Fin de Siècle● "End of the century," a phrase applied mostly to the last ten years of the 19th century. The 1890s were a transition in which artists were conciously abandoning old ideas and attempting to discover new techniques.
Spoonerism● An accidental interchange of sounds, usually the initial consonants, in two or more words, such as ○ blushing crow for crushing blow ○ or well-boiled icicle for well-oiled bicycle
Geneva School● A group of critics, including Georges Poulet, Marcel Raymond, Albert Béguin, and the early J. Hillis Miller, who see a literary work as a series of existential expressions of the authors individual consciousness. Although they vary in method and emphasis, the group is consistent in seeing litearture as the expression of that consciousness revealed in the act of reading.
Theatre of the Absurd● A kind of drama that presents a view of the absurdity of the human condition by the abandoning of usual or rational devices and by the ues of nonrealistic form. It portrays a pattern of images presenting people as bewildered creatures in an incomprehensible universe. Examples are The Bald Soprano (Eugène Ionesco) and Waiting for Godot (Samuel Beckett). Other playwrights include Jean Gênet, Arthur Adamov, Edward Albee, Arthur Kopit, and Harold Pinter.
Roman à Clef● A novel in which actual persons aer presented under the guise of fiction. Notable examples have been Madeleine de Schudérys Clélie, Thomas Love Peacocks Nightmare Abbey, Hawthornes The Blithedale Romance, Somerset Maughams Cakes and Ale, Aldous Huxleys Point Counter Point, Hemingways The Sun Also Rises, Capotes Answered Prayers, Carrie Fishers Postcards from the Edge, and almost any of Jack Kerouacs novels.
Beat Generation● A group of American poets and novelists of the 1950s and 1960s in romantic rebellion against what they concieved of as the American culture. They expressed their revolt with loose structure and slang diciton. They opposed anti-intellectual freedom. The groups idealogy included some measure of primitivism, orientalism, experimentation, eccentricity, and reliance on inspirartion from modern jazz (bebop) and from Blake and Whitman. Leading members of the movement were ○ poets: Allen Ginsberg ○ Gregory Corso ○ Lawrence Ferlinghetti ○ and novelists: Jack Kerouac ○ William Burroughs
Aestheticism● 19th century literary movement that rested on the credo of "ART FOR ARTS SAKE." Its origins had a close kinship to the reverence for beauty of the Pre- Raphaelites. Its dominant figures were Oscar Wilde, who insisted on the seperation of art and morality, and Wildes master, Walter Pater. The English Parnassians-- Ernest Downson, Lionlel Johnson, Andrew Lang, and Edmund Gosse--were a part of the movement but were primarily concerned with questions of form rather than sharp seperations of art from moral issues.
Bon Mot● A witty repartee or statement. A clever saying. Sometimes abbreviated to "mot."
Chiaroscuro● Contrasting light and shade. Originally applied to painting, the term is used in the criticism of various literary forms involving the contrast of light and darkness, as in much of Hawthornes and Nabokovs fiction and in Faulkners Light in August. Thomas Pynchons Gravitys Rainbown involves complex interpaly of black and white.
Muses● Nine goddesses represented as presiding over the various departments of art and science. Theyre daughters of Zeus and Mnemosyne (memory). ○ Calliope (epic) ○ Clio (history) ○ Erato (lyrics and love poetry) ○ Euterpe (music) ○ Melpomene (tragedy) ○ Polyhymnia (sacred choric poetry) ○ Terpischore (choral dance and song) ○ Thalia (comedy) ○ Urania (astronomy)
Nobel Prize of 1971for a poetry that with the action of an elemental forcebrings alive a continents destiny and dreams.● Pablo Neruda from Chile (1904-1973)● A poet, diplomat, politician, PabloNerudas style included surrealist poems,historical epics, overtly political manifestos,a prose autobiography, and erotically-charged love poems, evident in his 1924collection Twenty Poems of Love and a Song of Despair.● Other works include Twilight, Enthusiasm and Perserverance, & Residency in the Soil● "Someday, somewhere - anywhere, unfailingly, youll find yourself, and that, and only that, can be the happiest or bitterest hour of your life"
Pulitzer Prize for Fictionof 1967● The Fixer by Bernard Malamud● Inspired by the true story of MenahemMendel Beilis, an unjustly imprisoned Jew inTsarist Russia.● The novel is about a a Jewish handyman or"fixer" who gets arrested on suspicion ofmurder. He is put in jail without trial. Whenasked about his political views he says he is "apolitical." In jail,he contemplates his life and forgives his wife. The "fixer", on theway to a long-awaited trial, imagines a diolauge with a Tzar. Heblames the Tzar for running the most backward nad regressiveregime in Europe. Speaking for the Tzar, the "fixer" says thatthere is no such thing as an apolitical man, especially a Jew."
Pulitzer Prize for Poetryof 1952● Marianne Moore (1887-1972)● For Collected Poems● She is known for her irony,wit, didactic tone and satire.● She is a Modernist poet.
Pulitzer Prize for Drama of 1998● Written by Paula Vogel● The play centers around a teenage girlwho is being taught how to drive by heruncle and is also being molested. Theirrelationship reaches a climax when UnclePeck proposes to her, in which the girl,now in college, rejects him. She learns thatsometimes in life, you must start the engine and floor it.● The play tackles topics of pedophilia, incest, misogyny, control and manipulation.