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Uit9 ppt ch08_au_rev

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  • Transcript

    • 1. © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 2. Databases & Information Systems
    • 3. 8.1 Managing Files: Basic Concepts
      • A database is a logically organized collection of related data designed and built for a specific purpose
      • Data is stored hierarchically for easier storage and retrieval
      • Files: collections of related records
        • Records: collections of related fields
          • Field: unit of data containing 1 or more characters
            • Character: a letter number or special character made of bits
              • Bit: a 0 or 1
      © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 4. 8.1 Managing Files: Basic Concepts
      • Key Field – the field that uniquely identifies a record
        • Often an identifying number, such as social security number or a student ID number
        • Keys are used to sort records in different ways
        • Primary keys must be unique
          • Keys are used to access particular records in a database
          • Unique keys make records distinguishable from one another
        • Foreign keys appear in other tables and usually refer to primary keys in particular tables; they are used to relate one table to another (to cross-reference data)
      © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 5. 8.1 Managing Files: Basic Concepts
      • Program files and Data Files
        • Program files are files containing software instructions
          • Source program files are written by the software developer in the programming language
            • Double-clicking on them won’t run them
            • They have such file extensions as .cpp, .jav, .bas
          • Executable files are program files translated so they can be executed on the computer
            • Double-clicking on them will usually cause them to run
            • They have such file extensions as .exe and .com
              • Data files are files that contain--words, numbers, pictures, sounds. etc.
      © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 6. 8.1 Managing Files: Basic Concepts
        • Data files are the files used in databases, spreadsheets, and word-processing documents
          • Data files have filenames and such extensions as .txt (text), .mdb (Acess), .ppt (Powerpoint), and .xls (Excel)
          • Graphics files have such extensions as .tiff, .jpeg, and .png
          • Audio files have such extensions as .mp3, .wav, and .mid
          • Animation/video files have such extensions as .qt, .mpg, .avi, and .rm
        • Data files are often compressed to save space and transmit them faster
        • Compression removes repetitive elements from a file
      © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 7. 8.2 Database Management Systems
      • Database Management System (DBMS)
        • Software written specifically to control the structure of a database and access to the data
          • DBMS benefits:
            • Reduced data redundancy (redundant data is stored in multiple places, which causes problems keeping all the copies current)
            • Improved data integrity--means the data is accurate, consistent, and up to date
            • Increased security—DBMS limits who can create, read, update, and delete the data
            • Ease of data maintenance—DBMS offers validation checks, backup utilities, and standard procedures for data inserting, updating, and deletion
      © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 8. 8.2 Database Management Systems
      • 3 Principal Database Components
        • Data Dictionary
          • Repository that stores the data definitions and descriptions of the structure of the data and the database
        • DBMS Utilities
          • Programs that allow you to maintain the database by creating, editing, deleting data, records, and files
          • Also include automated backup and recovery
        • Report Generator
          • Program for producing on-screen or printed readable documents from all or part of a database
      © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 9. 8.2 Database Management Systems
      • Database Administrator (DBA)
        • Coordinates all related activities and needs for an organization’s database
        • Ensures the database’s:
          • Recoverability
          • Integrity
          • Security
          • Availability
          • Reliability
          • Performance
      © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 10. 8.3 Database Models © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Database Type Description Hierarchical database Fields or records are arranged in a family tree, with child records subordinate to parent or higher-level records Network database Like a hierarchical database, but each child record can have more than one parent record Relational database Relates, or connects, data in different files through the use of a key, or common data element Object-oriented database Uses objects (software written in small, reusable chunks) as elements within database files Multidimensional database Models data as facts, dimensions, or numerical measures for use in the interactive analysis of large amounts of data
    • 11. 8.3 Database Models
      • Hierarchical Database
        • Fields or records are arranged in related groups resembling a family tree with child (low-level) records subordinate to parent (high-level) records
        • Root record is the parent record at the top of the database, and data is accessed top-down, through the hierarchy
        • Oldest and simplest; used in mainframes in 1970s
        • Still used in some reservation systems
        • Is rigid in structure and difficult to update
      © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 12. 8.3 Database Models © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 13. 8.3 Database Models
      • Network Database
        • Similar to a hierarchical database but more flexible-- each child record can have more than one parent record
        • Used principally with mainframe computers
        • Requires the database structure to be defined in advance; flexibility still lacking
      © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 14. 8.3 Database Models © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 15. 8.3 Database Models
      • Relational Database
        • Relates or connects data in different files through the use of a key, or common data element
        • Data stored in tables (relations, or files) of rows (tuples, or records) and columns (attributes, or fields)
        • More flexible than previous models
        • Examples for large systems are Oracle, Informix, Sybase
        • Examples for microcomputers are Paradox and Microsoft Access
        • Users don’t need to know data structure to use the database; primary and foreign keys are used
      © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 16. 8.3 Database Models
        • Relational Database ( continued )
        • Users employ SQL (structured query language) to create, modify, maintain, and query the database
          • Query by Example uses sample record forms to allow users to define the qualifications for choosing records
            • Some relational database allow the use of natural spoken language to make queries
      © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 17. 8.3 Database Models © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 18. 8.3 Database Models
      • Object-Oriented Database
        • Uses “objects,” software written in small, manageable chunks, as elements within data files
        • An object consists of:
          • Data in any form, including audio, graphics, and video
          • Instructions on the action to be taken with the data
          • This model is a multimedia database
        • Examples include FastObjects, GemStone, Objectivity DB, Jasmine Object Database, and KE Texpress
        • Types include web (hypertext) database and hypermedia database, which also includes links
      © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 19. 8.3 Database Models
      • Multidimensional Database
        • Models data as facts, dimensions, or numerical answers for use in the interactive analysis of large amounts of data for decision-making purposes
        • Allows users to ask questions in colloquial language
        • Use OLAP (online analytical processing) software to provide answers to complex database queries
      © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 20. 8.4 Data Mining
      • DM is the computer-assisted process of sifting through and analyzing vast amounts of data to extract hidden patterns and meaning and to discover new knowledge
      • Data is fed into a data warehouse through the following steps:
        • Identify and connect to data sources
        • Perform data fusion and data cleansing
        • Obtain both data and meta-data (data about the data)
        • Transport data and meta-data to the data warehouse
      • Data warehouse is a special database of cleaned-up data and meta-data
      © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 21. 8.4 Data Mining © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 22. 8.4 Data Mining
      • Methods for searching for patterns in the data and interpreting the results
        • Regression analysis
          • Develops mathematical formula to fit patterns in the data that has been extracted
          • Formula is then applied to other data sets of the same type to predict future trends
        • Classification analysis
          • Statistical pattern-recognition process that is applied to data sets with more than just numerical data
      © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 23. 8.4 Data Mining
      • DM applications include:
        • Sports
        • Marketing
        • Health
        • Science
        • Counterterrorism
        • Sentiment analysis
        • Exploring the “deep web”
      © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 24. 8.5 Databases & the Digital Economy
      • E-Commerce (Electronic Commerce)
        • The buying and selling of products and services through computer networks
        • Examples of some e-tailers (electronic retailers):
          • amazon.com sells books and almost everything else
          • sees.com sells candy online
          • priceline.com sells airline tickets and hotel rooms
          • dell.com sells computers and other electronic items
      © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 25. 8.5 Databases & the Digital Economy
      • Innovative e-tailer technologies make online shopping easier
        • 360-degree images
          • Allow you to see all sides of an item
        • Order tracking
          • Bar codes are assigned to items being shipped that allow customers to track shipping progress via the internet
        • Shop bots
          • Programs that help users search for a particular product or service and then provide price comparisons
      © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 26. 8.5 Databases & The Digital Economy
      • Types of E-Commerce
        • Business-to-Business (B2B)
          • A business sells to other businesses using the internet or a private network to cut transaction costs and increase efficiencies
        • Business-to-Consumer (B2C)
          • A business sells goods or services directly to consumers
        • Consumer-to-Consumer (C2C)
          • Consumers sell goods or services directly to other consumers with the help of a third party, such as eBay; résumé sites are also C2C exchanges, as are dating sites and online communities
      © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 27. 8.6 Using Databases to Help Make Decisions
      • Information Systems
        • What are the qualities of good information?
          • Correct and verifiable
          • Complete yet concise
          • Cost effective
          • Current
          • Accessible
      © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 28. 8.6 Using Databases to Help Make Decisions
      • Most organizations have 6 departments within which information must flow:
        • Research and development
        • Production (operations)
        • Marketing and sales
        • Accounting and finance
        • Human resources (personnel)
        • Information systems (IS)
      • Information flows horizontally between these departments
      © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 29. 8.6 Using Databases to Help Make Decisions © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 30. 8.6 Using Databases to Help Make Decisions © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 31. 8.6 Using Databases to Help Make Decisions
      • Besides the 6 departments, many organizations also have 3 levels of management:
        • Strategic-level management
          • Top managers (CEOs, COOs, CFOs, CIOs) concerned with long-term, or strategic, planning and decisions
        • Tactical-level management
          • Middle level managers who make tactical decisions to implement the strategic goals set for the organization
        • Operational-level management
          • Low-level supervisors who make daily operational decisions
      • Information flows vertically through management levels
      © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 32. 8.6 Using Databases to Help Make Decisions
      • A Newer Information Flow: Decentralized Organizations
        • The pyramid management structure is flattened somewhat as employees are given more authority to make day-to-day decisions
        • Employees increasingly linked to a central database
        • Companies use Groupware CSCW (computer-supported cooperative work) systems to enable cooperative work by groups of people
        • Many people can work together from different locations to manage information
      © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 33. 8.6 Using Databases to Help Make Decisions
      • 6 computer-based information systems
        • Office information systems
        • Transaction processing systems
        • Management information systems
        • Decision support systems
        • Executive support systems
        • Expert systems
      © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 34. 8.6 Using Databases to Help Make Decisions
      • 1. Office Information System (OIS)
        • Also called office automation system
        • Combines various technologies to reduce the manual labor required in operating an efficient office and to increase productivity
        • Used throughout all levels of an organization
        • Uses, e.g., fax, voice mail, email, scheduling software, word processing, desktop publishing
        • OIS backbone = network (LAN, intranet, extranet)
      © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 35. 8.6 Using Databases to Help Make Decisions © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 36. 8.6 Using Databases to Help Make Decisions
      • 2. Transaction Processing System (TPS)
        • Transactions are recorded events of routine business activities, such as bills, orders, and inventory
        • TPS systems keep track of the transactions needed to conduct a business
        • Features of a TPS:
          • Input and output: transaction data
          • For operational (low-level) managers
          • Produces detail reports (specific information about routine activities)
          • One TPS for each department
          • Basis for management information systems (MIS) and decision support systems (DSS)
      © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 37. 8.6 Using Databases to Help Make Decisions
      • 3. Management Information System (MIS)
        • Computer-based information system that uses data recorded by a TPS as input to programs that produce routine reports as output
        • Features
          • Inputs are processed transaction data; outputs are summarized, structured reports
          • Designed for tactical (mid-level) managers
          • Draws from all departments
          • Produces several kinds or reports: summary, exception, periodic, and demand
      © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 38. 8.6 Using Databases to Help Make Decisions
      • 4. Decision Support System (DSS)
        • Computer information system that provides a flexible tool for analysis and helps management focus on the future
        • Features
          • Inputs are external data and internal data such as summarized reports and processed transaction data; outputs are demand reports from top managers
          • Assists tactical (mid-level) managers in decision making
          • Produces analytic models
        • Developed to support the types of decisions faced by managers in specific industries
      © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 39. 8.6 Using Databases to Help Make Decisions
      • 5. Executive Support System
        • Easy-to-use DSS made especially for strategic (top-level) managers to support strategic decision making
        • Uses data from internal systems and data from outside
        • Allows executives to call up predefined reports
        • Includes capability to browse through summarized information on all aspects of the organization and drill down for detailed data
        • Allows executives to perform “what-if” scenarios
      © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 40. 8.6 Using Databases to Help Make Decisions
      • 6. Expert System
        • Also called knowledge-based system
        • Set of interactive computer programs that helps users to solve problems that would otherwise require the assistance of a human expert.
        • Used by both management and nonmanagement personnel to solve specific problems
        • One of the most useful applications of Artificial Intelligence (AI)
      © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 41. 8.7 Artificial Intelligence
        • AI is a group of related technologies used to develop software and machines that emulate human qualities such as learning, reasoning, communicating, seeing, and hearing
        • Areas include:
          • Expert systems
          • Natural language processing
          • Intelligent agents
          • Pattern recognition
          • Fuzzy logic
          • Virtual reality and simulation devices
          • Robotics
      © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 42. 8.7 Artificial Intelligence
      • Expert Systems
        • Built by knowledge engineers
        • Include surface knowledge and deep knowledge
        • Three components of an expert system:
          • Knowledge base: an expert system’s database of knowledge about a particular subject
          • Inference engine: the software that controls the search of the expert system’s knowledge base and produces conclusions
          • User interface: the display screen for the user to interact with the expert system
      © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 43. 8.7 Artificial Intelligence
      • Natural language processing
        • Allows users to interact with a system using normal language
        • The study of ways for computers to recognize and understand human language
      • Intelligent agents
        • A form of software with built-in intelligence that monitors work patterns, asks questions, and performs work tasks on your behalf; shop bots are intelligent agents
      • Pattern recognition
        • Involves a camera and software that identify recurring visual patterns by mapping them against similar patterns stored in a database (e.g., visual surveillance and ID of suspicious people)
      © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 44. 8.7 Artificial Intelligence
      • Fuzzy logic
        • A method of dealing with imprecise data and uncertainty, with problems that have many answers rather than one
        • Has been applied in running elevators to determine optimum times for elevators to wait; used in many appliances
      • Virtual reality
        • A computer-generated artificial reality that projects a person into a sensation of 3-D space
        • Often used as simulators to represent the behavior of physical or abstract systems—e.g., for pilot training
      © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 45. 8.7 Artificial Intelligence
      • Robotics
        • The development and study of machines that can perform work that is normally done by people
        • Commonly found in manufacturing plants and also in situations where people would be in danger
          • Nuclear inspections
          • Assembly lines, especially paint lines
          • Checking for land mines and bombs
          • Fighting oil-well fires
          • Mars expedition
      © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 46. 8.7 Artificial Intelligence
      • Weak vs. Strong AI
        • Weak AI
          • Computers can be programmed to simulate human cognition
        • Strong AI
          • Computers can think on a level that is equal to or better than humans and can also achieve consciousness
      © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 47. 8.7 Artificial Intelligence
      • Strong AI
        • Cyc approach to strong AI
          • A database in Austin, TX that holds about 1.4 million basic truths
          • Plan is that Cyc will automatically make human-like assumptions
          • Hope is that Cyc will learn on its own
        • Cog approach to strong AI
          • MIT project that is a humanoid robot with sensory systems
          • Tries to identify and search for patterns instead of following rules and facts
      © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 48. 8.7 Artificial Intelligence
      • Turing Test
        • In 1950 Allen Turing predicted computers would eventually be able to mimic human thinking
        • Turing test determines whether the computer is human
          • Judge is in another location and doesn’t see the computer
          • Judge converses via a computer terminal with two entities: one a person and one a computer
          • Judge must determine who is the person and who the computer
          • If the computer can fool the judge, it is said to be intelligent
          • No computer system has yet passed the Turing test
      © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 49. 8.7 Artificial Intelligence
      • Smarter-Than-Human Computers
        • “ The Singularity”
          • A moment when humans would have created self-aware, smarter-than-human machines capable of designing computers and robots that are better than humans can design today
          • Also may involve transferring the contents of human brains and thought processes into a computing environment
      © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 50. 8.7 Artificial Intelligence
      • Ethics in A.I.
        • Computer software is subtly shaped by the ethical judgments and assumptions of its creators.
        • Will humans lose control of computer systems?
        • There is no such thing as completely value-free technology.
      © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 51. 8.8 The Ethics of Using Databases
      • Privacy concerns
        • Privacy is the right of people not to reveal information about themselves
          • Name migration: your name can migrate to many other databases—you’ll get endless junk mail and telemarketing calls, and targeted ads online
          • Résumé rustling and online snooping
          • Government prying and spying
            • Privacy laws have been enacted, but tension continues between supporters of privacy and supporters of security
            • Is a national ID card necessary?
      © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 52.
      • Identity theft concerns
        • Crime in which thieves hijack your identity and use your good credit rating to get cash, take out loans, order credit cards, and buy things in your name
        • Read Experience Box on pp. 448 – 449 about dealing with ID theft
      © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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