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Covalent bonds - Chemistry
 

Covalent bonds - Chemistry

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    Covalent bonds - Chemistry Covalent bonds - Chemistry Presentation Transcript

    • Covalent Bond Covalent Bond Covalent Bond Covalent Bond Covalent Bond Covalent Bond Covalent Bond Covalent Bond Covalent Bond
    • • Bond that is usually formed between by • Non-metal such as hydrogen , carbon and oxygen do not lose electron from their outer shell . • They do not form positive ions by losing electrons . However their outer shells are incomplete. • Electron need to be added to the outer shells to attain the stability of the noble gas atoms. • When the atoms of two non-metals react , all the atom need to gain electrons to complete the octet shell of electrons. They can do this by sharing electrons between them . sharing of electronnon-metal atoms
    • Lewis Structure • Shows how the valence electrons of the atoms are arranged in the molecules . • Example a ) A helium atom has two valence electron *click to see He . . b ) A neon atom has eight valence electrons Ne:: . . . .
    • • Rules for Writing Lewis Structures i ) Add up the valence electrons of all the atom in the molecule. Example : CO2 : C : O O = 16 valence electrons ii ) Use a pair of electrons to form a bond between each pair of atoms iii ) Arrange it like this x x o o xx oo xx oo O : C : O xx xx xx oo oo oo
    • Another example : Hydrogen H H HH Ox
    • Other molecules the are held together by covalent bond
    • Chlorine Molecule
    • ClCl
    • Cl Cl
    • Cl Cl
    • Cl Cl
    • Cl Cl octet
    • Cl Cl octet
    • Cl Cl The octet is achieved by each atom sharing the electron pair in the middle
    • Cl Cl The octet is achieved by each atom sharing the electron pair in the middle
    • Cl Cl This is the bonding pair
    • Cl Cl It is a single bonding pair
    • Cl Cl It is called a SINGLE BOND
    • Double bond can also be shown as single dash Cl - Cl
    • Another example of Single Bond
    • Double Bond sometimes simple is better -_-
    • Oxygen
    • How will two oxygen atoms bond? OO
    • OO Each atom has two unpaired electrons
    • OO
    • OO
    • OO
    • OO
    • OO
    • OO
    • Oxygen atoms are highly electronegative. So both atoms want to gain two electrons. OO
    • Oxygen atoms are highly electronegative. So both atoms want to gain two electrons. OO
    • OO
    • OO
    • OO
    • OO
    • OO Both electron pairs are shared.
    • 6 valence electrons plus 2 shared electrons = full octet OO
    • 6 valence electrons plus 2 shared electrons = full octet OO
    • two bonding pairs, OO making a double bond
    • Double bond can also be shown as double dashes