Photo: Renato Guimaraes/Oxfam Jeronima: ‘ My father never realised about our rights. We just did what the white people told us – only they could be in power, be President. We couldn’t even go into the town centre – people swore at us. But then we got our own organisation and elected our own leaders and that’s when we realised we had rights.’ Feudalism and football teams Growing struggles and linking up with highland Indians Election of Morales 2006 1m hectares July 2007 Power within: Gender: . ‘We used to meet separately as women, but now we meet with the men – we’re no longer afraid,’ Indigenous: ‘ILO Convention 169 [on indigenous rights] was important, it made our indigenous part wake up’ Why Active Citizens? Recognizes agency of poor people Starts from multidimensional nature of poverty Builds on Oxfam’s identity as a rights-based agency Builds on instrumental benefits of AC, eg in preventing famine or encouraging good governance
Photo (right): Ryan Kenward Botswana: The world’s fastest growing economy from 1960-2000, breaking all the rules – arid, landlocked, small, nat resource dependent, regional conflict and African. Independence: 13km of paved road, handful of graduates, $300 per cap 40 years on: $6,000 per cap How? Effective state and luck Why Effective States? Lessons of history – East Asia and others (aka developmental states) Definition: Effective, accountable states Have powerful and insulated technocracies that establish stable and enforce inclusive ‘rules of the game’ on politics, taxation, law and the working of markets Have determined, skilled and nationalist business elites Protect the vulnerable (eg social protection) Mediate and resolve conflicts
What is it? <ul><li>An NGO narrative on development – literature review + conversation + programme experience (mainly Asia, Latin America and Africa) </li></ul><ul><li>A ‘reflection’ on the state of development, i.e. not an agreed Oxfam policy position </li></ul><ul><li>Target audience: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Next generation leaders and opinion formers, North and South </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Current development practitioners, policy makers, influencers </li></ul></ul></ul>
What’s the vision? <ul><li>Women and men in communities everywhere who are equipped with education, enjoying good health, with rights, dignity and voice - in charge of their own destinies </li></ul>“ ”
Inequality is falling in some countries… Annual % Gini Change 0 -1 -2 -3
… but rising in many more Annual % Gini Change 4 3 2 1 0
Dilemma: are Effective States compatible with Active Citizens?
Dilemma: are Effective States compatible with Active Citizens? <ul><li>Nation builders are often undemocratic </li></ul><ul><li>But East Asia distorts the picture - autocrats often fail and civil society is now less tolerant of ‘benevolent dictators’ </li></ul><ul><li>Social contracts have triggered development (e.g. Scandinavia), but selection bias excludes such states </li></ul><ul><li>According to study by Rodrik, democracies: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Produce more predictable long run growth rates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Produce greater short term stability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Handle shocks much better </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deliver more equality </li></ul></ul>
Climate Change v Redistribution <ul><li>Climate Change makes redistribution both more urgent, and more difficult </li></ul><ul><li>Three possible outcomes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Climate change avoided, inequality reduced (Global New Deal) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Climate change avoided, but at cost of increased inequality (Carbon Apartheid) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Catastrophic climate change + rising inequality (Meltdown) </li></ul></ul>
Ten challenges <ul><li>What difference does inequality make? </li></ul><ul><li>Do we have a religious blind spot? </li></ul><ul><li>Is it time to go urban? </li></ul><ul><li>Can we really help build effective states? </li></ul><ul><li>What do we do about migration? </li></ul>
Ten challenges, continued <ul><li>How do we integrate humanitarian and development work better? </li></ul><ul><li>Can we be more accountable and/or politically aware? </li></ul><ul><li>Is global institution building a waste of time? </li></ul><ul><li>If national > global, what do we do differently? </li></ul><ul><li>How do we develop a model for how change happens? </li></ul>
And finally….. <ul><li>The power of youtube </li></ul><ul><li>How do you capture a 500 page book in a 2.5 minute video? </li></ul>
For more information… <ul><li>Background papers, downloads, videos, media coverage etc on www.fp2p.org </li></ul><ul><li>Duncan’s blog on www.oxfamblogs.org/fp2p/ </li></ul>
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