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  2. 2. THE ORIGINS OF ISLAM <ul><li>Islam (surrender) was born in the 7th century in Arabia. </li></ul><ul><li>Arabs lived in tribes in the desert. </li></ul><ul><li>They lived basicaly on raising animals like camels or goats. </li></ul><ul><li>These tribes fought against each other. </li></ul><ul><li>There were two important commercial cities: Medina and Mecca. </li></ul><ul><li>They were polytheistic and adored the Kaaba. </li></ul>
  3. 3. MUHAMMAD, THE PROPHET <ul><li>610 A.D. Angel Gabriel speaks to Muhammad. </li></ul><ul><li>“ You are the appointed one”, the final prophet. </li></ul><ul><li>He received the Qur’an, the sacred book containing the laws that govern the life of Muslims. </li></ul><ul><li>622 he left Mecca because the new religion was not accepted by the powerful people. He fled to Medina and he converted the city (Hijra). </li></ul><ul><li>This date marks the beginning of the Muslim calendar. </li></ul><ul><li>When he died in 632, nearly all the Arabian Peninsula was converted to Islam. </li></ul>
  4. 5. THE FIVE PILLARS OF ISLAM <ul><li>Shahadah : “There is only one God, Allah and Muhammad is his prophet” </li></ul><ul><li>Prayer : five times a day. </li></ul><ul><li>Charity / Alms . </li></ul><ul><li>Ramadan : Islam’s holy month. </li></ul><ul><li>Pilgrimage to Mecca , at least once in a lifetime. </li></ul><ul><li>There is often a sixth pillar included: Jihad , the seek of spiritual perfection. That includes converting other people to Islam. </li></ul>
  5. 7. RELIGION <ul><li>Muslim refers to the islamic religion. </li></ul><ul><li>Arab refers to geographical origin. </li></ul><ul><li>Arabic refers to language. </li></ul><ul><li>So, one person can be an Arab but not a Muslim or a Muslim but not an Arab. </li></ul><ul><li>Sharia : Islamic law. No distinction between religious and secular life. </li></ul><ul><li>Their sacred day is Friday . </li></ul><ul><li>They cannot eat pork, drink alcohol, charge too much for lending money or gamble. </li></ul>
  6. 8. DIVISIONS OF ISLAM <ul><li>SUNNIS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most of muslims. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leaders chosen through consensus. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sharia was codified and closed by 10th century. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>SHII </li></ul><ul><ul><li>About 15% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leader should be a descendant of Muhammad. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Religious leaders have authority to interpret the sharia. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 9. EXPANSION OF ISLAM <ul><li>Islam started in 622 and in 711 it had spread through part of Asia, Africa and it had arrived in Spain. </li></ul><ul><li>How could it spread so far and so quickly? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Zeal of new converts. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attacked weak empires (Byzantium) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It offered social improvement to some groups such as peasants or ethnic minorities: All are equal before Allah. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 10. STEPS OF THE EXPANSION <ul><li>Orthodox Caliphate (632-661) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Muslims conquered Syria, Palestine, Persia and Egypt from the Byzantines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There were three caliphs elected unanimously. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When they had to elect the fouth (Ali) some problems arouse. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ali fled to Persia and started a new branch of Islam: Shii </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As a result, a new dynasty, the Omeya, started. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The capital of the Orthodox Caliphate was Medina. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 11. <ul><li>Omeya Caliphate (661-750) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They made caliphate hereditary. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The capital was Damascus. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They spread from Indus River to the Iberian Peninsula. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Franks stopped them in Poitiers (732) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They fought against the Byzantines but did not defeat them. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A new dynasty started, the Abassid. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 12. THE ABASSID DYNASTY <ul><li>750 Abul Abbas rebelled against the Omeyas, killing all the members of the family except prince Abderraman, who fled to the Iberian Peninsula. </li></ul><ul><li>Bagdad became the capital. </li></ul><ul><li>Domestic fights for power. </li></ul><ul><li>Destruction of the empire began. </li></ul><ul><li>Turk power grew. Turks were muslim people coming from Asia. </li></ul><ul><li>Turks became the most powerful in the 13th century. </li></ul>
  11. 14. THE ORGANIZATION OF THE EMPIRE <ul><li>Maximum authority, the caliph. He had the political and religious power. </li></ul><ul><li>Viziers helped the caliph. They were like ministers. </li></ul><ul><li>In the provinces there were walis, who had the political and military power. </li></ul><ul><li>Qadis were judges according to the Qu’ran. </li></ul><ul><li>Ulemas interpreted the Koranic law. </li></ul>
  12. 15. LIFESTYLE. CITIES (MEDINA) <ul><li>The centre of political, economic, religious and cultural life. </li></ul><ul><li>The most important cities were Damascus, Bagdad, Cairo and Córdoba. </li></ul><ul><li>There were craftsmen, merchants, servants and slaves. </li></ul><ul><li>The medina was surrounded by a wall. Inside the wall there was the alcazar, the aljama (great mosque), the souk, alhondigas (stores) and baths. </li></ul><ul><li>The streets were narrow and not well organised. </li></ul><ul><li>Out of the wall there the “arrabales” where some people lived and craftsmen worked the leather. </li></ul>