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Conducting academic research   oct 2009

Conducting academic research oct 2009






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    Conducting academic research   oct 2009 Conducting academic research oct 2009 Presentation Transcript

    • Jayne Hall October 2009
      • Rationale
      • Understanding the importance of effective research
      • Why write a Bibliography?
      • How to conduct effective research
      • How to organise the research process
      • How to optimise time spent reading
      • How to Construct a Bibliography
      Jayne Hall October 2009
    • Jayne Hall October 2009 Undertaking any kind of academic research will at some point involve the use of relevant literature. The analysis and summary of the relevant literature should be used to support your argument or theory. Your Argument will probably require the use of literature from a diverse range of sources.
      • The process begins with you being given a brief
      • You will then need to narrow down the area within that brief that you intend to discuss
      • You now need to identify the relevant literature to that topic
      Jayne Hall October 2009
      • The most obvious places to begin are the Internet and the University Library.
      • The Library is where you will find reliable literature and sources. Later you may wish to access your local library.
      • The internet will have reliable and unreliable material
      Jayne Hall October 2009
      • Reliable Sources
      • Unreliable Sources
      Jayne Hall October 2009
      • Internet Research - Apply the same methods
      • Vast array of information
      • Delicious
      Jayne Hall October 2009
      • Shelf Mark Search
      • Identify reference numbers of books/journals from the reading list
      • Locate these books in the library and look around at others in the same area
      • Look at the book titles and jacket summary
      • Search inside the books
      Jayne Hall October 2009
      • Online Library Catalogue - Keyword Search
      • Think of two or three words or phrases that may appear in a book relevant to your topic and enter them into the search box
      Jayne Hall October 2009
      • The number of results of this type of search will vary, you can widen or narrow these results by adding or removing key words
      Jayne Hall October 2009
      • Once you have the books that may be relevant to your topic
      • Look at the contents page
      • Look at the index for ranges of relevant pages
      Jayne Hall October 2009
      • Once you have applied these methods you
      • will discard the books that seem to have little
      • relevance and be left with books that you
      • need to read.
      Jayne Hall October 2009
      • Other sources of research and information
      • Journals - paper/electronic
      • Newspaper Articles - paper/electronic
      • Exhibition Catalogues
      • Music/Audio
      • Film/Television
      • Direct conversations - telephone, face to face, e-mail
      • Internet, Podcasts etc
      • Lectures
      Jayne Hall October 2009
      • UWN uses the Harvard System of Referencing. The Library has produced a complete guide which details exactly how to reference all of these sources. This is available in hard copy direct from the library or it can be downloaded from their website.
      Jayne Hall October 2009
      • Do not read ad infinitum
      • Stay Focused
      • Stick to your topic
      • Keep referring to your essay title/question
      • Irrelevant content in essays affects grades
      • Always make notes
      Jayne Hall October 2009
      • It is possible that in light of the reading you have done your question/argument or title needs to be adjusted, it is fine to change the ‘spin’ or approach or ‘tweak’ your title, but think very carefully before completely changing your question, you may find yourself having to start again from scratch.
      Jayne Hall October 2009
      • Why Make Notes?
      • Focus your attention
      • Making Sense of material
      • Symbol of Progress
      • Essential part of constructing essay
      • Pulls all the ideas and facts together
      Jayne Hall October 2009
      • Bibliography - Book
      • Author/Editor
      • Year of Publication
      • Title
      • Edition (if not the first)
      • Place of Publication
      • Name of Publisher
      Jayne Hall October 2009
      • Example
      • ZUKAV, G. 1979. The Dancing Wu Li Masters – An Overview of the
      • New Physics. Rider & Company/Hutchinson & Co.
      • (Publishers) Ltd: London.
      Jayne Hall October 2009
      • We will discuss how the referencing should be included within the body of the text in a later session
      Jayne Hall October 2009
      • It is necessary to begin your bibliography when you begin reading not when you have finished writing.
      Jayne Hall October 2009
      • In order to read effectively ensure that you
      • Have a good study environment
      • Make a time commitment
      • Review previous reading sessions
      • Create questions and write them down
      • Read to answer questions
      • Think about what you are reading
      • Make notes
      Jayne Hall October 2009
      • Different Reading Strategies
      • Skimming
      • Scanning
      • Close/Critical/Active
      Jayne Hall October 2009
      • Skimming - Fast Reading to ‘get the gist’
      • Read titles and subtitles
      • Look at Diagrams, illustrations and charts
      • Read first and last sentence of paragraph
      • Pick out key words
      Jayne Hall October 2009
      • Scanning - Specific Information gathering
      • by topic or phrase
      • Decide and write down the questions you want answered
      • Focus on the task of finding information
      • Don’t read every word, scan the page until you find what you are looking for
      • Use headlines and titles to help
      Jayne Hall October 2009
      • Close Reading - careful reading (more than once if necessary) and understanding of elements you have decided are interesting and relevant to your subject matter, and will be included in your argument.
      Jayne Hall October 2009
      • What if I don’t understand?
      Jayne Hall October 2009
      • Elaborately cautious language
      • Everything said in academic texts tends to be cushioned in very cautious language
      Jayne Hall October 2009
      • This is a necessary part of Academic Writing. The writers are trying to be as exact as they can in their analysis, so they are careful to say only what they think can be justified.
      Jayne Hall October 2009
      • “ In everyday life we cheerfully use language as a blunt instrument for cudgelling our way through the cut and thrust of events around us.”
      • Andrew Northedge,1990.
      • The Good Study Guide
      Jayne Hall October 2009
      • In academic writing language is meant to be used more like a scalpel, cutting precisely between closely related arguments so that they can be prised apart and analysed in detail. An academic writer aims to say exactly and only what they mean, even if it takes a lot of extra words.
      • Andrew Northedge,1990.
      • The Good Study Guide
      Jayne Hall October 2009
      • Words I don’t understand?
      • Glossary
      Jayne Hall October 2009
      • Rationale - statement of the reasoning that underlies a course of action
      • Bibliography - list of materials consulted, appearing at the end of a text
      • Unreliable - not able to be trusted
      • ‘ Ad Infinitum’ - for so long as to seem endless
      • Analysis - separate, examine individual parts
      Jayne Hall October 2009
      • Study Advice Service
      • [email_address]
      • First Floor of Library, Caerleon Campus
      • Tel: 01633 432109
      • Harvard Referencing Guide
      • http://www3.newport.ac.uk/docstore/b/aevans03/Bibliographies.pdf
      Jayne Hall October 2009
    • fini Jayne Hall October 2009
      • When reading the article think about:
      • What are your feelings as you read the article?
      • Are you experiencing any difficulties or problems as you read?
      • Are there parts of the text you find unclear?
      • Is the article useful or interesting?
      • How long has it taken?
      • Where and at what time of day are you reading?  
      Jayne Hall October 2009
      • Once you have read it:
      • Can you sum up what the article was about in one sentence?
      • What can you remember? What two or three points stuck in your mind as worth noting?
      • Do you think you will find it easy to remember what was in the article in a few days time?
      • Did you mark words as you read (highlighter or underlining)?
      • Did you make any notes?
      Jayne Hall October 2009