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Islam
 

Islam

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    Islam Islam Presentation Transcript

    • ISLAMIC CIVILIZATION
    • THE ORIGINS OF ISLAM
      • Islam (surrender) was born in the 7th century in Arabia.
      • Arabs lived in tribes in the desert.
      • They lived basicaly on raising animals like camels or goats.
      • These tribes fought against each other.
      • There were two important commercial cities: Medina and Mecca.
      • They were polytheistic and adored the Kaaba.
    • MUHAMMAD, THE PROPHET
      • 610 A.D. Angel Gabriel speaks to Muhammad.
      • “ You are the appointed one”, the final prophet.
      • He received the Qur’an, the sacred book containing the laws that govern the life of Muslims.
      • 622 he left Mecca because the new religion was not accepted by the powerful people. He fled to Medina and he converted the city (Hijra).
      • This date marks the beginning of the Muslim calendar.
      • When he died in 632, nearly all the Arabian Peninsula was converted to Islam.
    •  
    • THE FIVE PILLARS OF ISLAM
      • Shahadah : “There is only one God, Allah and Muhammad is his prophet”
      • Prayer : five times a day.
      • Charity / Alms .
      • Ramadan : Islam’s holy month.
      • Pilgrimage to Mecca , at least once in a lifetime.
      • There is often a sixth pillar included: Jihad , the seek of spiritual perfection. That includes converting other people to Islam.
    •  
    • RELIGION
      • Muslim refers to the islamic religion.
      • Arab refers to geographical origin.
      • Arabic refers to language.
      • So, one person can be an Arab but not a Muslim or a Muslim but not an Arab.
      • Sharia : Islamic law. No distinction between religious and secular life.
      • Their sacred day is Friday .
      • They cannot eat pork, drink alcohol, charge too much for lending money or gamble.
    • DIVISIONS OF ISLAM
      • SUNNIS
        • Most of muslims.
        • Leaders chosen through consensus.
        • Sharia was codified and closed by 10th century.
      • SHII
        • About 15%
        • Leader should be a descendant of Muhammad.
        • Religious leaders have authority to interpret the sharia.
    • EXPANSION OF ISLAM
      • Islam started in 622 and in 711 it had spread through part of Asia, Africa and it had arrived in Spain.
      • How could it spread so far and so quickly?
        • Zeal of new converts.
        • Attacked weak empires (Byzantium)
        • It offered social improvement to some groups such as peasants or ethnic minorities: All are equal before Allah.
    • STEPS OF THE EXPANSION
      • Orthodox Caliphate (632-661)
        • Muslims conquered Syria, Palestine, Persia and Egypt from the Byzantines
        • There were three caliphs elected unanimously.
        • When they had to elect the fouth (Ali) some problems arouse.
        • Ali fled to Persia and started a new branch of Islam: Shii
        • As a result, a new dynasty, the Omeya, started.
        • The capital of the Orthodox Caliphate was Medina.
      • Omeya Caliphate (661-750)
        • They made caliphate hereditary.
        • The capital was Damascus.
        • They spread from Indus River to the Iberian Peninsula.
        • The Franks stopped them in Poitiers (732)
        • They fought against the Byzantines but did not defeat them.
        • A new dynasty started, the Abassid.
    • THE ABASSID DYNASTY
      • 750 Abul Abbas rebelled against the Omeyas, killing all the members of the family except prince Abderraman, who fled to the Iberian Peninsula.
      • Bagdad became the capital.
      • Domestic fights for power.
      • Destruction of the empire began.
      • Turk power grew. Turks were muslim people coming from Asia.
      • Turks became the most powerful in the 13th century.
    •  
    • THE ORGANIZATION OF THE EMPIRE
      • Maximum authority, the caliph. He had the political and religious power.
      • Viziers helped the caliph. They were like ministers.
      • In the provinces there were walis, who had the political and military power.
      • Qadis were judges according to the Qu’ran.
      • Ulemas interpreted the Koranic law.
    • LIFESTYLE. CITIES (MEDINA)
      • The centre of political, economic, religious and cultural life.
      • The most important cities were Damascus, Bagdad, Cairo and Córdoba.
      • There were craftsmen, merchants, servants and slaves.
      • The medina was surrounded by a wall. Inside the wall there was the alcazar, the aljama (great mosque), the souk, alhondigas (stores) and baths.
      • The streets were narrow and not well organised.
      • Out of the wall there the “arrabales” where some people lived and craftsmen worked the leather.