Over time, any civil society organisation that is in direct receipt of DFID funds will need to adhere to similar standards of transparency. The decision to invest in an intervention requires a judgement of whether the expected development results justify the costs. The diversity of DFID’s portfolio makes it difficult to produce comparable measures of what constitutes good value for money for many interventions. Therefore there is no standard hurdle rate for DFID’s interventions. To maximise the impact of UK aid we need to be careful about the results (outputs and outcomes) we expect to achieve as well as the costs. We also have to be confident in the strength of the evidence base and explicit in stating the underlying assumptions we are relying on in achieving the outputs and outcomes. Looking at the 3Es – Economy, Efficiency and Effectiveness. Costs : VfM doesn’t mean we should do the cheapest thing, but we do have to understand the cost drivers. Just because educating a girl in Ghana costs less than educating a girl in DRC it does not mean we should divert all of our funds to girls’ education in Ghana. Costs are going to vary based on the different environments we work in. The hardest to reach people and places are more expensive to deliver development results to. VfM doesn’t mean we withdraw from these activities. The important thing is to make sure we understand our cost drivers and to make sure we get the desired quality of inputs at the cheapest possible price. Where we work through partners we need to be confident that they have the right systems and behaviours in place to also do this.
Sussex Development Lecture on Civil Society, by Roy Trivedy, Head of Civil Society, DfID
Civil Society in a changing landscape - Presentation to the University of SussexRoy Trivedy,Head Civil Society Department8 March 2012Slide 1
Objectives• Key changes landscape of international development - how are these affecting civil society?• How CSOs are responding to challenges and opportunities?• Flag some areas where researchers and academia could assist more effectivelySlide 2
Changing Global Context• 3 Years to 2015 - review of MDGs• Economic downturn• Climate and environment challenges• Rise of emerging powers• Poverty in MICs and countries affected by conflict• Humanitarian work –Pakistan floods, East Africa famine, changes in MENA global economic downturn• Poor facing: Food, fuel and financial crises• Impact at home and overseas.. cuts in public spending, pressure on public giving, aid flows and remittancesSlide 3
UK Government response• Dealing with the budget deficit DFID• Structural Reform Plan • BAR, MAR & HERR • Focus on:• Push for more efficient public Results, Outcomes and Impact services Evidence based work Value for Money• Stronger Commercial ethos Transparency Women and Girls• ‘Big Society’ not ‘Big Government’ Learning ..better practice• Bribery Act 2010 • Independent Commission on Aid• Commitment to meet UN aid Impact (ICAI) target of 0.7 of GNI in 2013Slide 4
Why work with Civil Society?“CSOs help relieve poverty by reaching disadvantaged groups and geographical areas that governments often fail to reach”“CSOs can respond quickly and flexibly to humanitarian needs and are often better at supporting particular groups of poor”• Important to protect ‘space’ for vibrant civil society• But limited evidence of:(viii)CSOs (individually or collectively) enabling chronically poor to organise and do things for themselves;(ix)CSOs consistently performing more effectively than other aid modalitiesSlide 5
Objectives for DFID’s work with civil society1. Deliver goods and services2. Empower citizens to be more effective in holding governments to account and to do things for themselves3. Influence policies at national, regional and international levels including on aid effectiveness4. Build and maintain space for active civil society5. Promote public support for development by encouraging UK citizens to contribute internationallySlide 6
DFID Afghanistan DFID Nepal Liberia DFID Mozambique DFID Ghana DFID Pakistan DFID Sierra Leone South DFID Malawi DFID India Asia West & DFID Nigeria DFID Zambia Division Southern £80M Other £63M DFID Bangladesh DFID Zimbabwe OtherMiddle East, Caribbean, DFID DRC DFID Burundi DFID TanzaniaNorth Asia Division DFID Indonesia DFID Rwanda£23M DFID Ethiopia Other Iraq Other Country East & DFID Vietnam Africa DFID Uganda Programmes £170M Central DFID Caribbean Latin America Africa Conflict & Humanitarian £67M £273M DFID Sudan & Nicaragua DFID Cambodia Africa Regional Department DFID Kenya & Somalia Pan-Africa Strategy & Programmes = Fragile State DFID Southern Africa £40M = PSA Country = Budget Support Country = PSA & Budget Support Country DFID £515M Civil Research & Evidence Society Other Dept. Trade Policy UNDP £141M Unit World Bank Policy & Multilaterals Europe & Central Research Growth & Investment Donor Relations £242M Directorate Minimum £160M £175M Evaluation Governance & Department Social Development Climate & Environment Human Development EC Communications Division Conflict, Humanitarian and SecuritySlide 7
Key changes in DFID’s work with Civil Society• Balance between support for • Introduction of new ‘Business small, medium and larger CSOs Cases’ to justify investments• More competition, stronger focus • Increased pre contract due on outcomes, outputs and VfM diligence• DFID focal countries + HDI bottom • Encouraging matched and 50 performance based funding• Increasing focus on tangible • Emphasis on use of evidence and results/less on campaigning work independent evaluations• Ceiling on central funding to CSOs • Aiming to generate learning, - max 40% of org income sharing and better practice• Transparency GuaranteeSlide 8
How are CSOs responding?• The example of Sniff, Scurry, Hem and Haw… “Who Moved My Cheese” by Spencer Johnson (1998) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fEH6fvU8i7o&feature=relatedSlide 9
Results and ‘theory of change’ “An intervention will begin with a belief about how it will work – but the process through which• Improved understanding of what programme inputs lead to outputs, works - judgement based on the and outputs covert to the Outcome strength of evidence supporting and Impact, often remains opaque interventions (‘the black box’ of the change process). This needs to be articulated, and its theoretical foundations made explicit….” DFID Revised Business Case How to Note, August 2011Slide 10
What are we learning? “I think you should• Be explicit about all the be more explicit here causal links between each in Stage 2…” stage between inputs, outputs, short and long term outcomes• Spell out assumptions – about causality/theory, programme implementation and external factors• Indicate evidence (or lack of it) for each causal link and seek beneficiary feedbackSlide 11
Improving Value for Money• VfM means maximising the impact of every £1 spent to improve poor people’s lives …not necessarily doing the least cost option or easiest to measure thing• Aims to develop understanding of costs of delivering work to enable better informed, evidence based choices to be made• Challenge to know the cost of inputs; develop better ways to assess ‘value’; and consider ‘opportunity costs’• A process of continuous improvementSlide 12
Evaluation Systems and Practice• Due Diligence work shows .. “Patchy systems and practice” across civil society (UK and Global)• Some strong examples• But generally need for more systematic, research guided interventions - to put ‘evidence into use’• Investment needed to improve systems that contribute to better practiceSlide 13
Responding to the Aid Transparency Challenge• Bond Survey Jan 2012 - Which information does your organisation intend to publish in the IATI format?Slide 14
Valuing Learning•Establishment of a new DFID/CS ‘Learning Partnership’•Focusing on: Empowerment and Accountability Inclusion Resilience Institutional Effectiveness• Challenge to assess how the learning leads to better practice!Slide 15
Next steps• Portfolio Review refresh (June 2012)• Mid term evaluations of key CS programmes used to allocate DFID resources and design new programmes• ICAI Review (end of 2012)Slide 16
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