Uit9 ppt ch10_au_rev

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  • Uit9 ppt ch10_au_rev

    1. 2. Systems Analysis & Programming
    2. 3. 10.1 Systems Development <ul><li>Purpose of a System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A System is a collection of related components that interact to perform a task in order to accomplish a goal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A computer-based system consists of hardware, software, people, procedures, and data, as well as communications setups </li></ul></ul>© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    3. 4. 10.1 Systems Development <ul><li>How It Starts, Who’s Involved </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Users: The new system must ALWAYS be developed in consultation with the people who will be using the completed system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Management: Managers within an organization should be consulted about the system, because they control the budget and resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technical staff: The Information Systems or IT staff must be involved, because they will have to execute the project or work with the people who do </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Systems Analyst: Information specialist who performs systems analysis, design, and implementation </li></ul></ul>© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    4. 5. 10.1 Systems Development <ul><li>Six Phases of Systems Analysis and Design </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Systems analysis and design is a six-phase problem-solving procedure for examining an information systems and improving it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The systems development life cycle (SDLC) is the particular step-by-step process followed during systems analysis and design </li></ul></ul>© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    5. 6. 10.1 Systems Development <ul><li>Systems Development Life Cycle (Six Phases): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Preliminary investigation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Systems analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Systems design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Systems development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Systems implementation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Systems maintenance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Information systems are frequently revised and upgraded </li></ul><ul><li>Steps in the cycle often overlap </li></ul>© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    6. 7. 10.1 Systems Development <ul><li>Phase 1: Conduct a Preliminary Investigation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conduct a preliminary analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Propose alternative solutions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interview people within the organization </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Study what competitors are doing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Decide to leave the system as is, improve it, or develop a new system </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Describe costs and benefits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Submit a preliminary plan with recommendations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This should be a written report </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Get management approvals for next phase </li></ul></ul></ul>© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    7. 8. 10.1 Systems Development <ul><li>Phase 2: Analyze the System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gather data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interview employees and managers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Develop, distribute, analyze questionnaires </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Review current written documents </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Observe people and processes at work </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analyze the data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use modeling tools, such as CASE tools </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Create a data flow diagram to show how data flows through the system </li></ul></ul></ul>© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    8. 9. 10.1 Systems Development <ul><li>Phase 2: Analyze the System ( continued ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Write a report </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Document how the current system works </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Document problems with the current system </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Describe the requirements for the new system </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Recommend what to do next </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Get management approval to proceed </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    9. 10. 10.1 Systems Development <ul><li>Phase 3: Design the System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do a preliminary design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Often involves prototyping and continued use of CASE tools </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do a detail design, showing: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Output requirements </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Input requirements </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Storage requirements </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Processing requirements </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>System controls </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Backup </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Write a report and get approval for next phase </li></ul></ul>© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    10. 11. 10.1 Systems Development <ul><li>Phase 4: Develop the System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop or acquire the software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Make-or-buy decision </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If creating own system, programming (coding must be done) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acquire or upgrade the hardware </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Test the system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unit testing: performance of system’s individual parts tested </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>System testing: parts are linked and tested to see if they work together properly; real data may be used </li></ul></ul></ul>© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    11. 12. 10.1 Systems Development <ul><li>Phase 5: Implement the System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Choose a strategy to convert to the new system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Direct implementation: quit the old and start using the new </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Parallel implementation: use both the old and the new side by side, until the new system has been proved reliable </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Phased implementation: phase in parts of new in gradually as parts of old are phased out </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pilot implementation: have the new system tried out by a few users </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Train the users </li></ul></ul>© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    12. 13. 10.1 Systems Development <ul><li>Phase 6: Maintain the System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Perform system audits and periodic evaluations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make changes to the system based on new conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Finalize documentation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Note that documentation should have been continuously maintained during the entire SDLC </li></ul></ul></ul>© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    13. 14. 10.2 Programming: A Five-Step Procedure <ul><li>A program is a list of instructions that the computer must follow to process data into information </li></ul><ul><li>Programming is done during phase 4 of the SDLC </li></ul><ul><li>The five steps: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clarify/define the problem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Design the program </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Code the program </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Test the program </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Document and maintain the program </li></ul></ul>© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    14. 15. 10.2 Programming: A Five-Step Procedure <ul><li>Step 1: Clarify the Programming Needs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clarify objectives & users </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clarify desired outputs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clarify desired inputs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clarify the desired processing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Double-check the feasibility of implementing the program </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Document the analysis </li></ul></ul>© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    15. 16. 10.2 Programming: A Five-Step Procedure <ul><li>Step 2: Design the Program </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Create an algorithm, or set of clear steps, to solve the problem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use structured programming approach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Determine program logic using top-down approach and modules, using a hierarchy chart (graphic form) and pseudocode (narrative form) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    16. 17. 10.2 Programming: A Five-Step Procedure <ul><ul><li>Pseudocode </li></ul></ul>© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    17. 18. 10.2 Programming: A Five-Step Procedure © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    18. 19. 10.2 Programming: A Five-Step Procedure <ul><li>Step 2: Design the Program ( continued ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Structured programming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use control structures: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sequence: one statement follows another in logical order </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Selection: IF-THEN-ELSE </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Iteration (loop): DO UNTIL / DO WHILE </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    19. 20. 10.2 Programming: A Five-Step Procedure © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    20. 21. 10.2 Programming: A Five-Step Procedure <ul><li>Step 3: Code the Program </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Translate the logic requirement from flowcharts and pseudocode into a programming language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Select a programming language--set of rules that tells the computer what operations to do </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each programming language has a syntax, or set of grammatical rules to follow to write valid expressions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Syntax rules must be followed or there will be syntax errors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Computers don’t understand what you want, only what you type in </li></ul></ul></ul>© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    21. 22. 10.2 Programming: A Five-Step Procedure <ul><li>Step 4: Test the Program </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Desk checking is reading through, or checking, the program for syntax errors and logic errors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Debugging is the process of detecting, locating, and removing all syntax errors and logic errors in a computer program </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Beta testing is the process of testing the program using real data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>One phase of testing uses correct data </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Once the program works, the next phase of testing uses invalid data and untrained users to root out hidden errors </li></ul></ul></ul>© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    22. 23. 10.2 Programming: A Five-Step Procedure <ul><li>Step 5: Document and Maintain the Program </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Documentation is written descriptions of what a program is and how to fix it; should be done through all 5 steps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>User documentation – for the people who will use the program (e.g., user manual – hardcopy or CD, and online) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Operator documentation – for the computer operators, so they know what to do if the program or hardware malfunctions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Programmer documentation – for the next programmer who must modify and maintain what has been written </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Maintain the program – keep everything in working condition </li></ul></ul></ul>© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    23. 24. 10.3 Five Generations of Programming Languages <ul><li>First Generation: Machine Language </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The basic language of the computer – all 0s and 1s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each CPU model has its own machine language, thus machine language is machine dependent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not convenient for people to read and use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evolution of languages started in 1945 </li></ul></ul>© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    24. 25. 10.3 Five Generations of Programming Languages <ul><li>Second Generation: Assembly Language </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low-level mnemonic version of machine language; uses abbreviations and simple words </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Faster to program in than machine language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is also machine dependent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assembler program needed to translate assembly language into machine language </li></ul></ul>© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    25. 26. 10.3 Five Generations of Programming Languages <ul><li>Third Generation: High-level Languages (Procedural Languages) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>These languages resemble human language (e.g., English) and are portable (not machine dependent) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples are FORTRAN, COBOL, BASIC, Pascal, C </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The programmer writes the source code, then uses a translator program to interpret or compile the code into machine language (object code) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interpreter translates and executes immediately </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Compiler translates and saves the code as an entire unit to be executed later </li></ul></ul></ul>© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    26. 27. 10.3 Five Generations of Programming Languages <ul><li>Fourth Generation: Very-High-Level or Problem-Oriented Languages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Easier to program in than third-generation languages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Three types: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Report generators (RPGIII) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Query languages (SQL) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Application generators (NOMAD, FOCUS)—used to create parts for other programs </li></ul></ul></ul>© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    27. 28. 10.3 Five Generations of Programming Languages <ul><li>Fifth Generation: Natural Languages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Programming languages that use human language to give people a more natural connection with computers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Part of the field of artificial intelligence (AI; Chapter 8) </li></ul></ul>© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    28. 29. 10.4 Programming Languages Used Today <ul><li>FORTAN </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The language of mathematics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The first high-level language written </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A machine-independent procedural language </li></ul></ul><ul><li>COBOL </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The most-frequently used language for business legacy applications on mainframe computers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A machine-independent procedural language </li></ul></ul>© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    29. 30. 10.4 Programming Languages Used Today <ul><li>BASIC </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Designed to be an easy language to use and learn programming with </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually run from an interpreter, but can be compiled </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Procedural language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supplanted by Microsoft’s Visual Basic for commercial/business use </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pascal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Designed to be a language to teach programming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Structured, compiled language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not used in business or commercial companies </li></ul></ul>© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    30. 31. 10.4 Programming Languages Used Today <ul><li>C </li></ul><ul><ul><li>General-purpose machine-independent compiled language developed for mid-range computers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used to write the Unix operating system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Widely used for writing common software applications and is necessary for programmers to know </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Doesn’t handle math as well as FORTRAN </li></ul></ul>© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    31. 32. 10.4 Programming Languages Used Today <ul><li>LISP: For Artificial Intelligence Programs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Third-generation language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used to control AI programs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used to write expert systems and natural language programs </li></ul></ul>© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    32. 33. 10.5 Object-Oriented & Visual Programming <ul><li>In object-oriented programming (OOP), data and processing instructions are combined into a self-sufficient object that can be reused </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Object </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Self-contained module consisting of reusable code </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Message </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The instruction received by the object indicating it is time to perform an action </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Method </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The processing instructions within the object to perform the specified action </li></ul></ul></ul>© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    33. 34. 10.5 Object-Oriented & Visual Programming <ul><li>Three basic concepts of OOP </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Encapsulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>One object contains (encapsulates) both data and relevant processing instructions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inheritance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>One object can be used as the foundation for other objects </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Objects can be arranged in hierarchies – classes and subclasses </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Objects can inherit actions and attributes from one another </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Polymorphism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Allows a single definition to be used with different data types and different functions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Means a message produces different results depending on the object it is sent to </li></ul></ul></ul>© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    34. 35. 10.5 Object-Oriented & Visual Programming <ul><li>Examples of OOP languages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>C++ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Object-oriented language that was developed after C </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Often used to write computer games and CPU- and graphics-intensive applications </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Java </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Developed at Sun Microsystems in early 1990s </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Derivative of C++ with simpler memory management and syntax </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Used to develop Java applets to be downloaded into web browsers to make websites interactive and more attractive (e.g., with animations) </li></ul></ul></ul>© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    35. 36. 10.5 Object-Oriented & Visual Programming <ul><li>Visual programming is a method of creating programs in which the programmer makes connections by clicking on objects, diagrams, and icons and by interacting with flowcharts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Using a mouse, the programmer drags and drops objects on screen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This makes it fast and easy to build prototype user interfaces and get end-user approval before doing a lot of programming </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Visual BASIC is an example of visual programming </li></ul>© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    36. 37. 10.6 Markup & Scripting Languages <ul><li>A markup language is a kind of coding (“tags”) inserted into text that embeds details about the structure and appearance of the text </li></ul><ul><ul><li>HTML is a markup language (internet use) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Has codes for indicating layout and styling (such as boldface, italics, paragraphs, insertion of graphics, etc.) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SGML: improved markup language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Specifies a syntax for including the markup in documents </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Allows users to create and use any markup they wish </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Script: short list of self-executing commands embedded in a web page that perform a specified function or routine </li></ul>© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    37. 38. 10.6 Markup & Scripting Languages <ul><li>HTML </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypertext markup language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used to create 2-D web pages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also lets you insert hypertext links in web pages </li></ul></ul><ul><li>VRML </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Virtual Reality Modeling (Markup) Language is used to create 3-D web pages, including interactive animation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires special VRML browser to view VRML pages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used by web designers, along with HTML </li></ul></ul>© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    38. 39. 10.6 Markup & Scripting Languages <ul><li>XML </li></ul><ul><ul><li>eXtensible Markup Language is a metalanguage written in SGML that allows one to facilitate easy document interchange on the internet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>XML lets you create your own tags (“extensible”) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>XML statements define data content </li></ul></ul><ul><li>JavaScript </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not the same language as Java </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An object-oriented scripting language that adds interactive functions to HTML web pages </li></ul></ul>© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    39. 40. 10.6 Markup & Scripting Languages <ul><li>ActiveX </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Developed by Microsoft as an alternative to Java for creating interactive web pages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A set of controls or components that enable programs or content of almost any type to be embedded in a web page; comprises reusable components that can be plugged into other applications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ActiveX controls are written in C, C++, Visual BASIC, and Java </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Often used by crackers to propagate viruses and/or Trojans; before you allow an ActiveX component to download from your browser to your computer, make sure you trust that website </li></ul></ul></ul>© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    40. 41. 10.6 Markup & Scripting Languages <ul><li>Perl </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A general-purpose programming language developed for text manipulation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used for web development, network programming, system administration, GUI development, other tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Widely used for web server programs to perform automatic tasks such as updating user accounts and newsgroup postings </li></ul></ul>© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    41. 42. 10.6 Markup & Scripting Languages <ul><li>CGI (Common Gateway Interface) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Standard protocol for interfacing external application software with a web server </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manages the exchange of information and makes web pages more interactive </li></ul></ul><ul><li>TCL (Tool Command Language) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Created for the Unix platform </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interpreted script language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Comparable to JavaScript and Visual BASIC </li></ul></ul>© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    42. 43. 10.6 Markup & Scripting Languages <ul><li>Ruby </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Basic and completely object-oriented scripting language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Open-source language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be compiled and run on most operating systems </li></ul></ul><ul><li>PHP (Personal Home Page, or PHP Hypertext Preprocessor) and R </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows creation of dynamic content that interacts with databases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Normally found on Linux servers with MySQL databases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>General-purpose scripting language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>R used in data mining </li></ul></ul>© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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