scribble as a symbol produced in the form of a line that does not give meaning to adults. Producing scribble sketch as a base line of children learning to write and draw. Children learn to be skillful from the gross psychomotor to be adjusted with fine psychomotor. Besides that, the adults need to know that defacing stimulate children creativity. Most adults would get angry and yell when walls, floors and furniture in their homes smeared by their children. However, if a child scribbling, parents and adults to be patient as they actually are their talents and creativity. Traditionally, children aged 2 to 3 years are most fond of scribbling. When they found a pencil, pen, colored pencils, markers and so they will continue smudging no matter anywhere. Scribble is a normal problem for children in the growth process. Why kids scribble? invent them want to communicate? many studies have been conducted to determine the ability of the child. Activities drawing or scribbling on paper as a form of activity that is in use by scientists, educators and parents to delve ibid feelings and thoughts of children. Sketching and scribbling activities are the activities that help children recognize an object other than help improve their environmental sensitivity. Drawing process geared towards
  • 6. 6 sensory observations of the object train the children to become more aware and increase their perception. The study of artistic development of many children to ensure a growth since the child thought of the 19th century. According to Light and Barnes (2003), the earliest studies on the artistic development of children ever recorded was in 1887. Corrado Ricci the Italian was produce writing in a book entitled The Art of the Little Children are study some children drawings. In 1910, further expansion children continued by Clara and William Stern in Germany who published a study on the drawings produced by a boy from the children aged 4 to 7 years. In 1913 in France, Georges-Henri Luquet has published 1,500 cataloged pieces of paintings by his daughter, painted at the age of 3 to 8 years. All studies and publications produced on the early development of children artistic still be reference point for the study of the artistic development of children at the time of right now. Normally, for an adult, a painting is often associated with beauty and perfection, but for a child it is an expression and expressive (Lowenfeld, 1975). Every child has different abilities, then a child's learning is by its own level. In addition, children learning also occurs through observation and imitation of others from what they see and hear. Children drew what they saw, and they also draw things that interest them. 1.3- RESEARCH OBJECTIVES This research objectives of this study are: I) To gauge whether the children creativity drawing methods can help in improving their academic learning.
  • 7. 7 II) To investigate the effects of using the scribble activity to the children in their academic learning. III) To illustrate how the scribble method helps to improve the performance of children learning. IV) To create a sense of appreciation of the artwork done by the children in the learning process. 1.4- RESEARCH QUESTION This research question of this study are : I) Do scribble method be able to help the creativity of children in improving their academic learning? II) What is the effect of using the scribble to children in their academic learning? III) How scribbling method help improve learning performance of children? IV) What are the level of appreciation of students towards their arts works? 1.5- HYPOTHESIS H1 There is no significance difference in students artwork after they learn about Scribble H2 There is no significance difference in students freedom in making arts after they learn about scribble.
  • 8. 8 1.6- OPERATIONAL DEFINATION In this study there are some things that need to be identified and definitions that describe the project to be produced can be done well and the goals that we want is clear. Therefore the definition is to focus on is the definition of the term scribble, uniform, imagination and psychomotor. 1.6.1- Scribbling Scribble is a drawing composed of random and abstract lines, generally without ever lifting the drawing device off the paper. According to Meriam Webster (2013), scribbling is usually done by children because they are often motivated by environmental conditions that respond to the eyes and hands. Lower development of thinking skills will cause them to be passive and less to do scribbles like other children. Adults also do scribbling, but adults’s scribble are more to the shape of painting in which objects appear clear stain to illustrate a story. Scribbling can also refer to a random drawing to produce designs. The scribbling in produce children usually more focused on the lines, shapes such as circle and square shapes. Actually scribble and doodling are the similar thing and action but there are different types of producing both of it. Scribble are normally doing by children while doodling are usually doing by adults. For the purpose of this study, scribble are refer to natural act of a child which fosters their minds and scribbling in this study also refers to the art of children activities that could lead them to be more eager to learn and go to school. 1.6.2- School Uniform A school uniform is an outfit a set of standardized clothes worn primarily for an educational institution. They are common in primary and secondary schools in various countries.
  • 9. 9 When used, they form the basis of a school's dress code. A study published in The Journal of Educational Research by David L. Brunsma, of the University of Alabama, and Kerry A. Rockquemore, of the University of Notre Dame,states: "The findings indicate that student uniforms have no direct effect on substance use, behavioral problems, or attendance. A negative effect of uniforms on student academic achievement was found”. In this research school uniform is refer to the object that will be the experimental materials to implement the learning process using the scribble method in the teaching of art. 1.6.3- Imagination Imagination, also called the faculty of imagining, is the ability to form new images and sensations that are not perceived through senses such as sight, hearing, or other senses. Imagination helps make knowledge applicable in solving problems and is fundamental to integrating experience and the learning process. A basic training for imagination is listening to storytelling (narrative), in which the exactness of the chosen words is the fundamental factor to "evoke worlds". Imagination can also be expressed through stories such as fairy tales or fantasies. Children often use such narratives and pretend play in order to exercise their imaginations. When children develop fantasy they play at two levels: first, they use role playing to act out what they have developed with their imagination, and at the second level they play again with their make-believe situation by acting as if what they have developed is an actual reality that already exists in narrative myth. For the purpose of this study, imagination is refer to the way of child thinking to get an idea as they usually imagine to produce an item or imagine to be like what they see whether it is reality or not. It
  • 10. 10 is also one of the method to produce art in which the imagination is an easy and fun for children. 1.6.4 Psychomotor Learning Psychomotor learning is the relationship between cognitive functions and physical movement. Psychomotor is a development of physical skills and muscles to produce an act. Psychomotor also refers to behavior in relation to the brain where the brain needs to think more good things to come. From there the act and the resulting movement to work to implement what has been processed by the brain. Unrestricted movement will produce a good effect if it is executed properly, but it would be detrimental if the implementation is not done seriously. According to Random House Kernerman Webster’s College Dictionary (2010), psychomotor is related to characterizing movements of the body associated with mental activity. In this research, psychomotor is refer to the movement of children’s art making development which is the researcher want to look the children ability to use their hands and body movement to create art whether they are active or static. In addition, the researchers also wanted to see if the child is likely to do art with all psychomotor available to them or not. 1.7- LIMITATION OF THE STUDY The first limitation is the respondents of this study. The respondents is only limited to the pre-school students or private kindergarten. Girl and boy will be doing this experiment with the different design of uniform. Primary school from standard 1 until standard 3 also includes in this study and maybe affected differently when using this uniform and maybe they will give the different feed back while wearing the uniform because they start to think
  • 11. 11 far away compared to the pre school student and kindergarten student. As example, student from standard 3 will follow the instruction from the teacher perfectly and doing this experiment properly but some of the kindergarten student and pre school student can not follow the process of doing doodling by using the uniform with good attitude. The second limitation of this study is the sample size in the study is not a good sample size. The sample size of this study is too small. The sample size is only limited to 18 respondents consists of children from private school and public school around Shah Alam and it also 9 respondents of children from rural school at Pahang. The sample size is too small in order to know response from the other school . The sample size must be big enough in order to make a conclusion on how far the uniform are functional for them. Thus is it that uniform needed in learning process at school as a school uniform. The third limitation is the place that this study will conducted. This study were only made up of pre-school student, private kindergarten and private primary school. Thus the sample cannot be the representative of the rest of the population. Student from other school such as public primary school around town area and public primary school around rural area, might show the different results from the private kindergarten and private primary school. Furthermore, the study only focused on doodling method for children age 3 years old until 9 years old. Because of this study is only conducted for private kindergarten and private primary school in town, the result is not precise enough to conclude how this uniform will be function and in the other way it is to help children learning something to making art. Thus, it can help in improving their academic learning and affects their academic learning process. Conclusion can only be made for students from other school also has be include in order to have solid result regarding to the experiment by wearing the uniform. Therefore, the result can be used as a reference if the other school are interested to try and used that uniform.
  • 12. 12 Besides that, the distribution of the sample is also one of the problems. Since the researcher uses non-random sampling which is the purposive sampling, the samples do not have equal chances of being selected. For example, the sample of urban students should be more to included in this sample compared to students from rural areas, especially private schools. This is because the probability of them to produce scribbling is greater than students in urban from public schools and students in rural areas. 1.8- SIGNIFICANT OF THE STUDY Firstly, the study of the approachable by scribbling method among children is to identify whether children will accept and can follow the instruction from the teacher or not. Besides that, this study want to prove to the parents and adult that children’s art work is meaningful and they can making art at anywhere they want without damage the surface and place. At the other way, this study want to invite adults appreciate the children’s artwork. If this study was proven, thus teachers will apply these uniform at school during their learning process and it will benefit to all of them. Furthermore, it is very crucial to identify whether this uniform can help in improving student’s learning process by scribbling methods through the uniform. In addition, this study tends to determine how the uniform are functional among the children and how far the children receipt the uniform to be adapt into their learning process in a way to make them have a discipline in art making. The study will assist the student to identify the important about making art in school and why must they interested to learn about art by scribbling method. For example, children that always scribble on the surface at their uniform when they see it has a place for them to scribble. From there, it
  • 13. 13 will show the skills of that children. Therefore, it is necessary for children that want to draw or scribble something on there. Moreover, the study of the approachable by scribbling methods among children will help student in other subject not only in art but sometimes they will made a calculation on that surface like counting number one until ten or ‘1 + 1 = 2’. They also will learn to know the letter of alphabet when they start to write ‘A,B,C’ until ‘z’ and spell the subject like ‘A for Apple’ and they will draw the shape of apple with their own imagination. The study tends to investigate whether the usage of uniform are comfort or not and is it that uniform are function or not among student in the class during the learning process. For example, the student were have fun while learning art and other subject by wearing the uniform because they will make something different on their own uniform and they will wipe it after they wrote on the surface that can be write or scribbles, or in other case they are not comfort to doing art on their uniform because they worry that their parents or teacher will scold them because they not really know how the uniform are function. As a result, it is very important to identify either they will accept and exited to wearing the uniform for their learning process in class or they do not want to wear it. Importance of this study is because they want to see and test the skills and abilities of the children to listen and follow directions in which they will be given instructions not to doodle everywhere and where they should be . Besides, they also will be educated and trained to use the space provided to facilitate scribbling activity . This study is to guide and discipline them in the beginning so as not to acquaint themselves scrawled everywhere or places they should not. Therefore, this study provides an alternative to the child can still be scribbling , but in the meantime they are educated to not get caught up with cultural vandalism . Usually the child will easily hear the instructions of teachers , if they are
  • 14. 14 trained to do like that since childhood . Indirectly , their learning will be more fun and boring as they are free to express what is in their minds.
  • 15. 15 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.0 INTRODUCTION This study will explore the approachable by scribbling methods among children. The main objectives of this chapter is to study and explore the instincts of children about their feelings, their real life and the cause that drives them to do scribbling. This is followed by deeper discussion on some main points that related to this study. Actually, children thrive when they participate in the arts, yet the arts are in a dismal state in the schools today. The concept “back to basic” should be in corporate in school if they want to turn back the atmosphere of cheerful and positive actions towards art among children. Yet, these are also the children in disadvantage social circumstances, who need the capacity to imagine new possibilities for their lives. This study pursued based on children’s perceptions and responses to art making activity, the thinking and learning that occurs in children’s art making by doodling approach. To do this, the framed of the study with theory that explains art making as a way of learning and then used ethnographic methods in order to look at art making from the children. Based on the book that i refer to Montessori system is one of the way that created the activity to make children feel freely and happy to do what they want to do. In this study, art making emerged as a way of learning in two important ways. First, children were found to be engaging in ways of thinking that are needed when learning is a process of creating new knowledge, finding innovative solutions to problems and continuing to learn beyond the classroom. Second, art making was an activity in which
  • 16. 16 children negotiated between the culture of school and the adult art world and in the process developed a practice in which they acted as full participants. In classroom, they shaped the art making practice and transform it info and activity that was both meaningful and it is away for them to make meaning from the doodling methods. 2.1 STAGE OF CHILD ART Children naturally love art. most of them have a dynamic nature and it evolve naturally through the process of growing up. Art is one way kids think and express their hopes for adults. artwork produced by children serves as a communication tool and a reflection of their thinking. According to Koster (2001), this reflection will be develope with the child until it grows. Children absolutely like to imagine about what they think. child's imagination can help them to learn. According to Albert Einstein, imagination is more important than knowledge. Children that used their imagination into their real live will solve their problem in art through what they think. Children create works that reveal images into individual expression. Art that they produce is not necessarily going to be as adults see or expect but what children produce is coming from what they are imagining in their little eyes. According to Lowenfeld, existing knowledge of children may be associated with the development of the child. Lowenfeld specifies children's drawings are divided into 6 parts, scribble where it occurs while children aged 2 to 4 years, then was Pre schematic (4-7 years), after that,Schematics (7-9 years), then Realism (9 -12 years), reasoning (12-14 years) and the last stage is the stage of adolescence (14-17 years). Development of children art began when they were aged 2-4 years where they have already started to scribble in places like walls, floors and furniture . Scribbling is divided
  • 17. 17 into three categories: non-controlling scribbling , scribbling with control and scribbling control means . Child scribbling on any material or device on any surface. Drawings they produce does not reflect the image and how to hold the instrument properly . At the pre schematic (4-7 years) , children who are drawing shapes such as images confines humans, plants and food . Furthermore schematic level ( 7-9 years) , they produced many paintings using telepathy symbols which are not permanent in nature and increases with the level of development . They are more attractive to drawing their attention. Particularly in the form of geometry. While at the level of realism ( 9-12 years) , they produce drawings showing the characteristics of human sex differences . Usually drawn objects based on what they see and not through their observations . Level reasoning about ( 12-14 ) , they come across the actual forms , it is called the transition stage of childhood to adolescence. Their paintings are more to realistic and they more understand the concept . Normally, when a child scribbling, they will be scolded by their parents or their teachers. Adults will always consider what is produced by the children is something that is not useful when they do not know the child is a part of society that deserves attention and encouragement to produce art. When a child scribbling, adults only because it was part of the negative behavior and if not checked, the child will be stuck with doing vandalism but rarely adults looked graffiti is part of the artwork. As an adult and mature, should provide guidance, encouragement and guidance to them and do not restrict what they do but supervise and provide guidance to them. In fact, if the observed carefully, defacing the child is a story derived from their imagination. Art from the children were impact on society. So that, people should be
  • 18. 18 supported and given guidance. their childhood endowed with properties like scribbling and making of art is actually started when they began to make a point and merging point becomes a circle and line in producing various kinds of lines. 2.2 CHILD DEVELOPEMENT RELATED TO MONTESSORI SYSTEM Freedom is a factor that should be given to children. Freedom is also an opportunity for them to do whatever they want. with the freedom given to them is actually easier to develop ideas and learning methods will be easy and organized. Freedom should also be put to good use by parents, teachers and adults to see and evaluate the abilities and talents of children since childhood. What they do is one of the branches in the visual arts should seriously because it will benefit them as they grow older. Based on the book titled “Education and development of infants, toddlers, and preschoolers”, by George S. Morrison (1998). Maria Montessori (1870-1952) developed one of the most widely known programs for teaching young children. These include the concepts of “sensitive periods” for learning, the importance of activity in learning and the role children play in their own education. The Montessori approach offers a broad vision of education as an aid to life. It is designed to help children with their task of inner construction as they grow from childhood to maturity. Montessori education is an educational approach developed by Italian physician and characterized by an emphasis on independence, freedom within limits, and respect for a child’s natural psychological, physical, and social development. The model of Montessori system has two basic principles which is first is children and developing adults engage in psychological self-construction by means of interaction with their environments and second is children, especially under the age of six, have an innate path of psychological
  • 19. 19 development. Based on her observations, Montessori believed that children at liberty to choose and act freely within an environment prepared according to her model would act spontaneously for optimal development. Figure 2.2 : The Montessori System Process Figure 2.2 above shows how the Montessori System process are done in the school. Normally, children will be divide into group to facilitate the flow of the activities. Parents also involve in this programme to make them know how to trained their children at home by using the same system and method.
  • 20. 20 Basically, Montessori education is a model of human development and it is an educational approach based on that model. This model has two basic principles, the first of children and adults with engaging in self psychology dam construction through interaction with their environment. Second is children under six years old must have thought psychological in nature. Based on her experience, Montessori believed that children are free to choose and free to act in the area or the environment that were available. Montessori said, acting on spontaneous activity is good for the development of more optimal. in 1957, Montessori also often see the natural characteristics in human psychology which it identified as "human tendencies toward something." 2.2.1 Basic Features Of The Montessori System Some characteristics and beliefs set Montessori system apart from other programs. It's not that other programs do not accept the basic principles of it to public. They are an important aspect of the Montessori system, and integrated into the program adopted by the followers. In the Montessori approach, the human tendency is seen as a guide behavior in every stage of growth. Education also need to respond to the learning process and find a solution to facilitate their expression. Montessori education method, also known as free activities in an environment that is sensitive and always ready, meaning that it should be a learning environment tailored to basic human characteristics and specific features children where they are divided according to age groups distinct and individual personalities are also different for each function of the child. Based on the psychologist experience, they said the environment is also an important factor for children to do
  • 21. 21 activities independently. Other than that, Montessori also noted that materials appropriate to the age of children is also a main thing to attract them to follow the learning method. Figure 2.2.1 : Basic process of Montessori System Montessori system are only used the three main character in her system which is it start from children itself, and then the children prepared the environment or surrounding to adapt it into their life and from there the process will trained the teacher to teach and practiced the children to do the activities and the circle of this process will be repeat at the other children.
  • 22. 22 2.2.2 Criticism Of the Montessori System As with most things, there are a number of criticism of the Montessori system of art education. Some of these criticism are discussed here and it will be related to the children life when they doing their art making through scribbling. There have a several things that are different between school that practiced the Montessori system compared to school that used the traditional system. The differences will be shown at the table below : Table 2.2.2:The differences between Montessori system and the traditional system.
  • 23. 23 The environment of Montessori system also different from the traditional system environment. These table below shows the difference between the Montessori environment and the environment at the traditional classroom : Table 2.2.2.1 :Difference between the Montessori environment and the environment at the traditional classroom Some of the teacher and parent still confused with the Montessori system that were done at the school and some of them are think just follow the traditional system that prepared by the government. This figure below will show the circle by doing Montessori system.
  • 24. 24 Figure 2.2.2 : Comparison of the traditional system and Montessori system 2.2.3 Applied Montessori System at School Montessori education is a brain-based, developmental method that allows children to make creative choices in discovering people, places and knowledge of the world. It is hands-on learning, self-expression and collaborative play in a beautifully crafted environment of respect, peace and joy. Montessori focuses on children learning and self discovery, and fostering independence is an important part of the philosophy. Montessori education is right for children of any age. The Junior Academy provides levels of learning from infant, toddler and junior level. Each program seeks to support each child's intellectual, physical, emotional and social growth by focusing on areas of development including practical life skills, sensorial, reading & language, mathematics, cultural studies and technology. Introducing our children to Montessori as early as possible puts them on
  • 25. 25 the right path to becoming a confident, self motivated learner. Figure 2.2.3 : Learning Environment In a Montessori environment, children learn by exploring and manipulating specially-designed materials. Children work at their own pace, repeating an exercise until it is mastered. These hands-on learning materials enable the child to literally see and explore abstract concepts. The teacher may gently guide the process, but her goal is to inspire rather than instruct. Throughout the classroom, beautifully prepared, inviting curriculum areas contain a sequentially array of lessons to be learned. As students work through the sequence, they build and expand on the materials and lessons already mastered. The teachers track children progress and hold parent-teacher conferences so parents may see their child's work and hear teacher's assessment.
  • 26. 26 Many school in U.S was do the Montessori activities to their children and normally the they achieve what they want from the children and many parents and teacher too are satisfied with the learning process of Montessori system. In Malaysia, it also be done by the certain private school in town and it is not be applied at the all school in Malaysia. The reasons is this system are not familiar in Malaysia and it also about the cost and the time to make the programme will troublesome few parents who are unable to participate in this program. Figure 2.2.3.1 : Flow of Montessori System Figure above was show the flow of the Montessori system which is it start from learn and understood the process of Montessori system and the program that will be done. After that, used the system and applied that system into the children and student life. Practiced it all the time and repeat again until they conquered the steps by doing it with the real
  • 27. 27 examples and finally the children will love with what they do because they will get the freedom of the activities that they want to apply into their life. 2.3 CHILDREN DEVELOP LIFE SKILLS THROUGH ART ACTIVITIES Art may seem like fun and games but it may not realize that children is actually learning a lot through exploring the arts and doing art activities. Children will gain useful life skills through art, so encourage them to get creative, and there are a several skills to guide them. Mental development of children depends on their lifestyle with family, friends at school teachers. 2.3.1 Communication skills Children never cheated and do not know how to do the act of cheating. What they say is honest and sincere of heart and mind, but not all children are able to express their feelings through speech or conversation. Sometimes, children will paint, sketch or scribble to show what they feel and go through. Drawing may actually be a medium or medium from children to people around me to deliver something. By doing drawing, people can see and understand and know the feeling and behavior of children whether they are happy, sad, angry or dislike something. According to Heater Malin, from the article title “making meaningful : intention for children art making”. She said, through a painting produced by children, it could be a story. they can tell a story based on a painting by one sequence they produce into an interesting story and the adults are not necessarily thought of doing the same thing. A study was done on children who have communication problems on which they placed in a special unit at the Pusat Perubatan Universiti Malaya (PPUM). This kid is a chronic
  • 28. 28 illness such as cancer and drug addiction since the baby which they inherited from their mother's addiction. They are not able to speak. Therefore, the hospital has conducted an activity called 'Art Therapy'. This therapy works as an intermediary in which children can express all their feelings and emotions through drawings based on color selection, production lines and shapes produced and painted patterns. Therefore, scratch that will produce drawings is essential for communication skills for children to develop ideas and minds. Drawing also train them for the ability to communicate to the public and can be a continuous practice until they get older and perhaps this exercise will give a good impression to them if they can continue their studies to a higher level and it will also facilitate their employment in later . 2.3.2 Problem-solving skills When children explore art ideas, they are testing possibilities and working through challenges, much like a scientist who experiments and finds solutions. Art involving both of the left and right brain. Learning art will make up two sides of the brain work to think where the idea is growing but at the same time the child is required to solve the problem. When children started doing the artwork, they are actually faced with challenges and difficulties. From there, they learn to identify problems in the face and think to solve the problem. Through drawing what they have learned, they began to identify objects, lines, colors and shapes. It is the harder things for them to know and understand things is not an easy thing. They also need to apply what they learn to the environment so that it is easier to understand. Drawing also can be a reflection on the part of those children to make a reference and guide. This is because, sometimes children are difficult to describe what they want to convey, but with the pictures, symbols and drawings, they are easy to deliver a message.
  • 29. 29 2.3.3 Social and emotional skills Art helps children come to term with themselves and the control they have over their efforts. The artwork can help children to adjust to their surroundings and the people around them. through art, they began to mingle and talk to each other with each other related artwork that they do. every child is blessed with the advantages and different properties. Therefore, art can bring people to complement and help each other. They will begin to interact and communicate when the session artistic experimentation done in the classroom. From there, we can see the characters and their whims. Children’s emotion can also be identified by drawing that they produce. Emotions that can be identified through the line, the selection of colors and the way they treat the material they saw. For example, in a family portrait, usually they will draw family members closest to them bigger than the other family members who are not quite close to them. Usually the child will express something sincerely and will not cheat. Therefore, understanding and appreciation of them will be more effective by drawing on produce. 2.3.4 Fine motor skills Fine motor skills enable a child do things like delicately turn the page of a book or fill in a sheet of paper with written words. Fine motor skills are movements and actions of the muscles. According to Rathelot JA ( January 2009), he said, these skills involve the movement of the small muscles of the body such as fingers and inner coordination with
  • 30. 30 the eyes. It is more commonly known as manual dexterity used in the theory of human capability. It can also highlight the way people cope with the speed of movement to produce an item. With this art activity, children will train finger movement and dexterity of their eyes in which both members received instructions from the brain to perform an act. This process is very important for the observation of teachers and parents as through the production process of this work, it can assess whether students can perform the job well or not. These skills can also help children create art with more jewelry and they will not take easily to complete the work. 2.4 AESTHETICS AND YOUNG CHILDREN At a very young age, children are quite capable of having an aesthetic experience on their own terms. The terms that they also do not know either the art work are beauty or not or the art valuable or just for fun or their own satisfaction. Aesthetic in art is a very important element in the formation of a work of art. Aesthetic is the main factor for people to assess the work produced. It is also more known to the beauty and perfection of a work. According to Professor Severyn T. Bruyn (2002), Aesthetic beauty is also a principle which is a branch of philosophy where it refers to the nature of art, beauty and taste and appreciate the beauty existing. From scientific terms it is more accurately defined as the study of sensory or emotional value, while some people call sentiment and taste. Some have said that aesthetics as a reflection on art, culture and nature. Often, more specific aesthetic theory with practical implicated where they relate to a particular branch of art, and it is divided into the areas of aesthetics such as art theory, literary theory, film theory and music theory. Theory of art is aesthetic theory as a set of basic principles of work where a particular art movement.
  • 31. 31 Children art activities usually do not understand and do not know about the value of beauty in art. They do art activities just for teacher instruction and usually for what they make is not having a specific purpose. Unlike adult artwork that aims to translate or communicate something to others. Children do not know about the value and beauty found in the art work of they do. According to Schirrmacher (2002), to help develop aesthetic happen, children need exposure to the arts, because in the future they will have to deal with adults or elders to discuss the elements of art and beauty with brilliance. At the level of these children, they have not been exposed yet with beauty and charm of a work of art because they only produce art accordance with the requirements and evaluation of their own eyes without thinking adult guest. In fact, many people overlook to identify and understand the migratory patterns found in children artwork. It is because of their drawings, children make it is to no avail other but just for the drawing only . From the perspective of art and movement ideas, drawing starts with a point and then begins to grow produce line shape and the next chart patterns and finally and ultimately produce a drawing. Although it is not perfect, but it actually has a certain value and beauty of art in the painting may be in the terms of how children develop their ideas. Beauty in art is also a subjective to be judged because everyone has different perceptions and views and assessments to the naked eye of every man is not the same. For example, one thing for some people it's beautiful, but for some others it is not pretty. Therefore each person has a different view of the state of aesthetic value. However, the artwork of children should be given the honor and recognition because they are the future succession.
  • 32. 32 2.5 BENEFIT OF MAKING ART THROUGH SCRIBBLING APPROACH Everything they do must bring those benefits to the user or to others. If not, what was done was useless and a waste of time. Making art using the scribble method has benefits to those involved including the children themselves. It also bring goodness to parents and teachers. 2.5.1 Children Children are naturally loved to scribble can make a useful thing by applying this scribble. This is because if the adults such as teachers and their parents teaching and guiding them to transform from the scribbling into the beautiful drawing, it will help improve their drawing skills. Besides, it is to help children in the process of development of their minds. Through scribbling, the main thing is that they will learn the lines and spaces. Lines could also symbolize mood and emotions at the time. They can learn several types such as straight lines, wavy lines, zig-zag and square lines. They also learn to recognize the right lines either, fine lines, normal lines or thick lines. With a line, they will learn to create a shape and can do the basic geometrical patterns such as triangles, squares, oval and round. These patterns are widely used as symbols in everyday life. It is very helpful for children who are slow to read and write in order to speed up their learning process. 2.5.2 Parents Parents also serve as teachers at home. advantages of the art among the children of parents is to facilitate parents to identify the direction where are their children future later. This is because children tend to doodle in the initial stages of growth. challenges faced by parents when a child scribbling or doing art is parents need to be patient. Parents who have a child who loves to sketch when holding a pen or pencil should guide them to use the equipment properly so that they do not abuse the exact function of the devices. Not all
  • 33. 33 parents through experiences where their children will draw pictures of their family or the surrounding scenery because every child endowed with different abilities and advantages. Sometimes there were a few parents who have not been through such a situation due to their child through sound financial constraints to purchase equipment such as pencils, pens and colored pencils in their time ago. Therefore, what their kids are doing that could possibly be a new experience for parents to express appreciation for the work of art that is made by their children. Tendency of their children to the art will further facilitate the growth process of these children as they should be able to do something useful when they grow up with a sense that the benefits provided for them. 2.5.3 Teacher The advantages of art making among children to teachers is indirect these children can help to improve the school environment to be more cheerful. Teachers do not need to do activities that are difficult to be accepted by students. Teachers can use the skills in the students themselves to create works of art to beautify and invigorate the school. Skills that students will also raise school performance to a higher level. Art students will facilitate teachers in their teaching and learning process. This is because the children will have a better understanding of what will be delivered and teach the teachers, especially in concept to produce a work of art. Other than that, teachers can learn new methods and techniques of children, where students are likely to produce something different and not similar to each other but still in the learning syllabus. From there, teachers can develop their ideas and creativity to another student. This is because there are times when some children may think much further than other children because of the imagination of the birth of their minds have different levels.
  • 34. 34 2.6 CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK This conceptual framework is adapted from Margaret Stott (1987) which is she was has utilized a three-stage strategy for analyzing objects. According to Stott (1987), she said that there are; “three different but important dimensions to that learning experience, no matter what level of student and no matter what the artifact being considered” (p. 14). The conceptual framework for this study is shown in figure 2.6 and it illustrates how the variables used in this study which is making art by scribbling method are related with learning process and child development. According to Miles & Huberman (1994 in Jabareen, 2009) a conceptual framework is such a lays out of key factors, constructs or variables, and presume relationships among them”. These “dimensions” are stands for three main point which is the object itself, the context of the object, the process of the object’s manufacture and use. Figure 2.6 : Conceptual Frame work. Figure 2.6 : Conceptual Framework Psychomotor Environmental and surrounding Art making Children Identify Used Influences Affects
  • 35. 35 In this study, children development towards psychomotor would affect student’s academic learning process will be investigate in depth. These variables will perceive the literal role of a study on using scribbling methods in teaching art among children. As shown as in figure 2.6, the use of psychomotor from children will be identify by them to study about learning the environment which is it includes the nature, floral and fauna. That environment aspect will make children near to nature and it will make easier for them to understand it. Surrounding is also will influence the student to making art. It is because children will do what that they see and learn from that experience. These factor will affect the students either in positive or negative way. Thus, this study will investigate the study of using scribbling method in teaching art are useful to student or not. In this study, the use of scribbling method is believed to give impact on teaching arts and learning process. The integration of this method will determine either the student can get the good impact or not.
  • 36. 36 CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3.1 INTRODUCTION This chapter will discuss the following ; research design, population and sample, instrumentation, pilot study, data collection and data analysis plan. 3.2 RESEARCH DESIGN This research will used quantitative approach. This study employed an experimental research. The design was meant to gauge whether the children creativity drawing methods can help in improving their academic learning. To investigate the effects of using the scribble activity to the children in their academic learning. To illustrate how the scribble method helps to improve the performance of children learning. To create a sense of appreciation of the artwork done by the children in the learning process. Students or children from private school and public school around seksyen 7 Shah Alam and student or children from rural school in Sekolah Kebangsaan Sungai Koyan, Pahang have been chosen as the samples for this study. The observation and interview to the samples will used as the instrument in the research to gather the data needed. According to Atkinson, P. (1975) from the article title “Frontiers of Classroom Research”. Observational techniques is most of the important aspect for many action research studies and of case studies whether it is controlled by participants or other people which is outsider. It is also known with the social research technique which is that was involves the direct observation from the phenomena in their natural setting.
  • 37. 37 3.2 Population Sampling The population for this study will be all the kindergarten student in public school and private school in town and also public school in rural area. As cited from Neuman (2003), subject selection is refer to the criteria and standard that used for the person who was determine of the experiment that include of subject in research protocol. This study used probability sampling procedures to choose respondents. Probability sampling is the sampling technique which is the sample will be randomly selection (William M.K,2006). Instead, probability sampling is a process where the sample involve was have a chance for being selected. According to Willian M.K (2006), In order to have a random selection method, researcher must set up a little process or procedure that have the different units in researcher population and also have an equal probabilities of being chosen. People were practiced the various forms of random selection, as an example, pick a name out of a bowl, or choosing the most exited people. The method used was stratified random sampling. It also known as proportional random sampling which means it is a probability sampling technique wherein the data will be classified and collected by age, gender, socioeconomically or status ; whereby for this research, the researcher will select the respondent that refer a group of gender and age. Then, researcher will choose randomly from the group that was selected. It is also preferred over simple random sampling because this method usually will get a more accurate result and satisfactory researchers. This sampling technique is chosen as the alternative of this study to investigate on the studying by using scribbling methods in teaching art. All the respondents consist of students from various school around Shah Alam and one school at Pahang. The sample size for this study are 18 respondent for the observation in classroom and 9 respondent for the interview session.
  • 38. 38 3.3 Instrumentation The instrument used for data collection in this study is observation. The observation is developed by researcher in order to analyze of using scribbling methods in teaching art. For the purpose of this study, the rubric will help researcher to measure either respondent will achieve the criteria by using scribbling method in teaching art or not. Besides that, this study is also will use interview as an instrumentation for data collection. The interview will be done by the teachers instead of art teacher principal or art teacher. Table 3.3.1 : Description of the question for the observation Sections Description Number of item Section A : Participation This section carries the participation of the student in order to fulfill the researcher requirement. Participation from the children is one of the aspect to observed either children are interested or not to wear the uniform. 5 items : Rubric : No 1-5 Section B : Communication This section consist of several things that are related to interaction between the selected children and teacher. These criteria will help researcher to identify whether the child will communicate to the teacher while using uniform or not. 5 items : Rubric : No 1-5 Section C : Psychomotor This section will help researcher to identify the level of children skill by using the scribbling method. This section will show either the children psychomotor are active or just in the normal stage. 5 items : Rubric : No 1-5 Section D : Comfortable By using the uniform that provided by researcher, children will be observed either they are comfortable or not wearing the uniform and it also will see either they can do the activity on the uniform or not. 5 items : Rubric : No 1-5
  • 39. 39 These element is the element of the observation session by researcher. It will be done by children. It will be choose in order to get the result and make conclusion either using scribbling methods in teaching art among children can be apply to the children or not suitable to be a part of the method in teaching art. The data for the 18 respondent were collected from the school was selected. Table 3.3.2: Description of the question for the Interview Sections Descriptions Number of items : Section A : Important of art This section carries the general criteria on the important of art among children. Data from respondent such as : the important of art in education, is it art subject is important in school will be noted. 5 items : Rubric : No 1-5 Section B : Child development This section consist of the development of children by doing art. The opinion from the teacher will be noted to be a reference by researcher. The reflection from teacher will be refer to the question number 3 at the research objective. 3 items : Rubric : NO 1-3 Section C : Child needed This section will show the needed of children in school. What children needs in art also will be one of the important aspect in this session because from there, researcher will know the weaknesses and the strength of art subject in school. 5 items : Rubric : No 1-5 Section D : Environment of study By refer to the question number 3 at the research objective, teacher will tell the environment of the study at the school especially in the classroom. The activity and approach that using by teacher also will be noted. 5 items : Rubric : No 1-5 Section E : Improvement While section B and C focused on the development and needed of children in art education, this final section emphasized on how teacher and adult include parent improve the children thinking on art and education. It also include the way of important in learning process by scribbling approach among children. 5 items : Rubric : No 1-5
  • 40. 40 These element of interview session were choose in order to collect the data in terms of interview to the teachers that teaching art or teachers not teaching art and the interview to the principle of that school about their opinion and suggestion based on the criteria that will ask from researcher. 3.4 Data Collection The respondents of this observation are children from sekolah kebangsaan seksyen 7, Little Caliph kindergarten, seksyen 7 Shah Alam and Sekolah Kebangsaan Sungai Koyan, Pahang. Before the respondents will be observed, there will be a short briefing and explanation on the procedures to the teacher and student that involved. The briefing is about the explanation on the research objective and what and the purpose by doing observation, it took about five minutes of the explanation. The observation will be doing on weekdays during school session and the interview will be doing during class session or lunch break. The time needed to complete all the criteria is around 30 minutes to 60 minutes for the observation and 10 minutes to 20 minutes for the interview session. The survey process was monitored by the researcher itself. This was to ensure the feedback given by the respondents have an originality emotion and result and any inquiries or problem faced by the respondents during the survey could be attend. The result will be known after the observation to respondents and will be collected after interview session. The data collection was as follow :
  • 41. 41 Design for the observation and interview : There are 4 area or features for the observation session which is Section A : Participation, Section B : Communication, Section C : Psychomotor and Section D : Comfortable. It also have a 5 section of features for the interview session. It consist of Section A : the important of art, Section B : Child development, Section C : Child needed, Section D : Environment of study and section E : Improvement. Sample selection: The respondent of this observation is among the children from the selected school by researcher and the respondent of the interview session is the teacher or principal at the same school. About 18 respondent from children and 9 respondent from the teachers involved in this research. Fieldwork : Researcher will go to the three different schools: First, Sekolah Kebangsaan Seksyen 7 Shah Alam. Second, Little Caliph Private Kindergarten,Seksyen 7 Shah alam. Third, Sekolah Kebangsaan Sungai Koyan, Raub Pahang. Observation: The observation is distributed on weekdays during school session in classroom.
  • 42. 42 Time taken : The time need to complete the observation is around 30 to 60 minutes. Time taken : The time need to complete the interview is around 10 to 20 minutes. Interview distribution: The interview session will be doing on weekdays during class session or lunch break. Observation & interview process: The survey process was monitored by the researcher itself. This was to ensure the feedback given by the respondents have an originality emotion and result and any inquiries or problem faced by the respondents during the survey could be attend.
  • 43. 43 3.5 Data Analysis All the data obtained from the observation result and interview session that were collected and analyzed to provide answer to these four research questions for the study. In order to analyze and interpret the data, the software of statistical Package for Social Science version 20.0 was used. According to Information Technology Service (2012), SPSS is an analysis invention for data management. In this system software, the data will be key in to the format that given and descriptive statistics is used in order to analyze and interpret the data and information gathered. Research Objective Research Instrument Analysis i) To gauge whether the children creativity drawing methods can help in improving their academic learning. Observation Using rubric : 1)Question 4 in Section A 2)Question 3 & question 4 Section B 3)All of Section C ii ) To investigate the effects of using the scribble activity to the children in their academic learning. Observation Using rubric : 1) Question 5 Section A 2) All question in section C 3) All question in section D Data Collection: The result will be known after the observation to respondents and will be collected after interview session.
  • 44. 44 Table 3.5 : Summary of Data Analysis Thus, by using SPSS version 20.0 software, a descriptive statistics about all items were analyzed. For the observation session, the researcher will scale the criteria into 5 scale which is from the lowest to the highest. Meanwhile, for the interview session the researcher will analyzed and categorized the answer into the different group which are multiple choice answer, yes or no and the opinion from the teacher and principle. After researcher determine the data whether they are positive or negative inclined or good or bad feedback, then the data will keyed in and analyzed. Simple chart representation for these observation and the interview session to show the response from the study that have been done by researcher. iii) To illustrate how the scribble method helps to improve the performance of children learning. Interview Content Analysis 1) All question in section A 2) Question 1 in section B 3) Question 4 in section D 4) Question 1 & question 3 in section E iv) To create a sense of appreciation of the artwork done by the children in the learning process. Observation Using rubric : 1) Question 1 & question 5 in section A 2) Question 4 & question 5 section C
  • 45. 45 List of references Art Education Why have Art Education.html http://www.scribbleskidsart.com/generic.html?pid=162 http://www.pcah.gov/gaa/profiles.html Anning. A & Ring, K ( 2004). Making sense of Children’s drawings, Maidenhead: Open University Press Bremner,J.G (1999) Children’s drawings and the evolution of art, in A Lock & C.R Peters (Eds), Handbook of Human symbolic Evolution. Bruner,J (1990) Acts of Meaning. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press Cox,M (2005) The pictorial World of the Child. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. David L. Brunsma (unknown). Educational research, University of Alabama. Ellen Booth Church, March (2005). Learning from children’s art and writing. Scholastic childhood today. Freedman, Kerry, Winter (2007). Art making/troublemaking : Creativity, Policy, and leadership in Art education. Studies in Art education, Art & Humanities, Northern Illinois University. Frank Cizek (1890). Child Art. Primary sense of Children. Franciscono,M(1998) Paul Klee and children’s art, in J. Fineberg (Ed) Discovering child art. George S.Morrison (1988). Education and Development of Infants, Toddlers, and Preschoolers. Florida International University. Gude, Olivia November (2009). Art education for Democratic Life. Art education, Art & Humanities Full Text. Gardner, H, (1982) Art, Mind, and brain. New York : Basic Books
  • 46. 46 Golomb, C. (1999) Art and the young : the many faces of representation, visual arts research. Heather Malin, December (2008). Making meaning : Children’s art making as a way of learning. A dissertation submitted to the school of education and the committee on graduate studies of Stanford university in partial fulfillment of the degree of doctor of philosophy. Heather Malin (2013). Making meaningful: Intention in Children’s Art Making. Blackwell Publishing Ltd J-J. Rousseau (1712-78), J.H Pestalozzi (1746-1827). Agenda of art education for children. John Ruskin (1819-1900). Importance of art in child development. Stage of children art. Katherina Danko-Mcghee May (2006). Nurturing Aesthetic Awareness in young children : Developmentally Appropriate Art Viewing Experiences. Lowenfeld, V (1947) Creative and Mental Growth, New York : Macmillan Marissa McClure (2011). Pendejo!Preschool Play : Why children Make art. The journal of social theory in art education, 31, University of Arizona Meriam Webster Dictionary (2013). Undergraduate. Retrieve from http://www.meriam-webster.com/dictionary/undergraduate. NSW Department of Education (1989). Visual arts: syllabus and support standards. Sydney, Australia.
  • 47. 47 Olin Levi Warner(1896). Imagination, Library of congress Thomas Jefferson Building, Washington D.C Pariser, D (1997) The mind of the beholder : some provisional doubts about the U-curve aesthetic development thesis, Studies in art education. Rose, S.E, Jolley, R.P.& Burkitt, E (2006) A review of children’s, teachers’ and parents’ influences on children’s drawing experience. International Journal of Art & Design Education. Sime Mary (1973). A child’s eye view. Harper & Row, Publisher. Thames and Hudson Ltd Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia- Art, May (2014)
  • 48. 48 APPENDIX A FACULTY OF EDUCATION MASTER OF EDUCATION IN VISUAL ART Dear respondent, I am Nurul Syafiqah bt Md Amin (UiTM Student ID No : 2013554763) from the Faculty of Education, INTEC, UiTM Shah Alam. Currently, i am pursuing a master program in Master of Education in Visual Art. As a requirement for my EDU 702. I am conducting a survey on “ A study on using scribbles methods in teaching art for children”. Therefore, i need your sincere cooperation to complete this experimentation by using the observation and interview session. Thank you for participating in my research. I would appreciate if you could spend a few minutes of your time to complete my research. The data collected from this research will be used for academic and research purpose only. Your participation is completely voluntary and information will kept strictly confidential. Your time and cooperation is much appreciated. Thank you very much. Researcher, (Nurul Syafiqah bt Md Amin)
  • 49. 49 Appendix A Direction : Rate the level of children behavior for the selected student in the classroom using the scale from 1 to 5 which is 1 is represents lowest level (1 = lowest) and 5 represents highest level (5 = highest) Name : Gender : M/F Date : Area / Features Level of Behavior demonstrated by children. Participation Lowest Highest Children listen attentively and give full commitment to the teacher throughout the lesson. 1 2 3 4 5 Children follow the instruction from the teacher. 1 2 3 4 5 Children use knowledge learn from the teacher to carry out task given by teacher successfully and correctly. 1 2 3 4 5 Children follow the step of activity by using the uniform. 1 2 3 4 5 Children are exited to do the activity given. 1 2 3 4 5 Communication Children response frequently to teacher’s instruction and expand interaction with peers. 1 2 3 4 5 Children able to answer questions verbally shown or asked by teacher by referring to the lesson learn earlier. 1 2 3 4 5 Children frequently asks questions for understanding and contributes ideas or comment. 1 2 3 4 5
  • 50. 50 Children give the frequently feedback while using the uniform. 1 2 3 4 5 Children tell the teacher if anything happen to the uniform. 1 2 3 4 5 Psychomotor Children draw on the surface that was prepared. 1 2 3 4 5 Children do the mathematics activity on the surface that was prepared. 1 2 3 4 5 Children do the same thing at the surface of uniform and on the whiteboard. 1 2 3 4 5 Children know the uniform can be scribble if they are not wearing it. 1 2 3 4 5 Children will do the activity on the certain surface of uniform. 1 2 3 4 5 Comfortableness Children are comfort with the material or fabric of uniform. 1 2 3 4 5 Children like the colour of uniform. 1 2 3 4 5 Children easy to make a movement while using the uniform. 1 2 3 4 5 Children easy to do the activity on the surface of uniform. 1 2 3 4 5 Children can handle the uniform that have 3 pieces of it. 1 2 3 4 5
  • 51. 51
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  • 53. 53 Appendix B Interview Session to the Teachers. SECTION A : IMPORTANT OF ART 1. Why art is important to the children? 2. Art is one of the subject that can give an opportunity in work sector for children future. Is it true? 3. How the children feedback when teacher want to make an art activity? 4. How to make children interested to making art? 5. What is the activity that can express children feeling? SECTION B : CHILD DEVELOPMENT 1. How to help the children development for learning process? 2. Who is children will be refer when they want to doing art? 3. Why children want to explore something if they want to know the result. SECTION C : CHILD NEEDED 1. Is it art kits are provided in this school? 2. How teacher identify the weaknesses of children?
  • 54. 54 3. How teachers provide what is needed by the students? 4. How teacher controls the behavior of the children if teacher does not give what they want at school? 5. What are the things that will be implemented to meet the needs of learners? SECTION D : ENVIRONMENT OF STUDY 1. Whether teachers provide hygiene activities in schools? 2. How teacher determine children are comfortable or not having in school area? 3. Is it the children will always in class with the other friends? 4. Whether learning methods used by teachers in the classroom is effective or not for students? 5. Is it teacher have a question and answer session while learning process in classroom?

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