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Oliver Holland - IEEE VTS UKRI - Energy efficiency challenges of data volume increases and the use of sleep modes facilitated by opportunistic cognitive radio networking as a solution

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Oliver Holland from King's College London talks about energy efficiency challenges of data volume increases and the use of sleep modes facilitated by opportunistic cognitive radio networking as a …

Oliver Holland from King's College London talks about energy efficiency challenges of data volume increases and the use of sleep modes facilitated by opportunistic cognitive radio networking as a solution

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  • 1. Energy Efficiency Challenges ofData Volume Increases, and the useof Sleep Modes facilitated byOpportunistic Cognitive RadioNetworking as a SolutionOliver HollandKing’s College London, UK IEEE VTS-UKRI Dublin Meeting 26 July 2012
  • 2. Overview• Energy consumption Implications of data volume increases• Opportunistic networking using cognitive radio to facilitate sleep modes for radio network equipment – Scenarios – Example mechanism facilitating awareness – Some example results• Conclusion and future considerations 2 IEEE VTS-UKRI Dublin Meeting 26 July 2012
  • 3. Implications for energy consumption• How do we maintain this same expectation? illustration courtesy of IEEE Spectrum 3 IEEE VTS-UKRI Dublin Meeting 26 July 2012
  • 4. Implications for energy consumption• Three ways to increase capacity (with fixed spectrum) – Achieve better link performance (closer to Shannon limit) – Increase Tx power – Increase density of frequency reuse Capacity 4 SINR IEEE VTS-UKRI Dublin Meeting 26 July 2012
  • 5. Implications for energy consumption• Increase density of frequency reuse – Far smaller cells – Lower power per cell consumption and better able to take advantage of environment (e.g., propagation), BUT – Latent energy consumption an issue; still very low Tx-to-input power efficiency 5 ICT-EARTH D2.3 IEEE VTS-UKRI Dublin Meeting 26 July 2012
  • 6. Implications for energy consumption• Increase density of frequency reuse – Far smaller cells—embodied energy smaller cells 6 IEEE VTS-UKRI Dublin Meeting 26 July 2012
  • 7. Implications for energy consumption• Embodied energy 7 IEEE VTS-UKRI Dublin Meeting 26 July 2012
  • 8. Opportunistic Networking Using Cognitive Radio to Save Energy• So what can we do?• Opportunistic cognitive radio connectivity/networking  – To minimise number of network elements that are active at any one point in time through facilitating sleep modes – To minimise the number that are deployed in first place – Achieved by awareness through cognitive radio of what is deployed and available (connectivity options) – Awareness/prediction through cognitive radio of what has happened and will happen in the future (user mobility affecting availability of connectivity options, traffic variations, traffic requirements, etc.) – Planning for connectivity options based on all this awareness 8 IEEE VTS-UKRI Dublin Meeting 26 July 2012
  • 9. Opportunistic Networking UsingCognitive Radio to Save Energy• Opportunistic peer-to-peer to reduce necessary transmission ? power and number of transmissions, given awareness of the end-node being in the vicinity and with a good channel 9 IEEE VTS-UKRI Dublin Meeting 26 July 2012
  • 10. Opportunistic Networking Using Cognitive Radio to Save Energy• Opportunistic usage of a more power efficient or better channel ? connectivity means given awareness of the connectivity means existing 10 IEEE VTS-UKRI Dublin Meeting 26 July 2012
  • 11. Opportunistic Networking Using Cognitive Radio to Save Energy• Transmission of delay-tolerant traffic at a more appropriate time based on mobility ? 11 IEEE VTS-UKRI Dublin Meeting 26 July 2012
  • 12. Opportunistic Networking Using Cognitive Radio to Save Energy• “Store-carry-forward” for delay-tolerant traffic; facilitating the powering down of network elements (e.g., reducing necessary cell density) by transmitting at a more appropriate time. 12 IEEE VTS-UKRI Dublin Meeting 26 July 2012
  • 13. Opportunistic Networking Using Cognitive Radio to Save Energy• Network elements shutdown when p2p connectivity is sufficient 13 IEEE VTS-UKRI Dublin Meeting 26 July 2012
  • 14. Awareness of Opportunistic Networking Using IEEE 1900.6 S = Sensor INow even Ifwhichof IEEE of can connect with ‘Q’ can I knowhis a fair idea I cognitive radio ILet’s check with things! wonder lots devices Great! have serial is ‘B’ CE = Cognitive Engine ad-hocin he theknowpossibilities (e.g., at location ‘T’, network theisThere isbymight are devices Also, wait!area that I ‘O’ network routes are networking that ‘S’ But I now more! ‘R’, a 1900.6, location also then at But there’s hostedThatthere DA = Data Archive andDA in thiscommunicate ‘J’ found atthe RATs and ‘U’type ofto location ‘V’. can over transmitting 1900.6‘E’ and ‘F’ all autocorrelation function I know device at RATs communication capabilities prospective link be able device, which I location ‘C’ looks is a RAT ‘P’, e.g., system. Bet This is I lot subsystem there with throughand like am multiple hops)ofthelocation ‘C’, and I am at given somewhere near use this associate in link capabilities whichone knowledge with connect to! can collaboration withthere! devices myits ableinformation duration between of locations, andto… other that to to expected future connected can at due to the time match of connection option with opportunistic formation those communicate devicesfindnetworksconnect capable “cognitive out Let’s could peaks. Ior ‘C’ alsolinks? location form autonomouslyradio” such Inetworks thatof traffic capabilities andas am with mobility, etc RATs ‘E’ and ‘F’ CE/DA Over S-S Interface (e.g., collaborative sensing scenario) I am ‘A’ type of sensor with ‘B’ serial number Request My location is ‘C’ Device 1 I have detected RATs ‘D’, ‘E’ and ‘F’ at ‘G’, ‘H’, and ‘I’ frequency Device 2(S and CE embedded) I have found ‘J’ signal autocorrelation function at ‘K’ frequency (S embedded) 14 (Perhaps future addition) I have ‘L’, ‘M’, ‘N’ radio configuration capability IEEE VTS-UKRI Dublin Meeting 26 July 2012
  • 15. Example: Offload to Wi-Fi enabling Cellular Power Saving Modes• Opportunistic usage of Wi-Fi access points (including in TV white space!) to enable power saving modes for cellular network equipment (powering down cells where possible and sectorization switching—20% Wi-Fi access point deployment) 15 IEEE VTS-UKRI Dublin Meeting 26 July 2012
  • 16. Example: Offload to Wi-Fi enabling Cellular Power Saving Modes• Opportunistic usage of Wi-Fi access points (including in TV white space!) to enable power saving modes for cellular network equipment (powering down cells where possible and sectorization switching—5% Wi-Fi access point deployment) 16 IEEE VTS-UKRI Dublin Meeting 26 July 2012
  • 17. Example: Offload to Wi-Fi enabling Cellular Power Saving Modes• Results on previous slides obtained through simulations using following coverage analyses as basis: S. Kawade and M. Nekovee, “Broadband wireless delivery using an inside-out TV white space network architecture,” IEEE Globecom 2011• Further detail can be obtained in A. Aijaz, O. Holland, P. Pangalos, H. Aghvami, H. Bogucka, “Energy Savings for Mobile Communication Networks through Dynamic Spectrum and Traffic Load Management,” to appear in Green Communications: Theoretical Fundamentals, Algorithms and Applications, CRC Press, 2012• Further related work has been presented in ICC 2012: A. Aijaz, O. Holland, P. Pangalos, and H. Aghvami, “Energy Savings for Cellular Access Network through 17 Wi-Fi Offloading” IEEE VTS-UKRI Dublin Meeting 26 July 2012
  • 18. Example: Offload to Wi-Fi enabling Cellular Power Saving Modes• Mix of FTP, HTTP and video streaming traffic, 15%, 45% and 40% respectively … … 18 IEEE VTS-UKRI Dublin Meeting 26 July 2012
  • 19. Example: Offload to Wi-Fi enabling Cellular Power Saving Modes• Opportunistic reallocation between frequency bands/networks to enable power saving modes (base station powering down and sectorization switching)• Can also extend to network-side reconfiguration decisions (power consumption model similar to macro case on slide 5) 19 IEEE VTS-UKRI Dublin Meeting 26 July 2012
  • 20. Example: Offload to Wi-Fi enabling Cellular Power Saving Modes• Using cognition on the network side (fuzzy cognitive maps) to learn about traffic variations on make decisions on power saving modes • Cumulative energy consumption and blocking rate 20 IEEE VTS-UKRI Dublin Meeting 26 July 2012
  • 21. Conclusion• Big energy consumption issues caused by data volume increases – Capacity provision ultimately will require greater frequency reuse and smaller cells (under assumption of the same spectrum) – Presents energy issues, both operational and embodied• Presented opportunistic cognitive radio networking as a means to save energy by facilitating power saving modes• Discussed various scenarios in which such solutions might apply• Shown performance examples indicating very significant savings• Future prospects – “Green communications” research has to consider from-the-socket power rather than just minimising transmission power (is beginning to happen to some extent) as well as embodied energy (hardly considered thus far) – Solution such as presented here help address/consider both such issues 21 IEEE VTS-UKRI Dublin Meeting 26 July 2012
  • 22. References[1] O. Holland, T. Dodgson, A. H. Aghvami., and H. Bogucka, “Intra-Operator Dynamic SpectrumManagement for Energy Efficiency,” IEEE Communications Magazine, to appear[2] O. Holland, O. Cabral, F. Velez, A. Aijaz, P. Pangalos and A. H. Aghvami, “Opportunistic Load andSpectrum Management for Mobile Communications Energy Efficiency,” IEEE PIMRC 2011, Toronto,Canada, Sept. 2011[3] O. Holland, C. Facchini, A. H. Aghvami, O. Cabral, and F. Velez, “Opportunistic Spectrum and LoadManagement for Green Radio,” chapter appearing in: E. Hossein, V. Bhargava, G. Fettweis, 2011,Green Radio Communication Networks, Cambridge University Press, 2011[4] O. Holland, Vasilis Friderikos, A. H. Aghvami, “Green Spectrum Management for Mobile Operators,”IEEE Globecom, Miami, FL, USA, December 2010[5] O. Holland et al., “Intra-Operator Spectrum Sharing Concepts for Energy Efficiency and ThroughputEnhancement,” CogART 2010, Rome, Italy, November 2010 (invited paper)[6] A. Aijaz, O. Holland, P. Pangalos, A.H. Aghvami, “Energy Savings for Cellular Access Networkthrough Wi-Fi Offloading,” IEEE ICC 2012, Ottawa, ON, Canada, June 2012[7] A. Aijaz, O. Holland, P. Pangalos, H. Aghvami, H. Bogucka, “Energy Savings for MobileCommunication Networks through Dynamic Spectrum and Traffic Load Management,” appearing inGreen Communications: Theoretical Fundamentals, Algorithms, and Applications, AuerbachPublications, CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group[8] C. Facchini, O. Holland, F. Granelli, N. Fonseca, A. H. Aghvami, “Dynamic Green Self-Configurationof 3G Base Stations using Fuzzy Cognitive Maps,” submitted to Elsevier Computer Networks 22 IEEE VTS-UKRI Dublin Meeting 26 July 2012
  • 23. Acknowledgement• This work has been supported by the ICT- ACROPOLIS Network of Excellence, www.ict- acropolis.eu, FP7 project number 257626 23 IEEE VTS-UKRI Dublin Meeting 26 July 2012
  • 24. Thank you! oliver.holland@kcl.ac.uk 24IEEE VTS-UKRI Dublin Meeting 26 July 2012

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