Baring the DeviceConcept familiar among Russian Formalists. Opposite ofverisimilitude: instead of making beholders forget orignore the fact that they are encountering an artifact,much art bares it devices and admits that it is nottransparent but opaque, not life or even like life but awilled simulacrum never able to achievecommensurateness with life itself. Examples includeLaurence Sternes Tristram Shandy, Poes "ThePhilosophy of Composition", Thornton Wilders OurTown. In these examples the result of baring the deviceis, paradoxically, often to make the article all the moreconvincing. Example
BathosThe effect resulting from the unsuccessfuleffort achieve dignity or sublimity of style; anunintentional anticlimax, dropping from thesublime to the ridiculous. Term coined byPope, claiming that depth (bathos) was avirtue for moderns contrasted with heights(hypsos) of the ancients. Way to Remember
Chantey (Shanty)A sailors song marked by strong rhythm and,in the days of sail, used to accompanycertain forms of repetitious hard labor(weighing anchor) performed by seamenworking in a group.
Dead Sea ScrollsAbout 800 documents written between 1stcentury B.C. and about A.D. 70 discovered 1947(and later) in caves near the Dead Sea on theborder of Israel and Jordan. Mainly found incaves, in jars, contain horoscopes, calendars,even portions from the Bible. Different religiousdocuments about Essenism, pre-RabbinicJudaism and Christianity are abound, especiallyone about the Teacher of Righteousness andhis antagonist, the Wicked Priest.
KenosisLiterally, an emptying, an evacuation;theologically, the deed or process by whichChrist took on humble human form,surrendering divinity. Sometimes treated as atrope: a turn from a high level to a lower.
OpsisAristotles term for the spectacle as elementin drama...the least important, coming insixth in order after mythos, ethos, dianoia,lexis and melos. Nowadays used for bothspectacle for audience and the visual/graphicaspect of what a reader sees on a page.
RodomontadeBragging or blustering. So called after thebraggart Moorish king Rodomonte inAriostos Orlando Furioso.
Scriblerus ClubA club organized in London in 1714 byJonathan Swift to satirize literaryincompetence. Members: Pope, Arbuthnot,Bolingbroke, Gay, and Congreve. Expressedits opinions of the false taste of the age,particularly in learning.
ThrenodyA song of death, a dirge.
VoltaThe turn in thought...from question toanswer, problem to solution...that occurs atthe beginning of the sestet in the Italiansonnet (Petrarchan) and sometimes betweenthe 12th and 13th lines in theShakespearean sonnet. Marked by but, yet,or and yet. In the Miltonic sonnet there is nota volta in a fixed position, but the rhymescheme is that of the Pertrachans.
Nobel Prize for Literature When: 1980 Most known works: Who: Czeslaw Milosz, poet, Poem of the Frozen Time & prose-writer Poems (about life in CzaristFrom where: Polish-American Russia)A Song on the End of the World The Captive Mind (about artist struggling under Communism) The Seizure of Power (about Russian occupation of Warsaw) Native Realm: A Search for Self- Definition & Visions from San Francisco Bay (about new life in California) Gift (Dar)
Pulitzer Prize for FictionWhat: Now in November This book is about aby Josephine Winslow middle class urbanJohnsonWhen: 1935 family that is turned into dirt-poor farmers by the Depression. The family goes through drought, fire, personal anguish and ultimately, death.
Pulitzer Prize for PoetryWhat: The Carrier of These poems dealLadders by W. S. Merwin with death, loss, andWhen: 1971 isolation. Some of them being Elegy, The Sadness, The Calling Under the Breath and The Signals. The Poets View
Pulitzer Prize for DramaWhat: The Effect of Scene from the PlayGamma Rays on Man-in- This play is about an old, convertedthe-Moon Marigolds by vegetable shop where Tillie now resides. It is more like a madhousePaul Zindel than a home. Tillies mother,When: 1971 Beatrice is bitter and cruel yet desperate for her daughters love. Her sister, Ruth, has epileptic fits and sneaks cigarettes every chance she gets. In the midst of chaos, Tillie struggles to keep her focus and dreams alive. Tillie is a keeper of rabbits, dreamer of atoms and true believer in life and hope and the effect of gamma rays on man-in- the-moon marigolds.