Expository Documentary


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This is a presentation to explain and summarize one of six documentary type; Expository Documentary (Voice of God).

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Expository Documentary

  2. 2. WHAT IS EXPOSITORY DOCUMENTARY? • Expository documentary is developed by an American documentary theorist, Bill Nichols. • It is a classic form of documentary, one of the six main types. • It is a documentary that expose a person or a topic. • It emphasizes verbal commentary – often using a narrator. • Addresses the spectator directly with titles or voices that propose a perspective, advance an argument or recount history. • It also shows the viewer directly through the professionally confident voice, usually male, of an unseen speaker.
  3. 3. WHAT IS EXPOSITORY DOCUMENTARY? • It is didactic and educational. It has always purposes to teach or show audience what is going on screen. • It has direct relationship between images and voice-over. • A conventional narrative structure. • Assumes a “right” answer or preferred meaning. Filmmaker almost always use rich and sonorous male voices to Narrative. And the voice can be use to create a deeper sense of intimacy with filmmaker's his or her audience and to express his or her innermost thoughts and feelings (The personal voice).
  4. 4. WHAT IS EXPOSITORY DOCUMENTARY? • Expository Documentary is normally an authoritative commentary which proposes a strong argument and point of view. • Additionally; the voiceover may be of an omniscient (voice-of-god) like position. • Expository documentary is well known for having a commentator, talking over the pictures or videos and explaining the story. “The voice indicates the way of conveying a perspective or point of view by giving tangible expression to the creative vision and personality of the filmmaker (Nichols 2005)”
  5. 5. WHAT IS EXPOSITORY DOCUMENTARY? • Commentary serves to organize the images and make sense of them. • Images become subordinate to the voice over narration. They serve to illustrate, illuminate or act in counterpoint to what is being said by author. • Editing in the expository mode serves to maintain the continuity of the spoken argument or perspective. (This is called evidentiary.) • Emphasizes objectivity and well supported argument. “The concept of voice is also based on the degree of epistemic authority incorporated in the documentary (Plantinga 1997: 106).”
  6. 6. WHAT ARE THE MAIN CONVENTIONS? The main conventions of expository documentaries are: •A commentator •Rhetorical questions •Facts Opinions •Persuasive Techniques
  7. 7. HOW DO THEY APPEAL TO AN AUDIENCE? • In an expository documentary the commentator talks specifically to the audience. They are often biographical, historical or talk about a certain event. • They include footage, interviews or pictures exclusive to the documentary. “Narration, or voice-over, is used to deliver information, provide the point of view of an unseen character, or allow an onscreen character to comment on the action.”(Ascher and Pincus 493)
  8. 8. SUBGENRES OF EXPOSITORY DOCUMENTARY • Historical • Biographical • Health • Science • Nature • Environmental • Music and more topics.
  9. 9. EXPOSITORY DOCUMENTARY AND JOHN GRIERSON • Expository documentary is one of the most traditional modes of documentary filmmaking. When the expository mode is used it is meant to scientifically and objectively express facts. The expository mode was first used by John Grierson in 1927. This mode became the standard mode for a long time. It was used in nearly all documentaries until the 1960’s. Expository Documentaries of Grierson: Drifters (1929), One Family (1930), Night Mail (1936)
  10. 10. EXAMPLES • Robert Flaherty’s Nanook of the North (1921) • John Grierson’s Night Mail (1936) • Frank Capra’s Why We Fight(1944) • Raul Crilissi’s Sardegna isola misteriosa (1954) • Risveglio di un’isola (1956) • Silvio Torchiani’s Sardegna terra di contrasti (1956) • Marcello Serra’s Sardegna quasi un continente (1961) • John Berger’s Ways of Seeing (1972) • Diego Carpitella’s Cinesica culturale: Barbagia (1974) • An Inconvenient Truth (2006) • Nurettin Dilek’s Untitled Documentary (2009) • Wild China – BBC (2011)
  11. 11. REFERENCES • Wreckage upon Wreckage: History, Documentary and the Ruins of Memory by Paula Rabinowitzhttp://links.jstor.org/sici sici=0018- 2656%28199305%2932%3A2%3C119%3AWUWHDA%3E2.0.CO%3B2-6 • Documentary Film and the Modernist Avant-GardeAuthor(s): Bill NicholsSource: Critical Inquiry, Vol. 27, No. 4 (Summer, 2001), pp. 580-610 Published by: The University of Chicago Presshttp://www.jstor.org/stable/1344315 • History, Myth, and Narrative in DocumentaryAuthor(s): Bill NicholsSource: Film Quarterly, Vol. 41, No. 1 (Autumn, 1987), pp. 9-20 Published by: University of California Press http://www.jstor.org/stable/1212324 • DOCUMENTARY FILM, OBSERVATIONAL STYLE AND POSTMODERN ANTHROPOLOGY IN SARDINIA: A VISUAL ANTHROPOLOGY BY SILVIO CARTA http://etheses.bham.ac.uk/3674/1/Carta12PhD.pdf
  12. 12. REFERENCES • http://www.slideshare.net/MissConnell/documentary-mode-theory-bill-nichols • http://www.slideshare.net/4cmackenzie/expository-documentaries1 • http://www.slideshare.net/crosswaysfederation/modes-of-documentary • http://metamentaldoc.com/7_History_myth_and_narrative_in_documentary_Bill_Nichols.pdf • http://www.columbiauniversity.org/itc/film/gaines/documentary_tradition/Nichols_Documentar Garde.pdf • http://condor.depaul.edu/dtudor/DOCUMENTARY%20MODES.htm • http://www.indiejudge.com/film-theory/documentary-film-theory-john-grierson/ • http://flashaddict.wordpress.com/2009/12/09/voice-over-narration-as-an-active- agent-in-film/ • http://www.reelmarketer.com/2012/11/battle-of-the-sexes-how-to-choose- between-a-male-or-female-voice/ • http://documentaries.about.com/od/terminology/g/expository.htm
  13. 13. VIDEO REFERENCES •Nanook of the North http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m4kOIzMqso0 •Night Mail http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FkLoDg7e_ns •Why We Fight http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Mm3GsSWKyso •Ways of Seeing http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m1GI8mNU5Sg •Cinesica in Barbagia 2 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uFMWL1JkZpQ •An Inconvenient Truth http ://putlocker.bz/watch-an-inconvenient-truth-online-free-putlocker.html •Nurettin Dilek http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2z3egRmXwf4 •Wild China http://watchdocumentary.org/watch/wild-china-episode-01-heart- of-the-dragon-video_3a9158d41.html