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Combustion Studies By Dr. Ahmed

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Combustion Studies by Dr. Ahmed

Combustion Studies by Dr. Ahmed

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    • 1. COMBUSTION STUDIES OF PALM OLEIN/DISTILLATE OIL BLENDS – AN ALTERNATIVE GREEN FUEL FOR INDUSTRIAL GAS TURBINES Prof. Dr. Farid Nasir Ani Ahmad Hussain Muhammad Irfan Shaikh Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai, Johor Bahru, Malaysia March 2008 1
    • 2. INTRODUCTION  Depletion of fossil energy resources earlier than expected and environmental concerns has prompted the world to reconsider extensive research on renewable energy resources in recent years.  Vegetable oils have been seen as a promising source of renewable energy, due to the increasing prices of crude petroleum oil which is controlled by OPEC.  Many countries in the world today have taken measures to substitute or partly substitute fossil diesel with vegetable oil.  Malaysia has been considering converting palm oil as energy source since mid 80’s but the commercialization of palm diesel has been impeded by the price of palm oil that remains higher than fossil diesel. 2
    • 3. INTRODUCTION Recently, palm olein from vegetable oil has gained attention as a new renewable energy source to substitute fossil diesel. This work examines the technical potential of biodiesel produced from palm olein as gas turbine fuel in Malaysia. TNB Research Sdn. Bhd. is currently conducting a research on “Technical Studies of Palm Olein/Diesel Oil Blends as a Gas Turbine Fuel”. The studies which cover an investigation into the physical and chemical properties of blended palm olein/diesel oils, other works relating to the technical, environment and commercial impact, and the technique for combustion test of this oil in test rig has been proposed 3
    • 4. Status of Blended Oil Use in Gas Turbines  Current gas turbine systems that are capable of   burning fuels are normally developed for a single   specific fuel (such as natural gas or domestic fuel oil) and use conventional diffusion flame technology with relatively high levels of NOx and partially unburned species emissions. (Adoune et. al 2001)  Extensive research work is being done in atomization and spray characteristics of liquid fuels, the combustion and emission characteristics of the selected alternative fuel flames, the sooting tendency and NOx emission properties of the fuels under various operation conditions. (Sharma et. al 2004) 4
    • 5. Status of Blended Oil Use in Gas Turbines  Fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) is being used as   alternative fuel, in gas turbines, as they have   similar properties to Diesel fuel, FAMEs are alternative fuels capable of being directly used in a turbine and can be blended in various proportions with Diesel fuel (generally 5% or 30% FAME in Diesel fuel). (Iskender et. al 2004)  The high C/H ratio (high carbon content) of the ash pyrolysis oil from wood, the vegetable oils and the methyl esters may pose a problem of deposits in the combustion chamber of gas turbines. (Sierra et. al 2005) 5
    • 6. Status of Blended Oil Use in Gas Turbines Burning bio-oils in gas turbines is also  receiving an increased interest. There are however only few studies on the later subject. ( Boucher et. al 2000) The hot section components can be damaged by high-temperature corrosion due to the ash present in the biofuel, which reduces the protective oxide surface film of the alloy. ( Aulisa et. al 2004) 6
    • 7. Physical Properties of Palm Olein The physical characteristics of blended palm Olein/  diesel fuels are different from crude palm oil or diesel fuel Viscosity is a critical property of any liquid fuel  particularly for gas turbine combustion. High viscosity of the fuel affects the fuel  atomisation behaviour of the burner and could results in poor ignition characteristic, smokes and lower combustion efficiency or increase the formation of carbon. 7
    • 8. Physical Properties of Palm Olein The methods of testing on the physical and chemical properties are given in Table below: 8
    • 9. Physical Properties of Palm Olein PROPERTIES OF DISTILLATE/PALM OLEIN BLENDED FUELS D/PO 100/0 80/20 60/40 50/50 40/60 0/100 KINEMATICS 3.973 6.799 10.21 12.81 16.74 40.41 VISCOSITY (cSt)ASTM D 445-94 GROSS 50,640 45,440 44,100 44,170 44,570 42,000 CALORIFIC VALUE (kJ/kg)ASTM D 240-76 9
    • 10. PROPERTIES OF DISTILLATE/PALM OLEIN BLENDED FUELS D/PO 100/0 80/20 60/40 50/50 40/60 0/100 MICRO CARBON RESIDUE 0.01 0.02 0.06 0.08 0.10 0.17 (MCRT) (%) ASTM D4530-93 CONRADSON CARBON RESIDUE 0 0.001 0.081 0.105 0.136 0.178 (CCR) (%) ASTM D189-88 % NITROGEN 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.00 0.01 0.01 CHNS % CARBON 84.76 83.20 81.31 80.18 79.44 75.84 CHNS % HIDROGEN 14.96 14.70 14.36 14.16 13.89 13.31 CHNS % SULPHUR 0.27 0.20 0.18 0.15 0.17 0.07 CHNS KALIUM 1 ppm 4 ppm 2 ppm 1 ppm 1 ppm 1 ppm AAS NATRIUM 2 ppm 1 ppm 1 ppm 1 ppm 1 ppm 1 ppm AAS 10
    • 11. PROPERTIES OF DISTILLATE/PALM OLEIN BLENDED FUELS 11
    • 12. Combustion Firing Test Rig The combustion chamber is made of 310S stainless-steel cylindrical tube of 290 mm internal diameter and 1690 mm length, with outside ceramic fiber insulation. 12
    • 13. Fuel Oil Burner The burner used in this system is RIELLO 40G Series G10 with heat output range 54 to 120 kW. 13
    • 14. 14
    • 15. 15
    • 16. 16
    • 17. Temperature Measurement The surface temperature profile of the flame was measured with K- type thermocouples which can withstand the temperature up to 1300oC. These thermocouples are 8mm in diameters and coated with stainless steel to alleviate effect of the combustion flame. 17
    • 18. Emission Measurement Telegan Tempest 100 Combustion Performance Gas analyzer probe mounted to exhaust section Analyzer The probe using to measure mean gasses from exhaust section. 18
    • 19. Fuel Blending Blended fuels stored in containers Blades of the stirrer Blending were done for following: 80% Diesel 20% Palm Olein 70% Diesel 30% Palm Olein 60% Diesel 40% Palm Olein 50% Diesel 50% Palm Olein 40% Diesel 60% Palm Olein Fuel Blending Apparatus 19
    • 20. SMOKE AND SOUND MEASUREMENTS BOSCH Smoke Meter Sound Level Meter BOSCH Smoke Evaluating Unit 20
    • 21. 21
    • 22. 100D 80D/20PO 70D/30PO 60D/40PO 50D/50PO 40D/60PO 0.6 1.0 2.0 2.4 Φ=1.108 2.7 Φ=1.069 3.0 3.3 Φ=1.007 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 22 8.0 Φ=0.864 Φ=0.877 Φ=0.885
    • 23. 100D 80D/20PO 70D/30PO 60D/40PO 50D/50PO 40D/60PO 0.6 Φ=1.736 Φ=1.737 Φ=1.742 Φ=1.951 Φ=1.949 Φ=1.940 1.0 Φ=1.552 Φ=1.576 Φ=1.590 Φ=1.615 Φ=1.613 Φ=1.605 2.0 Φ=1.154 Φ=1.172 Φ=1.182 Φ=1.201 Φ=1.199 Φ=1.194 2.4 Φ=1.071 Φ=1.089 Φ=1.098 Φ=1.115 Φ=1.114 Φ=1.108 2.7 Φ=1.029 Φ=1.045 Φ=1.054 Φ=1.070 Φ=1.069 3.0 Φ=0.989 Φ=1.005 Φ=1.013 Φ=1.029 3.3 Φ=0.968 Φ=0.983 Φ=0.991 Φ=1.007 4.0 Φ=0.923 Φ=0.938 Φ=0.946 5.0 Φ=0.891 Φ=0.905 Φ=0.913 6.0 Φ=0.882 Φ=0.896 Φ=0.904 7.0 Φ=0.878 Φ=0.892 Φ=0.899 23 8.0 Φ=0.864 Φ=0.877 Φ=0.885
    • 24. 24
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    • 26. 26
    • 27. Temperatures Profile 100% Diesel Baffle Setting= 8.0 Φ=0.864 1200.0 1100.0 1000.0 900.0 800.0 10 700.0 20 30 600.0 40 50 500.0 60 400.0 300.0 200.0 100.0 0.0 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 2200 Furnace Length, L( mm) 27
    • 28. 28
    • 29. RECOMMENDATIONS As far the temperature distribution and flame   structure is concerned, it is recommended that the palm olein blending should not be done in excess of 40%. As NOx emission increases rapidly as the palm olein concentration increases above 40% so the blending should be kept around 30%. The soot formation is important for the extended turbine life as excess soot formation can damage the protective oxide layer of combustion chamber. 29
    • 30. Thank You 30

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