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GEOLOGY MINERALS NOTES

GEOLOGY MINERALS NOTES

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  • 1. Mineralogy Notes Page 1 of 11University of Colorado GEOLOGY 3010Mineralogy: Fundamental Science of EarthMaterialsLecture Notes Fall, 1995Profs. Joseph R. Smyth and Tamsin C. McCormickCHAPTER I. MINERALS: DEFINITION, PROPERTIES ANDOCCURRENCES1.1. The Science of MineralogyThe science of mineralogy is the study of the physics and chemistry of natural, solid, crystallinematerials.1.1.2. The origin of the chemical elements.The Universe that we perceive is thought to have begun in a "Big Bang" approximately 15 billion yearsago. This cosmic explosion produced among other particles, protons, neutrons, and electrons whichrapidly became organized into the elements hydrogen (1 proton, 1 electron), and helium (2 protons, 2neutrons, and 2 electrons), plus trace amounts of deuterium (1 proton,1 neutron, and 1 electron), 3He (2protons, 1 neutron, 2 electrons), and lithium (3 protons, 3 neutrons, 3 electrons). Most of the mass of thisprimordial material is carried in the protons and neutrons (baryons), each of these particles beingapproximately 1800 times more massive than an electron.As the gas of these primitive elements expanded, gravitational instabilities caused parts to co alesce intohuge clouds that eventually became galaxies and clusters of galaxies. Further, gravitational instabilitieswithin each galaxy caused further collapse of the gas into primitive stars where the very hightemperatures caused by gravitational collapse ignited the fires of thermonuclear fusion in which thenuclei of the primitive light elements combined to form heavier elements. In the largest of these stars, thefusion reactions proceeded in stages producing successively heavier elements. The final reaction in whichSi combines to form Fe proceeds so rapidly once ignited that the star explodes in what we call asupernova. Our own solar system coalesced from the remnants of one or more of these supernovaexplosions.As the gas that formed our solar system collapsed from gravitation it formed a rotating disk of gas thatfirst heated and then cooled. As the gas cooled the heavy elements began to precipitate solid particles ofdust. The first precipitates were crystals (minerals) of platinum-group metals, Os, Ru, and Ir, followed byaluminum oxides, metallic nickel-iron, and Mg silicates. This was followed by more complex silicates,then various sulfides of heavy metals. We can see this precipitation sequence preserved in primitivemeteorites. Before temperatures cooled sufficiently in the inner solar system so that the most volatileelements (H, C, N, and the noble gases) could condense, H fusion in the sun ignited and blew theseelements to the outer solar system where they are enriched in the outer planets, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus,and Neptune.http://ruby.colorado.edu/~smyth/G30101.html 4/11/2012
  • 2. Mineralogy Notes Page 2 of 11The Earth accreted from these early solid particles called chondrules, and these refractory elements areenriched in the Earth relative to their abundance in the Sun. As the proto Earth grew from the influx ofsolid particles it got hot enough to melt so that the dense Ni-Fe metal together with elements soluble inthe metal sank to the center and formed the core, and the lighter oxygen-bearing minerals (mostlysilicates) formed the mantle. Today the mantle is entirely solid and has been throughout most of Earthshistory, whereas the core comprises a liquid metal outer core and a solid metal inner core.So, except for the oceans and atmosphere, the Earth today is made up of solid minerals to a depth ofabout 2900 km. The physics and chemistry of the solid phases of the Earth control much of the physicsand chemistry of our environment. Unlike fluids, minerals preserve the records of Earths history. Furtherminerals contain the wealth of natural resources of the planet. Therefore understand ing the physics andchemistry of the solid materials of the planet (mineralogy) is central to much of the Earth Sciences.1.2. Definition of a MineralA mineral is a naturally-occurring, homogeneous solid with a definite, but generally not fixed, chemicalcomposition and an ordered atomic arrangement. It is usually formed by inorganic processes.Lets look at the five parts of this definition:1.) "Naturally occurring" means that synthetic compounds not known to occur in nature cannot have amineral name. However, it may occur anywhere, other planets, deep in the earth, as long as there exists anatural sample to describe.2.) "Homogeneous solid" means that it must be chemically and physically homogeneous down to thebasic repeat unit of the atoms. It will then have absolutely predictable physical properties (density,compressibility, index of refraction, etc.). This means that rocks such as granite or basalt are not mineralsbecause they contain more than one compound.3.) "Definite, but generally not fixed, composition" means that atoms, or groups of atoms must occur inspecific ratios. For ionic crystals (i.e. most minerals) ratios of cations to anions will be constrained bycharge balance, however, atoms of similar charge and ionic radius may substitute freely for one another;hence definite, but not fixed.4.) "Ordered atomic arrangement" means crystalline. Crystalline materials are three-dimensional periodicarrays of precise geometric arrangement of atoms. Glasses such as obsidian, which are disordered solids,liquids (e.g., water, mercury), and gases (e.g., air) are not minerals.5.) "Inorganic processes" means that crystalline organic compounds formed by organisms are generallynot considered minerals. However, carbonate shells are minerals because they are identical to compoundsformed by purely inorganic processes.An abbreviated definition of a mineral would be "a natural, crystalline phase". Chemists have a precisedefinition of a phase:A phase is that part of a system which is physically and chemically homogeneous within itself and issurrounded by a boundary such that it is mechanically separable from the rest of the system.The third part of our definition of a mineral leads us to a brief discussion of stoichiometry, the ratios inwhich different elements (atoms) occur in minerals. Because minerals are crystals, dissimilar elementsmust occur in fixed ratios to one another. However, complete free substitution of very similar elementshttp://ruby.colorado.edu/~smyth/G30101.html 4/11/2012
  • 3. Mineralogy Notes Page 3 of 11(e.g., Mg+2 and Fe+2 which are very similar in charge (valence) and radius) is very common and usuallyresults in a crystalline solution (solid solution). For example, the minerals forsterite (Mg2SiO4) andfayalite (Fe2SiO4) are members of the olivine group and have the same crystal structure, that is, the samegeometric arrangement of atoms. Mg and Fe substitute freely for each other in this structure, and allcompositions between the two extremes, forsterite and fayalite, may occur. However, Mg or Fe do notsubstitute for Si or O, so that the three components, Mg/Fe, Si and O always maintain the same 2 to 1 to 4ratio because the ratio is fixed by the crystalline structure. These two minerals are called end-membersof the olivine series and represent extremes or "pure" compositions. Because these two minerals have thesame structure, they are called isomorphs and the series, an isomorphous series.In contrast to the isomorphous series, it is also common for a single compound (composition) to occurwith different crystal structures. Each of these structures is then a different mineral and, in general, willbe stable under different conditions of temperature and pressure. Different structural modifications of thesame compound are called polymorphs. An example of polymorphism is the different minerals of SiO2(silica); alpha-quartz, beta-quartz, tridymite, cristobalite, coesite, and stishovite. Although each of thesehas the same formula and composition, they are different minerals because they have different crystalstructures. Each is stable under a different set of temperature and pressure conditions, and the presence ofone of these in a rock may be used to infer the conditions of formation of a rock. Another familiarexample of polymorphism is graphite and diamond, two different minerals with the same formula, C(carbon).Glasses (obsidian), liquids, and gases however, are not crystalline, and the elements in them may occur inany ratios, so they are not minerals. So in order for a natural compound to be a mineral, it must have aunique composition and structure. We will return in a few weeks to further discussion of stoichiometryand stability. The fourth part of our definition of a mineral, the part about the ordered atomicarrangement, leads us to a discussion of symmetry which will occupy our first few weeks.1.3. Mineral Properties in Hand SpecimenLearning to recognize hand specimens of approximately 100 of the most common rock-forming mineralsis an important part of this course. This recognition is based on seven easily examined properties plus afew unique properties such as magnetism or radioactivity that are strong clues to a minerals identity.These seven properties are:1. Crystal form and habit (shape).2. Luster and transparency3. Color and streak.4. Cleavage, fracture, and parting.5. Tenacity6. Density7. Hardness1.3.1. Crystal form and habit.http://ruby.colorado.edu/~smyth/G30101.html 4/11/2012
  • 4. Mineralogy Notes Page 4 of 11Recognizing crystal forms (a crystal face plus its symmetry equivalents) in the various crystal systems isone of the reasons we spend some time in lab studying block models. The crystal faces developed on aspecimen may arise either as a result of growth or of cleavage. In either case, they reflect the internalsymmetry of the crystal structure that makes the mineral unique. The crystal faces commonly seen onquartz are growth faces and represent the slow est growing directions in the structure. Quartz growsrapidly along its c-axis (three-fold or trigonal symmetry axis) direction and so never shows facesperpendicular to this direction. On the other hand, calcite rhomb faces and mica plates are cleavages andrepresent the weakest chemical bonds in the structure. There is a complex terminology for crystal faces,but some obvious names for faces are prisms and pyramids. A prism is a face that is perpendicular to amajor axis of the crystal, whereas a pyramid is one that is not perpendicular to any major axis.Crystals that commonly develop prism faces are said to have a prismatic or columnar habit. Crystalsthat grow in fine needles are acicular; crystals growing flat plates are tabular. Crystals forming radiatingsprays of needles or fibers are stellate. Crystals forming parallel fibers are fibrous, and crystals formingbranching, tree-like growths are dendritic.1.3.2. Luster and transparency.The way a mineral transmits or reflects light is a diagnostic property. The transparency may be eitheropaque, translucent, or transparent. This reflectance property is called luster. Native metals and manysulfides are opaque and reflect most of the light hitting their surfaces and have a metallic luster. Otheropaque or nearly opaque oxides may appear dull, or resinous. Transparent minerals with a high index ofrefraction such as diamond appear brilliant and are said to have an adamantine luster, whereas thosewith a lower index of refraction such as quartz or calcite appear glassy and are said to have a vitreousluster.1.3.3. Color and streak.Color is fairly self-explanatory property describing the reflectance. Metallic minerals are either white,gray, or yellow. The presence of transition metals with unfilled electron shells (e.g. V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co,Ni, and Cu) in oxide and silicate minerals causes them to be opaque or strongly colored so that the streak,the mark that they leave when scratched on a white ceramic tile, will also be strongly colored.1.3.4. Cleavage, fracture, and parting.Because bonding is not of equal strength in all directions in most crystals, they will tend to break alongcrystallographic directions giving them a fracture property that reflects the underlying structure and isfrequently diagnostic. A perfect cleavage results in regular flat faces resembling growth faces such as inmica, or calcite. A less well developed cleavage is said to be imperfect, or if very weak, a parting. If afracture is irregular and results in a rough surface, it is hackly. If the irregular fracture propagates as asingle surface resulting in a shiny surface as in glass, the fracture is said to be conchoidal.1.3.5. Tenacityis the ability of a mineral to deform plastically under stress. Minerals may be brittle, that is, they do notdeform, but rather fracture, under stress as do most silicates and oxides. They may be sectile, or be able todeform so that they can be cut with a knife. Or, they may be ductile and deform readily under stress asdoes gold.1.3.6. Densityis a well-defined physical property measured in g/cm3.a Most silicates of light element have densities inhttp://ruby.colorado.edu/~smyth/G30101.html 4/11/2012
  • 5. Mineralogy Notes Page 5 of 11the range 2.6 to 3.5. Sulfides are typically 5 to 6. Iron metal about 8, lead about 13, gold about 19, andosmium, the densest substance, and a native element mineral, is 22. Density may be measured bymeasuring the volume, usually by displacing water in a graduated cylinder, and the mass. Specific gravityis very similar to density, but is a dimensionless quantity and is measured in a slightly different way.Specific gravity is measured by determining the weight in air (Wa) and the weight in water (Ww) andcomputing specific gravity from SG = Wa / (Wa-Ww). In practice this is done using a Jolly balance as wewill see in lab.1.3.7. Hardnessis usually tested by seeing if some standard minerals are able to scratch others. A standard scale wasdeveloped by Friedrich Mohs in 1812 The standard minerals making up the Mohs scale of hardness are: 1. Talc 6. Orthoclase 2. Gypsum 7. Quartz 3. Calcite 8. Topaz 4. Fluorite 9. Corundum 5. Apatite 10 DiamondThis scale is approximately linear up to corundum, but diamond is approximately 5 times harder thancorundum.1.3.8. Unique Properties.A few minerals may have easily tested unique properties that may greatly aid identification. For example,halite (NaCl) (common table salt) and sylvite (KCl) are very similar in most of their physical properties,but have a distinctly different taste on the tongue, with sylvite having a more bitter taste. Whereas it is notrecommended that students routinely taste mineral specimens (some are toxic), taste can be used todistinguish between these two common minerals.Another unique property that can be used to distinguish between otherwise similar back opaque mineralsis magnetism. For example, magnetite (Fe3O4), ilmenite (FeTiO3), and pyrolusite (MnO2) are all dense,black, opaque minerals which can easily be distinguished by testing the magnetism with a magnet.Magnetite is strongly magnetic and can be permanently magnetized to form a lodestone; ilmenite isweakly magnetic; and pyrolusite is not magnetic at all.1.3.9. Other Properties. There are numerous other properties that are diagnostic of minerals, but which generally require moresophisticated devices to measure or detect. For example, minerals containing the elements U or Th areradioactive (although generally not dangerously so), and this radioactivity can be easily detected with aGeiger counter. Examples of radioactive minerals are uraninite (UO2), thorite (ThSiO4), and carnotite(K2(UO2)(VO4)2 rH2O). Some minerals may also be fluorescent under ultraviolet light, that is theyabsorb UV lighta and emit in the visible. (There is a display of fluorescent mineral on the first floor of the(old)Geology Building.) Other optical properties such as index of refraction and pleochroism (differentiallight absorption) require an optical microscope to measure and are the subject of a major section of thiscourse. Electrical conductivity is an important physical property but requires an impedance bridge tomeasure. In general native metals are good conductors, sulfides of transition metals are semi-conductors,whereas most oxygen-bearing min erals (i.e., silicates, carbonates, oxides, etc.) are insulators.Additionally, quartz (SiO2) is piezoelectric (develops an electrical charge at opposite end under anapplied mechanical stress); and tourmaline is pyroelectric (develops an electrical charge at opposite endhttp://ruby.colorado.edu/~smyth/G30101.html 4/11/2012
  • 6. Mineralogy Notes Page 6 of 11under an applied thermal gradient).1.4. Mineral Occurrences and EnvironmentsIn addition to physical properties, one of the most diagnostic features of a mineral is the geologi calenvironment in which it is occurs. Learning to recognize different types of geological environ ments canbe thus be very helpful in recognizing the common minerals. For the purposes of aiding mineralidentification, we have developed a very rough classification of geological environments, most of whichcan be visited locally.1.4.1. Igneous Minerals.Minerals in igneous rocks must have high melting points and be able to co-exist with, or crystallize from,silicate melts at temperatures above 800 º C. Igneous rocks can be generally classed according to theirsilica content with low-silica (<< 50 % SiO2) igneous rocks being termed basic or mafic, and high-silicaigneous rocks being termed silicic or acidic. Basic igneous rocks (BIR) include basalts, dolerites,gabbros, kimberlites, and peridotites, and abundant minerals in such rocks include olivine, pyroxenes,Ca-feldspar (plagioclase), amphiboles, and biotite. The abundance of Fe in these rocks causes them to bedark-colored. Silicic igneous rocks (SIR) include granites, granodiorites, and rhyolites, and abundantminerals include quartz, muscovite, and alkali feldspars. These are commonly light-colored althoughcolor is not always diagnostic. In addition to basic and silicic igneous rocks, a third igneous mineralenvironment representing the final stages of igneous fractionation is called a pegmatite (PEG) which istypically very coarse-grained and simi lar in composition to silicic igneous rocks (i.e. high in silica).Elements that do not readily substitute into the abundant minerals are called incompatible elements, andthese typically accumulate to form their own minerals in pegmatites. Minerals containing theincompatible elements, Li, Be, B, P, Rb, Sr, Y, Nb, rare earths, Cs, and Ta are typical and characteristicof pegmatites.1.4.2. Metamorphic minerals.Minerals in metamorphic rocks have crystallized from other minerals rather than from melts and need notbe stable to such high temperatures as igneous minerals. In a very general way, metamorphicenvironments may be classified as low-grade metamorphic (LGM) (temperatures of 60 º to 400 º C andpressures << .5 GPa (=15km depth) and high-grade meta morphic (HGM) (temperatures > 400 º and/orpressures > .5GPa). Minerals characteristic of low- grade metamorphic environments include the zeolites,chlorites, and andalusite. Minerals character istic of high grade metamorphic environments includesillimanite, kyanite, staurolite, epidote, and amphiboles.1.4.3. Sedimentary minerals.Minerals in sedimentary rocks are either stable in low-tempera ture hydrous environments (e.g. clays) orare high temperature minerals that are extremely resistant to chemical weathering (e.g. quartz). One canthink of sedimentary minerals as exhibiting a range of solubilities so that the most insoluble mineralssuch as quartz gold, and diamond accumulate in the coarsest detrital sedimentary rocks, less resistantminerals such as feldspars, which weather to clays, accumulate in finer grained siltstones and mudstones,and the most soluble minerals such as calcite and halite (rock-salt) are chemically precipitated inevaporite deposits. Accordingly, I would classify sedimentary minerals into detrital sediments (DSD) andevaporites (EVP). Detrital sedimentary minerals include quartz, gold, diamond, apatite and otherphosphates, calcite, and clays. Evaporite sedimentary minerals include calcite, gypsum, anhydrite, haliteand sylvite, plus some of the borate minerals.http://ruby.colorado.edu/~smyth/G30101.html 4/11/2012
  • 7. Mineralogy Notes Page 7 of 111.4.4. Hydrothermal minerals.The fourth major mineral environment is hydrothermal, minerals precipitated from hot aqueous solutionsassociated with emplacement of intrusive igneous rocks. This environment is commonly grouped withmetamorphic environments, but the minerals that form by this process and the elements that they containare so distinct from contact or regional metamorphic rocks that it us useful to consider them as a separategroup. These may be sub-classi fied as high temperature hydrothermal (HTH), low temperaturehydrothermal (LTH), and oxydized hydrothermal (OXH). Metals of the center and right-hand side of theperiodic table (e.g. Cu, Zn, Sb, As, Pb, Sn, Cd, Hg, Ag) most commonly occur in sulfide minerals and aretermed the chalcophile elements. Sulfides may occur in igneous and metamorphic rocks, but are mosttypically hydrothermal. High temperature hydrothermal minerals include gold, silver, tungstate minerals,chalcopyrite, bornite, the tellurides, and molybdenite. Low temperature hydrothermal minerals includebarite, gold, cinnabar, pyrite, and cassiterite. Sulfide minerals are not stable in atmospheric oxygen andwill weather by oxidation to form oxides, sulfates and carbonates of the chalcophile metals, and theseminerals are characteristic of oxidized hydrothermal deposits. Such deposits are called gossans and aremarked by yellow-red iron oxide stains on rock surfaces. These usually mark mineralized zones at depthand are very common in Colorado.1.5. Classification of MineralsMinerals are classified on their chemistry, particularly on the anionic element or polyanionic group ofelements that occur in the mineral. An anion is a negatively charge atom, and a polyanion is a stronglybound group of atoms consisting of a cation plus several anions (typically oxygen) that has a net negativecharge. For example carbonate, (CO3) 2-, silicate, (SiO4)4- are common poly anions. This classificationhas been successful because minerals rarely contain more than one anion or polyanion, whereas theytypically contain several different cations.1.5.1. Native elements.The first group of minerals is the native elements, and as pure elements, these minerals contain no anionor polyanion. Native elements such as gold (Au), silver (Ag), copper (Cu), and platinum (Pt) are metals,graphite is a semi-metal, and diamond (C) is an insulator.1.5.2. Sulfides.The sulfides contain sulfur (S) as the major "anion". Although sulfides should not be considered ionic, thesulfide minerals rarely contain oxygen, so these minerals form a chemically distinct group. Examples arepyrite (FeS2), sphalerite (ZnS), and galena (PbS). Minerals containing the elements As, Se, and Te as"anions" are also included in this group.1.5.3. Halides.The halides contain the halogen elements (F, Cl, Br, and I) as the dominant anion. These minerals areionically bonded and typically contain cations of alkali and alkaline earth ele ments (Na, K, and Ca).Familiar examples are halite (NaCl) (rock salt) and fluorite (CaF2).1.5.4. Oxides.The oxide minerals contain various cations (not associated with a polyanion) and oxygen. Examples arehematite (Fe2O3) and magnetite (Fe3O4).http://ruby.colorado.edu/~smyth/G30101.html 4/11/2012
  • 8. Mineralogy Notes Page 8 of 111.5.5. Hydroxides.These minerals contain the polyanion OH- as the dominant anionic species. Examples include brucite(Mg(OH)2) and gibbsite (Al(OH)3).1.5.6. Carbonates.The carbonates contain CO32- as the dominant polyanion in which C4+ is sur rounded by three O2- anionsin a planar triangular arrangement. A familiar example is calcite (CaCO3). Because NO3- shares thisgeometry, the nitrate minerals such as soda niter (nitratite) (NaNO3) are included in this group.1.5.7. Sulfates.These minerals contain SO42- as the major polyanion in which S6+ is surrounded by four oxygen atoms ina tetrahedron. Note that this group is distinct from sulfides which contain no O. A familiar example isgypsum (CaSO4 2H2O).1.5.8. Phosphates.The phosphates contain tetrahedral PO43- groups as the dominant polyanion. A common example isapatite (Ca5(PO4)3(OH)) a principal component of bones and teeth. The other trivalent tetrahedralpolyanions, arsenate AsO43-, and vanadate VO43- are structurally and chemically similar and areincluded in this group.1.5.9. Borates.The borates contain triangular BO33- or tetrahedral BO45-, and commonly both coordinations may occurin the same mineral. A common example is borax, (Na2BIII2BIV2O5(OH)4 8H2O).1.5.6. Silicates.This group of minerals contains SiO44- as the dominant polyanion. In these minerals the Si4+ cation isalways surrounded by 4 oxygens in the form of a tetrahedron. Because Si and O are the most abundantelements in the Earth, this is the largest group of minerals and is divided into subgroups based on thedegree of polymerization of the SiO4 tetrahedra.1.5.6.1. Orthosilicates.These minerals contain isolated SiO44- polyanionic groups in which the oxygens of the polyanion arebound to one Si atom only, i.e., they are not polymerized. Examples are forsterite (Mg-olivine,Mg2SiO4), and pyrope (Mg-garnet, Mg3Al2Si3O12).1.5.6.2. Sorosilcates.These minerals contain double silicate tetrahedra in which one of the oxygens is shared with an adjacenthttp://ruby.colorado.edu/~smyth/G30101.html 4/11/2012
  • 9. Mineralogy Notes Page 9 of 11tetrahedron, so that the polyanion has formula (Si2O7)6-. An example is epidote (Ca2Al2FeO(OH)SiO4Si2O7), a mineral common in metamorphic rocks.1.5.6.3. Cyclosilicates.These minerals contain typically six-membered rings of silicate tetrahedra with formula. (Si6O17)10-. Anexample is tourmaline.1.5.6.4. Chain silicates.These minerals contain SiO4 polyhedra that are polymerized in one direction to form chains. They maybe single chains, so that of the four oxygen coordinating the Si atom, two are shared with adjacenttetrahedra to form an infinite chain with formula (SiO3)2-. The single chain silicates include the pyroxeneand pyroxenoid minerals which are common constituents of igneous rocks. Or they may form doublechains with formula (Si4O11)8-, as in the amphibole minerals, which are common in metamorphic rocks.1.5.6.5. Sheet silicates.These minerals contain SiO 4 polyhedra that are polymerized in two dimensions to form sheets withformula (Si4O10)4-. Common examples are the micas in which the cleavage reflects the sheet structure ofthe mineral.1.5.6.6. Framework silicates.These minerals contain SiO4 polyhedra that are polymerized in three dimensions to form a frameworkwith formula (SiO2) 0. Common examples are quartz (SiO2) and the feldspars (NaAlSi3O8) which are themost abundant minerals in the Earths crust. In the feldspars Al3+ may substitute for Si4+ in thetetrahedra, and the resulting charge imbalance is compensated by an alkali cation (Na or K) in intersticesin the framework.1.6. The Literature of MineralogyLearning to use the library to extract technical information about the properties and occurrences ofminerals is an important part of this course. Mineralogy is a fairly mature science in that most of theminerals that occur in the Earth are well known and have been thoroughly described.1.6.1. Glossaries.Approximately 3600 different mineral species have been described, and the formulas and brief referencesto the different species are given in the following references:M. Fleischer (1986) Glossary of Mineral Species (5th edition). (Mineralogical Record, Tucson) 202p.E.H. Nickel and M.C. Nichols (1991) Mineral Reference Manual. Van Nostrand, Reinhold, New York,250p.W.L. Roberts, T.J. Campbell and G.R. Rapp, Jr. (1990) Encyclopedia of Minerals (Second edition) Vanhttp://ruby.colorado.edu/~smyth/G30101.html 4/11/2012
  • 10. Mineralogy Notes Page 10 of 11Nostrand, Reinhold, New York, 979p.1.6.2. Journals.In recent years approximately 100 new mineral species have been described each year, and thesedescriptions along with reports of physical and optical properties and crystal structure determinations arereported in various mineralogical journals, most of which are published by professional societies. In theUnited States, American Mineralogist is published by the Mineralogical Society of America. CanadianMineralogist is published by The Mineralogical Association of Canada; Mineralogical Journal, by theMineralogical Society of Japan (in English); Mineralogical Magazine, by the Mineralogical Society ofGreat Britain. European Journal of Mineralogy is published jointly by the mineralogical societies ofFrance, Germany and Italy, and Neues Jahrbuch fuer Mineralogie is published by the DeutscheMineralogische Gesellschaft (mostly in English). In addition, Mineralogy and Petrology, Contribution toMineralogy and Petrology, and Physics and Chemistry of Minerals are published by Europeancommercial publishers. Also, Clay Minerals and Clays and Clay Minerals are journals devoted toresearch in clay and zeolite mineralogy.1.6.3. Reviews.Beginning in 1974, the Mineralogical Society of America has been publishing extremely useful reviewsof recent research in various mineral groups. Called Reviews in Mineralogy, this series now includes 25volumes.1.6.4. References.The following books are also useful compilations of mineral data and descrip tions.W.A. Deer, R.A. Howie and J. Zussman (1962, 1974, 1980) Rock Forming Minerals (Seven Volumes)Longmans, London.R.W.G. Wyckoff (1964) Crystal Structures. Wiley (New York) (Eight Volumes) (Vols 1, 2, 3 and 4contain mineral structures).1.6.5. Text books. The following text books are designed for university courses in mineralogy and will be available onreserve in the Earth Sciences Library. If you are having trouble understand ing some aspect of the lectureor lab from the notes, you are encouraged to read other descriptions of the subject.T. Zoltai and J. M. Stout (1985) Mineralogy: Concepts and Principles. Burgess (Minneapolis). This texthas good cover age of crystal structures, optical properties X-ray diffraction, and physical properties ofminerals, but is somewhat difficult to read and understand at an introductory level.C. Klein and C.S. Hurlbut, Jr. (1993) Manual of Mineralogy (After J.D. Dana, 21st edition). Wiley, (NewYork). This is a well written and clear presentation of most of the material presented in this course. It hasrecently been updated and thoroughly revised.L.G. Berry, B. Mason, and R.V. Dietrich (1983) Mineralogy (Second Edition) Freeman (San Francisco).This is a revision of an older standard text and belabors morphological crystallography at the expense ofstructural crystallography and is not well integrated with modern geology.http://ruby.colorado.edu/~smyth/G30101.html 4/11/2012
  • 11. Mineralogy Notes Page 11 of 11W.H. Balckburn and W.H. Dennen (1988) Principles of Mineralogy . W.C. BrownK. Frye (1974) Modern Mineralogy. Prentice-Hall.Deer, Howie, Zussman (1992) An Introduction to the Rock Forming Minerals (Second Edition) LondonLongmans ISBN 0-582-30094-0. 696pp. This is a standard reference covering structure, chemistry,occurrences, and optical properties for the more common minerals.1.6.5. Mineralogy on the WWWHere are a few web sites that deal with mineralogy: z Mickeys Optical Mineralogy page z Neat mineralogy page, a must see! (by Jill Banfield, University of Wisconsin) z Crystallography WWW z Crystal structure lab at University of Colorado z Thin sections of minerals z Mineral search file z Science z Smithsonian gemstones z Illinois Geological SurveyGEOL 3010 SyllabusChapter 2 Mineralogy NotesMineral Structures and Properties Data BaseJoe Smyths Home Pagehttp://ruby.colorado.edu/~smyth/G30101.html 4/11/2012