• Save
Wind & Solar Energy By Mayura Botejeu
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

Wind & Solar Energy By Mayura Botejeu

on

  • 4,332 views

Wind & Solar Energy by Mayura Botejeu

Wind & Solar Energy by Mayura Botejeu

Statistics

Views

Total Views
4,332
Views on SlideShare
4,203
Embed Views
129

Actions

Likes
3
Downloads
0
Comments
0

3 Embeds 129

http://ieeepkhi.org 68
http://www.ieeepkhi.org 54
http://www.slideshare.net 7

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

Wind & Solar Energy By Mayura Botejeu Wind & Solar Energy By Mayura Botejeu Presentation Transcript

  • Wind & Solar Power: Renewables for Today & Tomorrow Mayura Botejue BSc(Hons) C.Eng Consultant on Project Development & Renewable Energy The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Pakistan     Friday, March 28, 2008
  • Same old news: The ongoing power crisis!
    • “ The power shortage is likely to cross
    • 3,000MW next year and to increase to
    • about 5,300MW by 2010”
    • “ Power crisis to deepen in coming
    • years: 50pc demand rise in two years
    • likely”
  • The capacity deficit!
  • Conventional options for power generation
    • Hydropower
    • Coal
    • Oil (conventional/diesel) & Gas (indigenous/import)
    • Nuclear
    • These options are relevant, but face major
    • development hurdles!
  • Hydropower
    • Environmental impact
    • Provincial disputes
    • Geological
    • Long development and construction phase
    • Financing
    • Silting in reservoirs
    • Snow melt unpredictability (climate change?)
  • Coal
    • Mining challenges (deep mining technology and lack of expertise)
    • Quality of coal
    • Water requirement
    • Long development and construction phase
    • Financing
    • Environmental impact
  • Oil & Gas
    • Indigenous resources depleting (oil & gas reserves)
    • Imported oil based energy expensive and price volatile
    • Iran pipeline - International politics
    • Burden of energy “insecurity”
  • Nuclear
    • Obstacles due to international concerns
    • Financing
    • Long lead time
    • Project execution delays and cost overruns
    • Cost of waste management
    • Cost of decommissioning
  • Non-conventional options: AE for power generation
    • Waste heat recovery
    • Bio mass
    • Demand side management
    • Infrastructure upgrades
    • Lighting (CFLB)
    • Energy efficiency
    • ‘ Off grid’ wind & solar PV
    • All relevant, but not covered in this presentation!
  • Wind & Solar for Power Generation “The wave of the future”
    • Positive Attributes:
    • “ Green” & renewable
    • Energy security (no fuel price risk)
    • Optimal fit with peak power demand
    • Global trend due to climate change concerns
    • “ Friendly” financing opportunities growing
    • High skill job creation in new sectors
  • Wind power negatives
    • Increased wind turbine price due to global demand
    • Not firm capacity (wind variability)
    • COE high due to multiple factors
    • - Year 2008 cost range in Pakistan:
    • 10 - 14 US cents/KWH
  • “ Grid tied” solar PV negatives
    • Increased price due to global demand
    • Improved technology and increased production yet to show significant cost benefit
    • Not firm capacity (day time only)
    • COE too high for rapid implementation:
    • - Year 2008 cost range in Pakistan:
    • 30 - 40 US cents/KWH
  • Global Wind Power - 2007 94,000 MW in 2007
  • India & China Wind Power - 2007 2007 - 8,000 MW 2006 - 6,270 MW 2005 - 4,430 MW 2004 - 3,000 MW India Current: Year 2007: 6,050 MW Year 2006: 2,600 MW Projections: Year 2020: 30,000 MW Year 2015: 10,000 MW China
  • Wind resources in Pakistan
    • Pakistan has a 1,046 Km coastline in the South
    • Average wind speed more than 7 m/s in Gharo Wind Corridor
    • Estimated wind potential more than 50,000 MW
    • Other sites in Balochistan and Northern Areas being identified
    • From AEDB
    Gharo Wind Corridor Rajasthan: 970 MW Gujarat: 700 MW 2007
  • The Gharo effect at sea The shallow ocean waters and relatively calm conditions (as compared to the North Sea) makes the potential for harnessing offshore wind energy very promising!
  • Optimal match with peak summer demand Summer season April - August
  • Wind power development goal 9,700 MW by year 2030 as directed by President and Prime Minister AEDB goal - Installation of 100 MW wind farm by June 2006 near Karachi and 700 MW by 2010. AEDB 2006 * Targets are slipping!
  • Wind power: A missed opportunity
    • Reasons for current predicament:
    • Poor strategic decision making - Pakistan over 20 years
    • behind India
    • State bureaucrats familiar with large thermal and hydropower projects failed to appreciate the technological trends and potential of wind energy
    • Uncomfortable with input of unregulated energy
    • Will the same lack of vision prevail with Solar PV?
  • Wind projects: Reasons for development delay
    • Lack of Long Term Wind Data
    • Global Demand for Wind Turbines:
    • - High cost of equipment
    • - Long delivery times
    • - Lack of international contractor interest
    • - Pioneering projects in tidal zone (high civil costs)
  • “ Bureaucratic Resistance”
    • Technocrats and planners lack of familiarity with wind power and its integration to the grid.
    • Attitudes based on inaccurate and/or outdated information.
    • Heavy bias against wind due to its variability - the “unregulated supply” is considered problematic!
  • Expressing technical preferences
    • Direct drive vs geared
    • Voltage regulation & reactive power
    • “ Black start” capability
    • Island operation
    • Why express these requirements on
    • pioneering wind projects?
  • World Solar PV 2007
    • The PV industry
    • generated $17.2 billion
    • in global revenues in
    • 2007
    • Germany - 1,328 MW
    • Spain - 640 MW
    • USA - 220 MW
    Japan plans to use solar PV to meet 10% of its peak demand by 2030 (20+ GW?)
  • Grid tied solar PV examples
    • US “sun belt” states incentives and regulations for new homes to include roof top solar PV for operating on net metering basis.
    • Municipal headquarters in San Francisco has a 100 KW solar PV system installed.
    • Google has installed a total of 1.6 megawatts (MW) onsite at its headquarters in California (more than 9,000 solar panels on the tops of roofs and parking lots).
    • Europe implementing large scale solar PV systems on commercial buildings.
  • Solar PV in India & China
    • India has an installed capacity of 3 MW with total
    • of 32 grid interactive solar PV power plants.
    • February 28, 2008
    • “ China’s installed capacity of solar PV will reach
    • 100GW by 2030, generating 130 TWh electricity
    • annually, which is equal to electricity generation of
    • more than 30 large-scaled coal power stations”
    • September 19, 2007
    • China Solar PV Report - China Renewable Energy Industry Association
  • Thailand: “Key player in solar PV development”
    • With the rising price of oil and other conventional
    • fuels, the government is turning to solar and other
    • forms of AE to meet the growing power demand:
    • Demand for electricity expected to double over the next 15 years - increasing approx. 13%/yr.
    • From 21,000 MW in 2005 & estimated to top 50,000 MW by 2020.
    • Thailand target: 5,000 MW of solar PV by 2020
    • (10% of peak supply)
  • Benefits of grid tied solar PV: The mini IPP
    • Power produced at source with net metering (commercial & residential buildings)
    • No transmission and distribution losses
    • Relief to overloaded distribution infrastructure
    • Peaking power (summer - daytime)
    • Growth of new business opportunities
    • Green power source
  • Proposed ‘on grid’ solar PV pilot schemes
    • Large scale (10-100KW)
    • - R&D facilities, universities, m ilitary bases
    • - Companies (enhance PR image: “green”)
    • - Government buildings, large hotels
    • - Hospitals
    • Medium scale (1-10KW)
    • - “Affluent” homes
    • - Schools
    • Net metering rather than tariff!
  • The perils of not going “GREEN” A Carbon Tax on exports?
    • “ We have to understand that every product we buy
    • from China is made with dirty fuel. I think that in
    • the future what we will do is treat those countries
    • which produce goods without regard for the
    • environment the same way as we deal with
    • countries that violate human rights and have
    • sweatshops. As the ultimate consumer, America has
    • a lot of power here”
    • Arnold Schwarzenegger - Governor of California
    • May 6, 2007
  • Thank You!