Art is beautiful, art is also a subjective thing which is very difficult to interpret. Everything
that we see and make is a branch of art in the face of this earth. All people love the
beautiful and wonderful things but not all things that look beautiful in the eyes of someone
that would look good even in the eyes of others because each person has a different
perception and outlook on art.
Indirectly they acknowledged that to produce a product of art, talent, ability and
appreciation and understanding of paramount importance. Ability is something that can
be learned and in shape while talent is something that stands on its own as a result of
donations from God. Both are closely intertwined in the production of a product of art that
has a high aesthetic value.
Art is difficult to defined as same as people are difficult to value every human being to
choose his own way to define, still could be said that art is a medium of the selection
process and the result, a value that determines what is right is reflected through the
medium to convey whether the beliefs, ideas , taste, feeling is the most effective form of
medium that want to used. Nowadays, art is an expression of human creativity which is
that is the most widely known and regarded as the benefits of human creativity. Though, it
is difficult to define art because of every human being has its own rules and restrictions
for each of their works.
According to Herbert Read (the meaning of arts book), art is a way of giving rise to the
production of happiness, enjoyment and aesthetic beauty which is art is an expression.
Aesthetic value here, is referring to the concept of pleasure resulting from the impact of
the appreciation of the beauty of the visual arts. Satisfaction and enjoyment as well as the
difficulties and joys are also included in this beauty.
Art is one thing that is free to do. There is no requirement or rule set. anyone can and is
entitled to do art includes org adults, people who are elderly and children. No matter who
they are, whatever their job, if they have the talent and passion, of course they can give
ideas and produce good art. According to Aristotle, art is imitation of nature but nature
should be ideal. He mention that the resulting artwork is mainly due to human nature and
the universe as a reference to raise the elements of beauty in art.
This study focused on the visual arts in which many things can be manipulated in the
visual arts. Visual arts are art forms that produce a variety of works, including ceramics,
painting, sculpture, printmaking, photography, graphic design, fashion design and fine art.
All forms of visual art to be learned from the beginning and those who wish to deepen way
of art must have a foundation in the visual arts.
To learn the art, people can develop aesthetic values such as imagination, creativity,
critical thinking, innovative and inventive. Art also can make people appreciate the beauty
of the environment, national heritage and contribute to the development of self, family,
community and country. Art also able to integrate the components to complete the
construction of the right brain and left brain. Therefore, it can propel the development as a
whole in terms of physical, emotional, intellectual and spiritual place.
According to The British Academy (June 2014), they realize that art is increasingly
affecting the world. anywhere in the art can be seen and produce. People can not restrict
the freedom of expression because it is a unique and can not be produced by everyone.
As in Malaysia, street art was quite easy to be found on the walls of buildings. His art is
taking steps to make this art as a resource to show her appreciation for what they have
1.1- BACKGROUND OF STUDY
This study is more geared to making art produced by children. Very important for children
to learn and master the art since childhood because of their small can in the form of
master talent in them. Various aspects and interests can be found in the teaching of
visual arts to children. Among these are the cognitive aspects of visual arts activity in
which an organized and planned to produce a child who has the ability to solve problems
and be able to evaluate and make wise decisions. Physical aspects of the design was to
provide effective training to the hand muscles and coordination psychomotor hands
immediately with the help of the use of tools and materials. Besides, creativity was a
training project that was open. It helps students to develop their creativity. This activity
has favored process than the end result. Children are born with the different intelligent so,
it is not fair if people judge children that interested in art and have a skill are not have a
future. The opportunities must be given to them to prove it.
According to Howard Gardner (1991), he said "we are all able to know the world through
language, logical-mathematical analysis, spatial representation, musical thinking, the use
of the body to solve problems or to make things, an understanding of other individuals,
and an understanding of ourselves. Where individuals differ is in the strength of these
intelligences - the so-called profile of intelligences -and in the ways in which such
intelligences are invoked and combined to carry out different tasks, solve diverse
problems, and progress in various domains." Gardner says that these differences
"challenge an educational system that assumes that everyone can learn the same
materials in the same way and that a uniform, universal measure suffices to test student
learning. Indeed, as currently constituted, our educational system is heavily biased
toward linguistic modes of instruction and assessment and, to a somewhat lesser degree,
toward logical-quantitative modes as well."
From the point of view perception, students can use the human sense to enhance and
sharpen the senses through the making of art, the product objects that are around them.
While, the social and economic aspects, the students can interact and enhance the ability
to socialize but to raise their self-confidence.
This study is to generate the minds of children so that they are free to create artwork
without restricted or prohibited by adults. At the same time the study also aims to nurture
them appreciate art in a way that they lead visual arts activity in the right place. This
method can be applied in pre-school teachers and primary school teachers so that they
are trained to be given the freedom of artistic activity among children. More correctly, the
teacher can not say "no" or "wrong" in any paintings but should provide guidance or
contribute ideas on the child.
In addition, the production of which is devoted to subjects uniform PSV among children in
elementary school can nurture and train them not to doodle all over the place . Indirectly ,
they also will learn things faster. This is because they can practice what they learn in the
classroom can be applied in a uniform that they wear. Indirectly , thinking they can grow
and learning process will become more attractive as scribbling shirt itself is not uncommon
things they do. Not only that, but they can also wipe it after the strike through . Teachers
will serve as mentors, it is because the teacher will show examples using a uniform and
told it should be divided and can not strike through . Here , teachers or counselors play an
important role in educating them or discipline yourself not to scribble in place that should
not be .
1.2- PROBLEM OF THE STATEMENT
Children who love to scribble is regarded as a negative act. Actual act of defacing the
initial process of children learning to write and draw. Often begins with a sketch of one
regarded as scribble as a symbol produced in the form of a line that does not give
meaning to adults. Producing scribble sketch as a base line of children learning to write
and draw. Children learn to be skillful from the gross psychomotor to be adjusted with fine
psychomotor. Besides that, the adults need to know that defacing stimulate children
creativity. Most adults would get angry and yell when walls, floors and furniture in their
homes smeared by their children.
However, if a child scribbling, parents and adults to be patient as they actually are their
talents and creativity. Traditionally, children aged 2 to 3 years are most fond of scribbling.
When they found a pencil, pen, colored pencils, markers and so they will continue
smudging no matter anywhere.
Scribble is a normal problem for children in the growth process. Why kids scribble? invent
them want to communicate? many studies have been conducted to determine the ability
of the child. Activities drawing or scribbling on paper as a form of activity that is in use by
scientists, educators and parents to delve ibid feelings and thoughts of children.
Sketching and scribbling activities are the activities that help children recognize an object
other than help improve their environmental sensitivity. Drawing process geared towards
sensory observations of the object train the children to become more aware and increase
The study of artistic development of many children to ensure a growth since the child
thought of the 19th century. According to Light and Barnes (2003), the earliest studies on
the artistic development of children ever recorded was in 1887. Corrado Ricci the Italian
was produce writing in a book entitled The Art of the Little Children are study some
children drawings. In 1910, further expansion children continued by Clara and William
Stern in Germany who published a study on the drawings produced by a boy from the
children aged 4 to 7 years. In 1913 in France, Georges-Henri Luquet has published 1,500
cataloged pieces of paintings by his daughter, painted at the age of 3 to 8 years. All
studies and publications produced on the early development of children artistic still be
reference point for the study of the artistic development of children at the time of right
now. Normally, for an adult, a painting is often associated with beauty and perfection, but
for a child it is an expression and expressive (Lowenfeld, 1975).
Every child has different abilities, then a child's learning is by its own level. In addition,
children learning also occurs through observation and imitation of others from what they
see and hear. Children drew what they saw, and they also draw things that interest them.
1.3- RESEARCH OBJECTIVES
This research objectives of this study are:
I) To gauge whether the children creativity drawing methods can help in improving
their academic learning.
II) To investigate the effects of using the scribble activity to the children in their
III) To illustrate how the scribble method helps to improve the performance of children
IV) To create a sense of appreciation of the artwork done by the children in the learning
1.4- RESEARCH QUESTION
This research question of this study are :
I) Do scribble method be able to help the creativity of children in improving their
II) What is the effect of using the scribble to children in their academic learning?
III) How scribbling method help improve learning performance of children?
IV) What are the level of appreciation of students towards their arts works?
There is no significance difference in students artwork after they learn about Scribble
There is no significance difference in students freedom in making arts after they learn
1.6- OPERATIONAL DEFINATION
In this study there are some things that need to be identified and definitions that describe
the project to be produced can be done well and the goals that we want is clear.
Therefore the definition is to focus on is the definition of the term scribble, uniform,
imagination and psychomotor.
Scribble is a drawing composed of random and abstract lines, generally without ever
lifting the drawing device off the paper. According to Meriam Webster (2013), scribbling is
usually done by children because they are often motivated by environmental conditions
that respond to the eyes and hands. Lower development of thinking skills will cause them
to be passive and less to do scribbles like other children. Adults also do scribbling, but
adults’s scribble are more to the shape of painting in which objects appear clear stain to
illustrate a story. Scribbling can also refer to a random drawing to produce designs. The
scribbling in produce children usually more focused on the lines, shapes such as circle
and square shapes. Actually scribble and doodling are the similar thing and action but
there are different types of producing both of it. Scribble are normally doing by children
while doodling are usually doing by adults. For the purpose of this study, scribble are refer
to natural act of a child which fosters their minds and scribbling in this study also refers to
the art of children activities that could lead them to be more eager to learn and go to
1.6.2- School Uniform
A school uniform is an outfit a set of standardized clothes worn primarily for an educational
institution. They are common in primary and secondary schools in various countries.
When used, they form the basis of a school's dress code. A study published in The Journal
of Educational Research by David L. Brunsma, of the University of Alabama, and Kerry A.
Rockquemore, of the University of Notre Dame,states:
"The findings indicate that student uniforms have no direct effect on substance use,
behavioral problems, or attendance. A negative effect of uniforms on student academic
achievement was found”. In this research school uniform is refer to the object that will be
the experimental materials to implement the learning process using the scribble method in
the teaching of art.
Imagination, also called the faculty of imagining, is the ability to form new images and
sensations that are not perceived through senses such as sight, hearing, or other senses.
Imagination helps make knowledge applicable in solving problems and is fundamental to
integrating experience and the learning process. A basic training for imagination is
listening to storytelling (narrative), in which the exactness of the chosen words is the
fundamental factor to "evoke worlds".
Imagination can also be expressed through stories such as fairy tales or fantasies.
Children often use such narratives and pretend play in order to exercise their
imaginations. When children develop fantasy they play at two levels: first, they use role
playing to act out what they have developed with their imagination, and at the second level
they play again with their make-believe situation by acting as if what they have developed
is an actual reality that already exists in narrative myth. For the purpose of this study,
imagination is refer to the way of child thinking to get an idea as they usually imagine
to produce an item or imagine to be like what they see whether it is reality or not. It
is also one of the method to produce art in which the imagination is an easy and fun for
1.6.4 Psychomotor Learning
Psychomotor learning is the relationship between cognitive functions and physical
movement. Psychomotor is a development of physical skills and muscles to produce an
act. Psychomotor also refers to behavior in relation to the brain where the brain needs to
think more good things to come. From there the act and the resulting movement to work
to implement what has been processed by the brain. Unrestricted movement will produce
a good effect if it is executed properly, but it would be detrimental if the implementation is
not done seriously. According to Random House Kernerman Webster’s College
Dictionary (2010), psychomotor is related to characterizing movements of the body
associated with mental activity. In this research, psychomotor is refer to the movement of
children’s art making development which is the researcher want to look the children ability
to use their hands and body movement to create art whether they are active or static. In
addition, the researchers also wanted to see if the child is likely to do art with all
psychomotor available to them or not.
1.7- LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The first limitation is the respondents of this study. The respondents is only limited to the
pre-school students or private kindergarten. Girl and boy will be doing this experiment
with the different design of uniform. Primary school from standard 1 until standard 3 also
includes in this study and maybe affected differently when using this uniform and maybe
they will give the different feed back while wearing the uniform because they start to think
far away compared to the pre school student and kindergarten student. As example,
student from standard 3 will follow the instruction from the teacher perfectly and doing this
experiment properly but some of the kindergarten student and pre school student can not
follow the process of doing doodling by using the uniform with good attitude.
The second limitation of this study is the sample size in the study is not a good sample
size. The sample size of this study is too small. The sample size is only limited to 18
respondents consists of children from private school and public school around Shah Alam
and it also 9 respondents of children from rural school at Pahang. The sample size is too
small in order to know response from the other school . The sample size must be big
enough in order to make a conclusion on how far the uniform are functional for them.
Thus is it that uniform needed in learning process at school as a school uniform.
The third limitation is the place that this study will conducted. This study were only made
up of pre-school student, private kindergarten and private primary school. Thus the
sample cannot be the representative of the rest of the population. Student from other
school such as public primary school around town area and public primary school around
rural area, might show the different results from the private kindergarten and private
primary school. Furthermore, the study only focused on doodling method for children age
3 years old until 9 years old. Because of this study is only conducted for private
kindergarten and private primary school in town, the result is not precise enough to
conclude how this uniform will be function and in the other way it is to help children
learning something to making art. Thus, it can help in improving their academic learning
and affects their academic learning process. Conclusion can only be made for students
from other school also has be include in order to have solid result regarding to the
experiment by wearing the uniform. Therefore, the result can be used as a reference if the
other school are interested to try and used that uniform.
Besides that, the distribution of the sample is also one of the problems. Since the
researcher uses non-random sampling which is the purposive sampling, the samples do
not have equal chances of being selected. For example, the sample of urban students
should be more to included in this sample compared to students from rural areas,
especially private schools. This is because the probability of them to produce scribbling is
greater than students in urban from public schools and students in rural areas.
1.8- SIGNIFICANT OF THE STUDY
Firstly, the study of the approachable by scribbling method among children is to identify
whether children will accept and can follow the instruction from the teacher or not.
Besides that, this study want to prove to the parents and adult that children’s art work is
meaningful and they can making art at anywhere they want without damage the surface
and place. At the other way, this study want to invite adults appreciate the children’s
artwork. If this study was proven, thus teachers will apply these uniform at school during
their learning process and it will benefit to all of them. Furthermore, it is very crucial to
identify whether this uniform can help in improving student’s learning process by
scribbling methods through the uniform.
In addition, this study tends to determine how the uniform are functional among the
children and how far the children receipt the uniform to be adapt into their learning
process in a way to make them have a discipline in art making. The study will assist the
student to identify the important about making art in school and why must they interested
to learn about art by scribbling method. For example, children that always scribble on the
surface at their uniform when they see it has a place for them to scribble. From there, it
will show the skills of that children. Therefore, it is necessary for children that want to
draw or scribble something on there.
Moreover, the study of the approachable by scribbling methods among children will help
student in other subject not only in art but sometimes they will made a calculation on that
surface like counting number one until ten or ‘1 + 1 = 2’. They also will learn to know the
letter of alphabet when they start to write ‘A,B,C’ until ‘z’ and spell the subject like ‘A for
Apple’ and they will draw the shape of apple with their own imagination. The study tends
to investigate whether the usage of uniform are comfort or not and is it that uniform are
function or not among student in the class during the learning process. For example, the
student were have fun while learning art and other subject by wearing the uniform
because they will make something different on their own uniform and they will wipe it after
they wrote on the surface that can be write or scribbles, or in other case they are not
comfort to doing art on their uniform because they worry that their parents or teacher will
scold them because they not really know how the uniform are function. As a result, it is
very important to identify either they will accept and exited to wearing the uniform for their
learning process in class or they do not want to wear it.
Importance of this study is because they want to see and test the skills and abilities of the
children to listen and follow directions in which they will be given instructions not to doodle
everywhere and where they should be . Besides, they also will be educated and trained to
use the space provided to facilitate scribbling activity . This study is to guide and
discipline them in the beginning so as not to acquaint themselves scrawled everywhere or
places they should not. Therefore, this study provides an alternative to the child can still
be scribbling , but in the meantime they are educated to not get caught up with cultural
vandalism . Usually the child will easily hear the instructions of teachers , if they are
trained to do like that since childhood . Indirectly , their learning will be more fun and
boring as they are free to express what is in their minds.
This study will explore the approachable by scribbling methods among children. The main
objectives of this chapter is to study and explore the instincts of children about their
feelings, their real life and the cause that drives them to do scribbling. This is followed by
deeper discussion on some main points that related to this study. Actually, children thrive
when they participate in the arts, yet the arts are in a dismal state in the schools today.
The concept “back to basic” should be in corporate in school if they want to turn back the
atmosphere of cheerful and positive actions towards art among children. Yet, these are
also the children in disadvantage social circumstances, who need the capacity to imagine
new possibilities for their lives.
This study pursued based on children’s perceptions and responses to art making activity,
the thinking and learning that occurs in children’s art making by doodling approach. To do
this, the framed of the study with theory that explains art making as a way of learning and
then used ethnographic methods in order to look at art making from the children. Based
on the book that i refer to Montessori system is one of the way that created the activity to
make children feel freely and happy to do what they want to do.
In this study, art making emerged as a way of learning in two important ways. First,
children were found to be engaging in ways of thinking that are needed when learning is
a process of creating new knowledge, finding innovative solutions to problems and
continuing to learn beyond the classroom. Second, art making was an activity in which
children negotiated between the culture of school and the adult art world and in the
process developed a practice in which they acted as full participants. In classroom, they
shaped the art making practice and transform it info and activity that was both meaningful
and it is away for them to make meaning from the doodling methods.
2.1 STAGE OF CHILD ART
Children naturally love art. most of them have a dynamic nature and it evolve naturally
through the process of growing up. Art is one way kids think and express their hopes for
adults. artwork produced by children serves as a communication tool and a reflection of
their thinking. According to Koster (2001), this reflection will be develope with the child
until it grows.
Children absolutely like to imagine about what they think. child's imagination can help
them to learn. According to Albert Einstein, imagination is more important than
knowledge. Children that used their imagination into their real live will solve their problem
in art through what they think. Children create works that reveal images into individual
expression. Art that they produce is not necessarily going to be as adults see or expect
but what children produce is coming from what they are imagining in their little eyes.
According to Lowenfeld, existing knowledge of children may be associated with the
development of the child. Lowenfeld specifies children's drawings are divided into 6 parts,
scribble where it occurs while children aged 2 to 4 years, then was Pre schematic (4-7
years), after that,Schematics (7-9 years), then Realism (9 -12 years), reasoning (12-14
years) and the last stage is the stage of adolescence (14-17 years).
Development of children art began when they were aged 2-4 years where they have
already started to scribble in places like walls, floors and furniture . Scribbling is divided
into three categories: non-controlling scribbling , scribbling with control and scribbling
control means . Child scribbling on any material or device on any surface. Drawings they
produce does not reflect the image and how to hold the instrument properly .
At the pre schematic (4-7 years) , children who are drawing shapes such as images
confines humans, plants and food . Furthermore schematic level ( 7-9 years) , they
produced many paintings using telepathy symbols which are not permanent in nature and
increases with the level of development . They are more attractive to drawing their
Particularly in the form of geometry. While at the level of realism ( 9-12 years) , they
produce drawings showing the characteristics of human sex differences . Usually drawn
objects based on what they see and not through their observations . Level reasoning
about ( 12-14 ) , they come across the actual forms , it is called the transition stage of
childhood to adolescence. Their paintings are more to realistic and they more understand
the concept .
Normally, when a child scribbling, they will be scolded by their parents or their teachers.
Adults will always consider what is produced by the children is something that is not
useful when they do not know the child is a part of society that deserves attention and
encouragement to produce art. When a child scribbling, adults only because it was part of
the negative behavior and if not checked, the child will be stuck with doing vandalism but
rarely adults looked graffiti is part of the artwork. As an adult and mature, should provide
guidance, encouragement and guidance to them and do not restrict what they do but
supervise and provide guidance to them.
In fact, if the observed carefully, defacing the child is a story derived from their
imagination. Art from the children were impact on society. So that, people should be
supported and given guidance. their childhood endowed with properties like scribbling
and making of art is actually started when they began to make a point and merging point
becomes a circle and line in producing various kinds of lines.
2.2 CHILD DEVELOPEMENT RELATED TO MONTESSORI SYSTEM
Freedom is a factor that should be given to children. Freedom is also an opportunity for
them to do whatever they want. with the freedom given to them is actually easier to
develop ideas and learning methods will be easy and organized. Freedom should also be
put to good use by parents, teachers and adults to see and evaluate the abilities and
talents of children since childhood. What they do is one of the branches in the visual arts
should seriously because it will benefit them as they grow older.
Based on the book titled “Education and development of infants, toddlers, and
preschoolers”, by George S. Morrison (1998). Maria Montessori (1870-1952) developed
one of the most widely known programs for teaching young children. These include the
concepts of “sensitive periods” for learning, the importance of activity in learning and the
role children play in their own education. The Montessori approach offers a broad vision
of education as an aid to life. It is designed to help children with their task of inner
construction as they grow from childhood to maturity.
Montessori education is an educational approach developed by Italian physician and
characterized by an emphasis on independence, freedom within limits, and respect for a
child’s natural psychological, physical, and social development. The model of Montessori
system has two basic principles which is first is children and developing adults engage in
psychological self-construction by means of interaction with their environments and
second is children, especially under the age of six, have an innate path of psychological
development. Based on her observations, Montessori believed that children at liberty to
choose and act freely within an environment prepared according to her model would act
spontaneously for optimal development.
Figure 2.2 : The Montessori System Process
Figure 2.2 above shows how the Montessori System process are done in the school.
Normally, children will be divide into group to facilitate the flow of the activities. Parents
also involve in this programme to make them know how to trained their children at home
by using the same system and method.
Basically, Montessori education is a model of human development and it is an
educational approach based on that model. This model has two basic principles, the first
of children and adults with engaging in self psychology dam construction through
interaction with their environment. Second is children under six years old must have
thought psychological in nature. Based on her experience, Montessori believed that
children are free to choose and free to act in the area or the environment that were
available. Montessori said, acting on spontaneous activity is good for the development of
more optimal. in 1957, Montessori also often see the natural characteristics in human
psychology which it identified as "human tendencies toward something."
2.2.1 Basic Features Of The Montessori System
Some characteristics and beliefs set Montessori system apart from other programs. It's
not that other programs do not accept the basic principles of it to public. They are an
important aspect of the Montessori system, and integrated into the program adopted by
In the Montessori approach, the human tendency is seen as a guide behavior in every
stage of growth. Education also need to respond to the learning process and find a
solution to facilitate their expression. Montessori education method, also known as free
activities in an environment that is sensitive and always ready, meaning that it should be
a learning environment tailored to basic human characteristics and specific features
children where they are divided according to age groups distinct and individual
personalities are also different for each function of the child. Based on the psychologist
experience, they said the environment is also an important factor for children to do
activities independently. Other than that, Montessori also noted that materials appropriate
to the age of children is also a main thing to attract them to follow the learning method.
Figure 2.2.1 : Basic process of Montessori System
Montessori system are only used the three main character in her system which is it start
from children itself, and then the children prepared the environment or surrounding to
adapt it into their life and from there the process will trained the teacher to teach and
practiced the children to do the activities and the circle of this process will be repeat at the
2.2.2 Criticism Of the Montessori System
As with most things, there are a number of criticism of the Montessori system of art
education. Some of these criticism are discussed here and it will be related to the children
life when they doing their art making through scribbling. There have a several things that
are different between school that practiced the Montessori system compared to school
that used the traditional system. The differences will be shown at the table below :
Table 2.2.2:The differences between Montessori system and the traditional system.
The environment of Montessori system also different from the traditional system
environment. These table below shows the difference between the Montessori
environment and the environment at the traditional classroom :
Table 220.127.116.11 :Difference between the Montessori environment and the environment
at the traditional classroom
Some of the teacher and parent still confused with the Montessori system that were done
at the school and some of them are think just follow the traditional system that prepared
by the government. This figure below will show the circle by doing Montessori system.
Figure 2.2.2 : Comparison of the traditional system and Montessori system
2.2.3 Applied Montessori System at School
Montessori education is a brain-based, developmental method that allows children to
make creative choices in discovering people, places and knowledge of the world. It is
hands-on learning, self-expression and collaborative play in a beautifully crafted
environment of respect, peace and joy. Montessori focuses on children learning and self
discovery, and fostering independence is an important part of the philosophy. Montessori
education is right for children of any age. The Junior Academy provides levels of learning
from infant, toddler and junior level. Each program seeks to support each child's
intellectual, physical, emotional and social growth by focusing on areas of development
including practical life skills, sensorial, reading & language, mathematics, cultural studies
and technology. Introducing our children to Montessori as early as possible puts them on
the right path to becoming a confident, self motivated learner.
Figure 2.2.3 : Learning Environment
In a Montessori environment, children learn by exploring and manipulating
specially-designed materials. Children work at their own pace, repeating an exercise until
it is mastered. These hands-on learning materials enable the child to literally see and
explore abstract concepts. The teacher may gently guide the process, but her goal is to
inspire rather than instruct. Throughout the classroom, beautifully prepared, inviting
curriculum areas contain a sequentially array of lessons to be learned. As students work
through the sequence, they build and expand on the materials and lessons already
mastered. The teachers track children progress and hold parent-teacher conferences so
parents may see their child's work and hear teacher's assessment.
Many school in U.S was do the Montessori activities to their children and normally the
they achieve what they want from the children and many parents and teacher too are
satisfied with the learning process of Montessori system. In Malaysia, it also be done by
the certain private school in town and it is not be applied at the all school in Malaysia. The
reasons is this system are not familiar in Malaysia and it also about the cost and the time
to make the programme will troublesome few parents who are unable to participate in this
Figure 18.104.22.168 : Flow of Montessori System
Figure above was show the flow of the Montessori system which is it start from learn and
understood the process of Montessori system and the program that will be done. After
that, used the system and applied that system into the children and student life. Practiced
it all the time and repeat again until they conquered the steps by doing it with the real
examples and finally the children will love with what they do because they will get the
freedom of the activities that they want to apply into their life.
2.3 CHILDREN DEVELOP LIFE SKILLS THROUGH ART ACTIVITIES
Art may seem like fun and games but it may not realize that children is actually learning a
lot through exploring the arts and doing art activities. Children will gain useful life skills
through art, so encourage them to get creative, and there are a several skills to guide
them. Mental development of children depends on their lifestyle with family, friends at
2.3.1 Communication skills
Children never cheated and do not know how to do the act of cheating. What they say is
honest and sincere of heart and mind, but not all children are able to express their
feelings through speech or conversation. Sometimes, children will paint, sketch or
scribble to show what they feel and go through. Drawing may actually be a medium or
medium from children to people around me to deliver something. By doing drawing,
people can see and understand and know the feeling and behavior of children whether
they are happy, sad, angry or dislike something. According to Heater Malin, from the
article title “making meaningful : intention for children art making”. She said, through a
painting produced by children, it could be a story. they can tell a story based on a painting
by one sequence they produce into an interesting story and the adults are not necessarily
thought of doing the same thing.
A study was done on children who have communication problems on which they placed in
a special unit at the Pusat Perubatan Universiti Malaya (PPUM). This kid is a chronic
illness such as cancer and drug addiction since the baby which they inherited from their
mother's addiction. They are not able to speak. Therefore, the hospital has conducted an
activity called 'Art Therapy'. This therapy works as an intermediary in which children can
express all their feelings and emotions through drawings based on color selection,
production lines and shapes produced and painted patterns. Therefore, scratch that will
produce drawings is essential for communication skills for children to develop ideas and
minds. Drawing also train them for the ability to communicate to the public and can be a
continuous practice until they get older and perhaps this exercise will give a good
impression to them if they can continue their studies to a higher level and it will also
facilitate their employment in later .
2.3.2 Problem-solving skills
When children explore art ideas, they are testing possibilities and working through
challenges, much like a scientist who experiments and finds solutions. Art involving both
of the left and right brain. Learning art will make up two sides of the brain work to think
where the idea is growing but at the same time the child is required to solve the problem.
When children started doing the artwork, they are actually faced with challenges and
difficulties. From there, they learn to identify problems in the face and think to solve the
problem. Through drawing what they have learned, they began to identify objects, lines,
colors and shapes. It is the harder things for them to know and understand things is not
an easy thing. They also need to apply what they learn to the environment so that it is
easier to understand. Drawing also can be a reflection on the part of those children to
make a reference and guide. This is because, sometimes children are difficult to describe
what they want to convey, but with the pictures, symbols and drawings, they are easy to
deliver a message.
2.3.3 Social and emotional skills
Art helps children come to term with themselves and the control they have over their
efforts. The artwork can help children to adjust to their surroundings and the people
around them. through art, they began to mingle and talk to each other with each other
related artwork that they do. every child is blessed with the advantages and different
properties. Therefore, art can bring people to complement and help each other. They will
begin to interact and communicate when the session artistic experimentation done in the
classroom. From there, we can see the characters and their whims. Children’s emotion
can also be identified by drawing that they produce. Emotions that can be identified
through the line, the selection of colors and the way they treat the material they saw. For
example, in a family portrait, usually they will draw family members closest to them bigger
than the other family members who are not quite close to them. Usually the child will
express something sincerely and will not cheat. Therefore, understanding and
appreciation of them will be more effective by drawing on produce.
2.3.4 Fine motor skills
Fine motor skills enable a child do things like delicately turn the page of a book or fill in a
sheet of paper with written words. Fine motor skills are movements and actions of the
muscles. According to Rathelot JA ( January 2009), he said, these skills involve the
movement of the small muscles of the body such as fingers and inner coordination with
the eyes. It is more commonly known as manual dexterity used in the theory of human
capability. It can also highlight the way people cope with the speed of movement to
produce an item. With this art activity, children will train finger movement and dexterity of
their eyes in which both members received instructions from the brain to perform an act.
This process is very important for the observation of teachers and parents as through the
production process of this work, it can assess whether students can perform the job well
or not. These skills can also help children create art with more jewelry and they will not
take easily to complete the work.
2.4 AESTHETICS AND YOUNG CHILDREN
At a very young age, children are quite capable of having an aesthetic experience on their
own terms. The terms that they also do not know either the art work are beauty or not or
the art valuable or just for fun or their own satisfaction. Aesthetic in art is a very important
element in the formation of a work of art. Aesthetic is the main factor for people to assess
the work produced. It is also more known to the beauty and perfection of a work.
According to Professor Severyn T. Bruyn (2002), Aesthetic beauty is also a principle
which is a branch of philosophy where it refers to the nature of art, beauty and taste and
appreciate the beauty existing. From scientific terms it is more accurately defined as the
study of sensory or emotional value, while some people call sentiment and taste. Some
have said that aesthetics as a reflection on art, culture and nature. Often, more specific
aesthetic theory with practical implicated where they relate to a particular branch of art,
and it is divided into the areas of aesthetics such as art theory, literary theory, film theory
and music theory. Theory of art is aesthetic theory as a set of basic principles of work
where a particular art movement.
Children art activities usually do not understand and do not know about the value of
beauty in art. They do art activities just for teacher instruction and usually for what they
make is not having a specific purpose. Unlike adult artwork that aims to translate or
communicate something to others. Children do not know about the value and beauty
found in the art work of they do. According to Schirrmacher (2002), to help develop
aesthetic happen, children need exposure to the arts, because in the future they will have
to deal with adults or elders to discuss the elements of art and beauty with brilliance.
At the level of these children, they have not been exposed yet with beauty and charm of a
work of art because they only produce art accordance with the requirements and
evaluation of their own eyes without thinking adult guest. In fact, many people overlook to
identify and understand the migratory patterns found in children artwork. It is because of
their drawings, children make it is to no avail other but just for the drawing only . From the
perspective of art and movement ideas, drawing starts with a point and then begins to
grow produce line shape and the next chart patterns and finally and ultimately produce a
drawing. Although it is not perfect, but it actually has a certain value and beauty of art in
the painting may be in the terms of how children develop their ideas.
Beauty in art is also a subjective to be judged because everyone has different
perceptions and views and assessments to the naked eye of every man is not the same.
For example, one thing for some people it's beautiful, but for some others it is not pretty.
Therefore each person has a different view of the state of aesthetic value. However, the
artwork of children should be given the honor and recognition because they are the future
2.5 BENEFIT OF MAKING ART THROUGH SCRIBBLING APPROACH
Everything they do must bring those benefits to the user or to others. If not, what was
done was useless and a waste of time. Making art using the scribble method has benefits
to those involved including the children themselves. It also bring goodness to parents and
Children are naturally loved to scribble can make a useful thing by applying this scribble.
This is because if the adults such as teachers and their parents teaching and guiding
them to transform from the scribbling into the beautiful drawing, it will help improve their
drawing skills. Besides, it is to help children in the process of development of their minds.
Through scribbling, the main thing is that they will learn the lines and spaces. Lines could
also symbolize mood and emotions at the time. They can learn several types such as
straight lines, wavy lines, zig-zag and square lines. They also learn to recognize the right
lines either, fine lines, normal lines or thick lines. With a line, they will learn to create a
shape and can do the basic geometrical patterns such as triangles, squares, oval and
round. These patterns are widely used as symbols in everyday life. It is very helpful for
children who are slow to read and write in order to speed up their learning process.
Parents also serve as teachers at home. advantages of the art among the children of
parents is to facilitate parents to identify the direction where are their children future later.
This is because children tend to doodle in the initial stages of growth. challenges faced by
parents when a child scribbling or doing art is parents need to be patient. Parents who
have a child who loves to sketch when holding a pen or pencil should guide them to use
the equipment properly so that they do not abuse the exact function of the devices. Not all
parents through experiences where their children will draw pictures of their family or the
surrounding scenery because every child endowed with different abilities and
Sometimes there were a few parents who have not been through such a situation due to
their child through sound financial constraints to purchase equipment such as pencils,
pens and colored pencils in their time ago. Therefore, what their kids are doing that could
possibly be a new experience for parents to express appreciation for the work of art that
is made by their children. Tendency of their children to the art will further facilitate the
growth process of these children as they should be able to do something useful when
they grow up with a sense that the benefits provided for them.
The advantages of art making among children to teachers is indirect these children can
help to improve the school environment to be more cheerful. Teachers do not need to do
activities that are difficult to be accepted by students. Teachers can use the skills in the
students themselves to create works of art to beautify and invigorate the school. Skills
that students will also raise school performance to a higher level. Art students will
facilitate teachers in their teaching and learning process.
This is because the children will have a better understanding of what will be delivered and
teach the teachers, especially in concept to produce a work of art. Other than that,
teachers can learn new methods and techniques of children, where students are likely to
produce something different and not similar to each other but still in the learning syllabus.
From there, teachers can develop their ideas and creativity to another student. This is
because there are times when some children may think much further than other children
because of the imagination of the birth of their minds have different levels.
2.6 CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
This conceptual framework is adapted from Margaret Stott (1987) which is she was has
utilized a three-stage strategy for analyzing objects. According to Stott (1987), she said
that there are; “three different but important dimensions to that learning experience, no
matter what level of student and no matter what the artifact being considered” (p. 14). The
conceptual framework for this study is shown in figure 2.6 and it illustrates how the
variables used in this study which is making art by scribbling method are related with
learning process and child development. According to Miles & Huberman (1994 in
Jabareen, 2009) a conceptual framework is such a lays out of key factors, constructs or
variables, and presume relationships among them”. These “dimensions” are stands for
three main point which is the object itself, the context of the object, the process of the
object’s manufacture and use.
Figure 2.6 : Conceptual Frame work.
Figure 2.6 : Conceptual Framework
In this study, children development towards psychomotor would affect student’s
academic learning process will be investigate in depth. These variables will perceive the
literal role of a study on using scribbling methods in teaching art among children. As
shown as in figure 2.6, the use of psychomotor from children will be identify by them to
study about learning the environment which is it includes the nature, floral and fauna.
That environment aspect will make children near to nature and it will make easier for them
to understand it. Surrounding is also will influence the student to making art. It is because
children will do what that they see and learn from that experience. These factor will affect
the students either in positive or negative way. Thus, this study will investigate the study
of using scribbling method in teaching art are useful to student or not. In this study, the
use of scribbling method is believed to give impact on teaching arts and learning process.
The integration of this method will determine either the student can get the good impact or
This chapter will discuss the following ; research design, population and sample,
instrumentation, pilot study, data collection and data analysis plan.
3.2 RESEARCH DESIGN
This research will used quantitative approach. This study employed an experimental
research. The design was meant to gauge whether the children creativity drawing
methods can help in improving their academic learning. To investigate the effects of using
the scribble activity to the children in their academic learning. To illustrate how the
scribble method helps to improve the performance of children learning. To create a sense
of appreciation of the artwork done by the children in the learning process. Students or
children from private school and public school around seksyen 7 Shah Alam and student
or children from rural school in Sekolah Kebangsaan Sungai Koyan, Pahang have been
chosen as the samples for this study. The observation and interview to the samples will
used as the instrument in the research to gather the data needed. According to Atkinson,
P. (1975) from the article title “Frontiers of Classroom Research”. Observational
techniques is most of the important aspect for many action research studies and of case
studies whether it is controlled by participants or other people which is outsider. It is also
known with the social research technique which is that was involves the direct
observation from the phenomena in their natural setting.
3.2 Population Sampling
The population for this study will be all the kindergarten student in public school and
private school in town and also public school in rural area. As cited from Neuman (2003),
subject selection is refer to the criteria and standard that used for the person who was
determine of the experiment that include of subject in research protocol. This study used
probability sampling procedures to choose respondents. Probability sampling is the
sampling technique which is the sample will be randomly selection (William M.K,2006).
Instead, probability sampling is a process where the sample involve was have a chance
for being selected. According to Willian M.K (2006), In order to have a random selection
method, researcher must set up a little process or procedure that have the different units
in researcher population and also have an equal probabilities of being chosen. People
were practiced the various forms of random selection, as an example, pick a name out of
a bowl, or choosing the most exited people. The method used was stratified random
sampling. It also known as proportional random sampling which means it is a probability
sampling technique wherein the data will be classified and collected by age, gender,
socioeconomically or status ; whereby for this research, the researcher will select the
respondent that refer a group of gender and age. Then, researcher will choose randomly
from the group that was selected. It is also preferred over simple random sampling
because this method usually will get a more accurate result and satisfactory researchers.
This sampling technique is chosen as the alternative of this study to investigate on the
studying by using scribbling methods in teaching art. All the respondents consist of
students from various school around Shah Alam and one school at Pahang. The sample
size for this study are 18 respondent for the observation in classroom and 9 respondent
for the interview session.
The instrument used for data collection in this study is observation. The observation is
developed by researcher in order to analyze of using scribbling methods in teaching art.
For the purpose of this study, the rubric will help researcher to measure either respondent
will achieve the criteria by using scribbling method in teaching art or not.
Besides that, this study is also will use interview as an instrumentation for data collection.
The interview will be done by the teachers instead of art teacher principal or art teacher.
Table 3.3.1 : Description of the question for the observation
Sections Description Number of item
Section A :
This section carries the participation of the
student in order to fulfill the researcher
requirement. Participation from the children is
one of the aspect to observed either children
are interested or not to wear the uniform.
5 items :
Section B :
This section consist of several things that are
related to interaction between the selected
children and teacher. These criteria will help
researcher to identify whether the child will
communicate to the teacher while using
uniform or not.
5 items :
Section C :
This section will help researcher to identify the
level of children skill by using the scribbling
method. This section will show either the
children psychomotor are active or just in the
5 items :
Section D :
By using the uniform that provided by
researcher, children will be observed either
they are comfortable or not wearing the uniform
and it also will see either they can do the
activity on the uniform or not.
5 items :
These element is the element of the observation session by researcher. It will be done by
children. It will be choose in order to get the result and make conclusion either using
scribbling methods in teaching art among children can be apply to the children or not
suitable to be a part of the method in teaching art. The data for the 18 respondent were
collected from the school was selected.
Table 3.3.2: Description of the question for the Interview
Sections Descriptions Number of items :
Section A :
Important of art
This section carries the general criteria on the
important of art among children. Data from
respondent such as : the important of art in
education, is it art subject is important in school
will be noted.
5 items :
Section B :
This section consist of the development of
children by doing art. The opinion from the
teacher will be noted to be a reference by
researcher. The reflection from teacher will be
refer to the question number 3 at the research
3 items :
Section C :
This section will show the needed of children in
school. What children needs in art also will be
one of the important aspect in this session
because from there, researcher will know the
weaknesses and the strength of art subject in
5 items :
Section D :
Environment of study
By refer to the question number 3 at the
research objective, teacher will tell the
environment of the study at the school
especially in the classroom. The activity and
approach that using by teacher also will be
5 items :
Section E :
While section B and C focused on the
development and needed of children in art
education, this final section emphasized on
how teacher and adult include parent improve
the children thinking on art and education. It
also include the way of important in learning
process by scribbling approach among
5 items :
These element of interview session were choose in order to collect the data in terms of
interview to the teachers that teaching art or teachers not teaching art and the interview to
the principle of that school about their opinion and suggestion based on the criteria that
will ask from researcher.
3.4 Data Collection
The respondents of this observation are children from sekolah kebangsaan seksyen 7,
Little Caliph kindergarten, seksyen 7 Shah Alam and Sekolah Kebangsaan Sungai
Koyan, Pahang. Before the respondents will be observed, there will be a short briefing
and explanation on the procedures to the teacher and student that involved. The briefing
is about the explanation on the research objective and what and the purpose by doing
observation, it took about five minutes of the explanation. The observation will be doing
on weekdays during school session and the interview will be doing during class session
or lunch break. The time needed to complete all the criteria is around 30 minutes to 60
minutes for the observation and 10 minutes to 20 minutes for the interview session. The
survey process was monitored by the researcher itself. This was to ensure the feedback
given by the respondents have an originality emotion and result and any inquiries or
problem faced by the respondents during the survey could be attend. The result will be
known after the observation to respondents and will be collected after interview session.
The data collection was as follow :
Design for the observation and interview :
There are 4 area or features for the observation
session which is Section A : Participation, Section B :
Communication, Section C : Psychomotor and
Section D : Comfortable. It also have a 5 section of
features for the interview session. It consist of Section
A : the important of art, Section B : Child
development, Section C : Child needed, Section D :
Environment of study and section E : Improvement.
The respondent of this observation is among the
children from the selected school by researcher and
the respondent of the interview session is the teacher
or principal at the same school. About 18 respondent
from children and 9 respondent from the teachers
involved in this research.
Researcher will go to the three different schools:
First, Sekolah Kebangsaan Seksyen 7 Shah Alam.
Second, Little Caliph Private Kindergarten,Seksyen 7
Third, Sekolah Kebangsaan Sungai Koyan, Raub
The observation is distributed on weekdays during
school session in classroom.
Time taken :
The time need to complete the observation is around
30 to 60 minutes.
Time taken :
The time need to complete the interview is around 10
to 20 minutes.
The interview session will be doing on weekdays
during class session or lunch break.
Observation & interview process:
The survey process was monitored by the researcher
itself. This was to ensure the feedback given by the
respondents have an originality emotion and result
and any inquiries or problem faced by the respondents
during the survey could be attend.
3.5 Data Analysis
All the data obtained from the observation result and interview session that were collected
and analyzed to provide answer to these four research questions for the study. In order to
analyze and interpret the data, the software of statistical Package for Social Science
version 20.0 was used. According to Information Technology Service (2012), SPSS is an
analysis invention for data management. In this system software, the data will be key in to
the format that given and descriptive statistics is used in order to analyze and interpret the
data and information gathered.
Research Objective Research Instrument Analysis
i) To gauge whether the
children creativity drawing
methods can help in
improving their academic
Using rubric :
1)Question 4 in Section A
2)Question 3 & question 4 Section B
3)All of Section C
ii ) To investigate the
effects of using the scribble
activity to the children in
their academic learning.
Using rubric :
1) Question 5 Section A
2) All question in section C
3) All question in section D
The result will be known after the observation to
respondents and will be collected after interview
Table 3.5 : Summary of Data Analysis
Thus, by using SPSS version 20.0 software, a descriptive statistics about all items were
analyzed. For the observation session, the researcher will scale the criteria into 5 scale
which is from the lowest to the highest. Meanwhile, for the interview session the
researcher will analyzed and categorized the answer into the different group which are
multiple choice answer, yes or no and the opinion from the teacher and principle. After
researcher determine the data whether they are positive or negative inclined or good or
bad feedback, then the data will keyed in and analyzed. Simple chart representation for
these observation and the interview session to show the response from the study that
have been done by researcher.
iii) To illustrate how the
scribble method helps to
improve the performance
of children learning. Interview
1) All question in section A
2) Question 1 in section B
3) Question 4 in section D
4) Question 1 & question 3 in section E
iv) To create a sense of
appreciation of the artwork
done by the children in the
learning process. Observation
Using rubric :
1) Question 1 & question 5 in section A
2) Question 4 & question 5 section C
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FACULTY OF EDUCATION
MASTER OF EDUCATION IN VISUAL ART
I am Nurul Syafiqah bt Md Amin (UiTM Student ID No : 2013554763) from the Faculty
of Education, INTEC, UiTM Shah Alam. Currently, i am pursuing a master program in Master of
Education in Visual Art. As a requirement for my EDU 702. I am conducting a survey on “ A
study on using scribbles methods in teaching art for children”.
Therefore, i need your sincere cooperation to complete this experimentation by using the
observation and interview session. Thank you for participating in my research. I would appreciate
if you could spend a few minutes of your time to complete my research. The data collected from
this research will be used for academic and research purpose only. Your participation is
completely voluntary and information will kept strictly confidential.
Your time and cooperation is much appreciated. Thank you very much.
(Nurul Syafiqah bt Md Amin)
Direction : Rate the level of children behavior for the selected student in the classroom
using the scale from 1 to 5 which is 1 is represents lowest level (1 = lowest) and 5
represents highest level (5 = highest)
Name : Gender : M/F Date :
Area / Features Level of Behavior demonstrated
Participation Lowest Highest
Children listen attentively and give full commitment to
the teacher throughout the lesson.
1 2 3 4 5
Children follow the instruction from the teacher. 1 2 3 4 5
Children use knowledge learn from the teacher to
carry out task given by teacher successfully and
1 2 3 4 5
Children follow the step of activity by using the
1 2 3 4 5
Children are exited to do the activity given. 1 2 3 4 5
Children response frequently to teacher’s instruction
and expand interaction with peers.
1 2 3 4 5
Children able to answer questions verbally shown or
asked by teacher by referring to the lesson learn
1 2 3 4 5
Children frequently asks questions for understanding
and contributes ideas or comment.
1 2 3 4 5
Children give the frequently feedback while using the
1 2 3 4 5
Children tell the teacher if anything happen to the
1 2 3 4 5
Children draw on the surface that was prepared. 1 2 3 4 5
Children do the mathematics activity on the surface
that was prepared.
1 2 3 4 5
Children do the same thing at the surface of uniform
and on the whiteboard.
1 2 3 4 5
Children know the uniform can be scribble if they are
not wearing it.
1 2 3 4 5
Children will do the activity on the certain surface of
1 2 3 4 5
Children are comfort with the material or fabric of
1 2 3 4 5
Children like the colour of uniform. 1 2 3 4 5
Children easy to make a movement while using the
1 2 3 4 5
Children easy to do the activity on the surface of
1 2 3 4 5
Children can handle the uniform that have 3 pieces of
1 2 3 4 5
Interview Session to the Teachers.
SECTION A : IMPORTANT OF ART
1. Why art is important to the children?
2. Art is one of the subject that can give an opportunity in work sector for children future.
Is it true?
3. How the children feedback when teacher want to make an art activity?
4. How to make children interested to making art?
5. What is the activity that can express children feeling?
SECTION B : CHILD DEVELOPMENT
1. How to help the children development for learning process?
2. Who is children will be refer when they want to doing art?
3. Why children want to explore something if they want to know the result.
SECTION C : CHILD NEEDED
1. Is it art kits are provided in this school?
2. How teacher identify the weaknesses of children?
3. How teachers provide what is needed by the students?
4. How teacher controls the behavior of the children if teacher does not give what
they want at school?
5. What are the things that will be implemented to meet the needs of learners?
SECTION D : ENVIRONMENT OF STUDY
1. Whether teachers provide hygiene activities in schools?
2. How teacher determine children are comfortable or not having in school area?
3. Is it the children will always in class with the other friends?
4. Whether learning methods used by teachers in the classroom is effective or not for
5. Is it teacher have a question and answer session while learning process in classroom?