Brendan Finn - Using ITS to achieve the potential for public transport
Using ITS to Achieve thePotential of Public Transport BRENDAN FINN ETTS LTD., IRELAND
Overview ITS for public transport Practice in ITS support to Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) Capacity constraints for high-volume BRT systems Vehicle throughput at stations Vehicle throughput at junctions Passenger throughput at stations Dynamic operations management could increase capacity Management of access Slot management along the route
ITS for Public Transport Hardware, software, data exchange tools & services Higher-level objectives: Effectiveness Efficiency Usability Cluster in three strands: ITS for Transport Operations ITS for Customer-Facing Services ITS for platform and back-office Solve problems and/or exploit opportunities
ITS systems for Public Transport Operations Management Automatic Vehicle Location and Management Traffic Signal Priority Service and System planning and support Collision avoidance/warning Precision docking Customer-facing and support services Automatic fare collection Real-time passenger information Journey planning Security and passenger management systems
Context of this presentation Bus Rapid Transit High volume contexts Large numbers of buses Multiple routes using the infrastructure Large numbers of passengers Operating Strategies to maximise throughput Efficiently Reliably Safely Technologies to support the Operating Strategies
Running Way – Guanghzhou, China Source : Paul Barter
Key elements of the BRT system Operating infrastructure Running way Junctions Stations Network Vehicles Operations management Operations control, incident management, supporting ITS Customer-facing services Fare collection, information, customer support
Operations Management activities Resource deployment Service control and regulation Operate the core service to plan Adjust the planned service to meet demand and events Monitoring Incident management At stations and adjacent areas Along running way, at junctions Vehicles and operational staff Data capture and analyis Review of plan and of procedures Cost optimisation
Technologies for Operations Management Monitoring systems Vehicle location CCTV Sensors - roadside, platform, in-vehicle Communications Network for fixed locations – control centre, stations, depot Wireless, from vehicles and mobile units Applications Functional Analytic Integration with traffic signal system Information display and diffusion
Control Centre – Bogota, Columbia Source : Sam Zimmerman, World Bank
Capacity is an issue in high-volume systems Buses at intervals of 10-20 seconds at peak 10+ routes and route variants Multiple operators Hard to avoid some intersections with general traffic Stations handling >5,000 passengers in the peak period Unpredictable arrival pattern by day, by time interval
Where do the limits arise? Three critical areas: Throughput of vehicles at the bus stations Getting vehicles through the junctions Passenger throughput at the stations Potential problems : Basic capacity to handle the demand Instability - risk of drastic loss of performance, capacity Queues and delays for passengers Crush conditions at stations Running way itself is not the problem
Strategic Operations Options Constrain volume to what can easily be managed Single end-to-end route Limit number of routes, fixed boarding areas (Bi-) articulated buses to minimise number of vehicles Plan to capacity, accept occasional degradation Standard intervention techniques Maximise throughput by dynamic management Manage access by available slots – ramp metering Manage precise movement and timing - ATC style What is the maximum possible throughput?
Is Dynamic Management possible? Dynamic Access Management (Ramp Metering) Continuous system state monitoring, available capacity Vehicle held at BRT access point until capacity available Enters BRT running way under standard operations mgt. Dynamic Slot Management Continuous system state monitoring Slot assigned to each vehicle based on plan and current state Vehicle held at access point until slot available Enters BRT running way at allocated slot Dynamic operations mgt. for entire journey along BRT Must stay +/- X seconds of allocated slot Slot can be adjusted dynamically by the application software Requires precise station and junction operations
Enablers Conceptual Dynamic management concepts Operations management methods and procedures Technology platform Location system(standard AVL) Communications (standard AVL) Information Vehicle location, Passenger loading, station status Intelligent software Slot development and assignment Slot adjustment and management Dynamic platform management Operations Field management, training, monitoring, incentives
Conclusions At the high-capacity end, three key challenge areas Vehicle throughput at stations Vehicle throughput at junctions Passenger throughput at stations If we cannot handle these better, capacity is limited Lower productivity, lower benefits, lower transport impact Current generation of Ops. Mgt. Tools not enough Technical platform is NOT the issue Focus needs to shift to delivering capacity Paradigm shift in approach to operations management Intelligent strategies and management procedures
Vehicle Throughput at Stations Length of platform, arrangement of boarding areas Number of slots Fixed allocation or dynamic allocation If dynamic, how to advise and organise customers? Precise docking – clinical, but lose flexibility Can we handle buses of different lengths, door arrangements Passenger processing, dwell times Separate fare collection/validation from boarding Level boarding, demarcation/protection of boarding area Management of the bus flows Passing lanes, (semi-) express services, queuing rules Strict operations control, departure management Rapid response to disruptions Station management, activity oversight
Vehicle Throughput at Junctions As frequency increases, problem escalates High-volume systems can have up to 6 buses per minute Need adequate time to clear queue of buses Random arrivals? If so, can have Q lengths of up to 10 vehicles How much green time possible? Turning movements by buses Requirement for cross-turning movements by general traffic Cycle time at the junctions If long cycle time, wave of buses hits next stations Queuing problems downstream Can partially overcome by using larger vehicles Less vehicles needed, but longer for each unit to clear
Passenger Throughput at Stations Passenger volume Total movement of people, boarding and alighting Transferring passengers Dynamics of movement Conflict of boarding and alighting passengers Internal movement within the station area May constrain dynamic allocation of buses to boarding areas Movement to/from transfer areas Limited area and width for median stations Fare collection and verification For median stations Safe passage to main pavement Storage while waiting to cross, conflict with new arrivals Number of opportunities and impact on general traffic Minimise conflict between passengers and vehicles
A particular slide catching your eye?
Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.