We have a lot to cover; I will only touch on several events which were very important to the Boers – each could have at least a class devoted to them; These events were foremost in establishing the heart and soul of Boer culture and beliefs; the efforts at establishing independent states was very difficult and the constant interference by the British did not help. The next five slides are on “timer” in the interests of keeping it short – also some very traditional Boer Music - if you have questions please raise them when the music stops Take a community of Dutchmen of the type of those who defended themselves for fifty years against all the power of Spain at a time when Spain was the greatest power in the world. Intermix with them a strain of those inflexible French Huguenots who gave up home and fortune and left their country for ever at the time of the revocation of the Edict of Nantes. The product must obviously be one of the most rugged, virile, unconquerable races ever seen upon earth. Take this formidable people and train them for seven generations in constant warfare against savage men and ferocious beasts, in circumstances under which no weakling could survive, place them so that they acquire exceptional skill with weapons and in horsemanship, give them a country which is eminently suited to the tactics of the huntsman, the marksman, and the rider. Then, finally, put a finer temper upon their military qualities by a dour fatalistic Old Testament religion and an ardent and consuming patriotism. Combine all these qualities and all these impulses in one individual, and you have the modern Boer--the most formidable antagonist who ever crossed the path of Imperial Britain. Our military history has largely consisted in our conflicts with France, but Napoleon and all his veterans have never treated us so roughly as these hard-bitten farmers with their ancient theology and their inconveniently modern rifles. Arthur Conan Doyle - The Great Boer War 1902
Jan van Riebeeck arrives in the Cape
Some of the major issues which arose between the Afrikaners & English The Slagtersnek rebellion When, in 1815, the Landrost of Somerset East attempted to arrest a Boer for contempt of court and, while resisting arrest, the Boer was shot, some of the disaffected Boers of the area again rebelled. This rebellion was quickly and severely suppressed by Colonel Jacob Glen Cuyler, an American in the British army, who hanged five of the rebels at Slagtersnek. This hanging became something of a cause célèbre as four out of five of the ropes broke. Despite the popular belief that this was an act of God, Cuyler sent away for fresh rope which caused a delay of several hours before the remaining four were hung for the second time.
The Afrikaners found it necessary to “Declare Independence” to some extent encouraged by the American historical experience. Discuss “Century of Wrong.” Very racist – if you might be offended don’t read it. Not sure of origin but it conveys a very likely attitude of the Afrikaners at about the time of the Great Trek
Early in 1836, at the instance of his patron Potgieter, Tregardt uprooted his family once more and stepped into history. He trekked into the far north. There are a number of unusual aspects about the expedition upon which Tregardt now embarked. To begin with his party formed a task force undertaking a sort of dress rehearsal for the massive emigration known as the Great Trek. It was, though these people formed the tentacles of the greater movement. Then again we must realise that Tregardt was setting out on a journey into a void, into a noman's-land filled with unpredictable dangers: at first sight this might not seem particularly remarkable—after all the annals of discovery are filled with expeditions into totally unknown country; but in Tregardt's case his party was not composed of professional explorers seeking riches or prestige, it was made up of men, women and children who had no intention whatsoever of returning to their homes. For when they discovered suitable ground these people wanted to settle down for good. It was as though they were a group of astronauts without the means to return to earth who intended to make a new life for themselves in new surroundings. These earthly spacemen had encased themselves in a little capsule of veld lore and Western civilisation, whose essential trappings they carried, so that when at last they came to rest they could survive on foreign soil and send down strong roots for nourishment.
The interior represented for the trekkers a foreboding enigma. The barren Kalahari Desert to the west of the Highveld, and the tsetse fly belt which stretched from the Limpopo River south-eastwards, could not have been a very inviting prospect. Little did they realize that neither man nor animal would escape the fatal malarial mosquito. Yet the Voortrekkers ploughed on through treacherous terrain, eliminating all obstacles in their path, and intent on gaining access to ports beyond the sphere of British control, such as Delagoa Bay, Inhambane and Sofala. In order for their new settlement to be viable, it was crucial that they make independent links with the economies of Europe.
This magnificent range of mountains also posed a very difficult barrier for people with wagons and livestock – it was difficult to find a way down to the east coast and what is now Natal – The Voortrekkers saw this as the promised land – fertile, rich and with a mild climate.
Mfecane (Zulu name, also known as the Difaqane or Lifaqane in Sesotho), is an African expression which means something like &quot;the crushing&quot; or &quot;scattering&quot;. It describes a period of widespread chaos and disturbance in southern Africa during the period between 1815 and about 1840. Other causes attributed to slavers – I find this unlikely, many sources of slaves closer to the coast. Also “interference” of the Voortrekkers – hardly. The area is sparse, few rivers and cold winters. Sotho and Pedi tribes were not well developed or organized and easy prey for Zulu warparties.
Threatened by the 'liberalism' of the new colonial administration, insecure about conflict on the eastern frontier and 'squeezed out' by their own burgeoning population, the Voortrekkers hoped to restore economic, cultural and political unity independent of British power. The only way they saw open to them was to leave the colony. In the decade following 1835, thousands migrated into the interior, organized in a number of trek parties under various leaders. Many of the Voortrekkers were trekboers (semi-nomadic pastoral farmers) and their mode of life made it relatively easy for them to pack their worldly possessions in ox-wagons and leave the colony forever The Sixth Frontier war was the last straw. Forty farmers were murdered, 416 homesteads burned and thousands of horses, cattle and sheep were looted. But it was only after the Sand River Convention (1852) and the Bloemfontein Convention (1854) that independent Boer republics were formally established north of the Vaal and Orange rivers respectively.
Many of the Voortrekkers who left the British governed Cape Colony in the early and middle 19th century to initiate their own state, chose Natal as their end destination. Their leader, Piet Retief, initiated negotiations for land with the Zulu king, Dingane. On 6 February 1838, Piet Retief and his men were murdered on command of king Dingane at uMgungundlovu. Hundreds of Voortrekkers and their servants were killed during follow - up attacks by the Zulu forces at Bloukrans and Weenen. The untimely death of their new leader, Gerrit Maritz, left the Voortrekkers without a leader.
Again, the brutality of these Zulu attacks infuriated the Boers; babies had their heads smashed against wagon wheels and both women and men were disemboweled. (A Zulu practice believed to release the spirit of the enemy thereby avoiding later ghostly retaliation.) After these massacres of Boer Voortrekkers - Andries Pretorius emerged from the Cape (btw Pretoria named after him) He organized a “commando” of armed men – they also had three small cannon, and embarked on a quest to subdue the Zulu and revenge the Piet Retief group.
On the eve of the battle - December the 16 th they prayed and made “A Covenant with God” which was commemorated for 156 years as “The Day of The Covenant” (or Day of the Vow) - It is now celebrated as “Day of Reconciliation” - This slide is a translation
One of the big problems was the 1000 cattle and horses on the inside of the laager. At the start of the shooting they panicked and almost stampeded. The “sluit” or “donga” served as a natural trap and many Zulus were slain while trapped in it.
Blood River memorial
As the air began to smell of morning the white men watched the pattern of flat-topped thorn-trees on the hills across the river starting to show against the eastern sky, and listened to the birds which began to give chorus before setting off on their daily quest for seeds and insects. Then the sun's rim broke free from the horizon, tinting the surrounding hills with red so that the entire landscape for a few moments seemed to be drenched in blood. And the Boers saw with relief that the weather had cleared. `Sunday, the 16th,' one of them recalled afterwards, `was a day as if ordained for us. The sky was open, the weather clear and bright.' In the spreading light a solid mass of black humanity was seen only a few hundred yards away and racing towards the wagons. At once the Boer guns and cannons opened with a roar. It was impossible for a single shot to miss such a target. Never at any time was there a hope that this attack would succeed. The shock of the concentrated fire was devastating and almost at once the first wave of Zulus reeled back in disorder. Then for two mortal hours these regiments mounted a wild chain of doomed charges on the north and west faces of the laager and one after the other they were smashed and flattened. It was a strange and horrifying scene, and the painting which the artist W. H. Coetzer made of it is perhaps the most celebrated of all the pictures of the Voortrekker saga. A Zulu eyewitness said that their first charge was mowed down like grass by the single-shot Boer muskets. The Voortrekkers brought the full power of the firepower they had by having servants reload other muskets, allowing a single rifleman and a band of servants to fire approximately a shot every 5 seconds. Buckshot was used to maximize casualties. Mackenzie claims that 200 indigenous servants looked after the horses and cattle and helped load muskets. Writing in the popular Afrikaans magazine, Die Huisgenoot, a Dr. D.J. Kotze said that this group comprised 59 &quot;non-white&quot; helpers and three English settlers with their black &quot;followers&quot;.
This is NOT a depiction of the Blood River battle
Considering the results – the Afrikaners took the outcome to be proof of God’s will for them to settle in these lands.
This is a brief and biased overview – if you want a more rational view read South Africa, A Modern History – Rodney Davenport and Christopher Saunders.
Shows a British history of tweaking boundaries to suit their interests Also Afrikaner “imperialism – Swaziland - New Republic Point out – Kimberly, Mafeking “jogs”
Stephanus Johannes Paulus Kruger ( 10 October 1825 – 14 July 1904 ), better known a s Pa ul Kruger and fondly known as Oom Paul ( Afrikaans for &quot;Uncle Paul &quot;) was a prominent Boer resistance leader against Bri tish rule and president of the Tran svaal R epublic in South Africa . A ccording to legen d, he was named Ma melodi'a Tshwane ( Tswa na for &quot;whis tler of the Apies river&quot;) by the inhabitants of the Tshwane area for his a bility to whistle and imitate bird calls. Following the annexation o f the T ransvaal by Britain in 1877 , Kruger became the leader of the resistance movement. During the same year, he vi sited B ritain for the first time as leader of a deputation. In 1878 , he was part of a second deputation. A highlight of his visit to Europe was when he ascended in a hot a ir b alloon and saw Paris from the air. The First Boer War , also known as t he &quot;Wa r of Independence&quot;, started in 18 80 , and the Bri tish forces were defeate d in the decisive battle at M ajuba in 1881 . Once again, Kruger played an important role in the negotiations wit h th e British, which led to the restoration of the Transvaal's independen ce und er British suz erainty. *Zuid-Afrikaansche Republik
The Battle of Majuba, 27 February 1881 The South African Military History Society http://rapidttp.com/milhist/vol052gr.html Colley also wrote as follows, '... I would gladly give you the Pretoria column, but I must push on there myself to assume the government, and the force is hardly large enough for two generals when all the rest of the command is left without one; the more so as there will be three generals when we reach Pretoria, as Bellairs has been given rank of brigadier-general. You will also, I am sure, understand that I mean to take the Nek myself!'(1) The important aspect of this letter is the last sentence - Colley's determination to have the honour of personally defeating the Boers at Laingsnek.
The force consisted of two companies 58th Regiment (170), two companies 3/60th Rifles (140), three companies 92nd (Gordon Highlanders) (180), and one company Royal Naval Brigade (64) - in all about 554 riflemen.
On 6 March Evelyn Wood met Joubert at O'Neill's Cottage, below Majuba, just off the present Durban- Johannesburg road, close to Laingsnek, where provisional peace terms were discussed. The negotiations were delayed and often heated. Paul Kruger joined the conference and held out for complete independence. The deadlock was only overcome when President Brand arrived and interceded. The terms of the truce of O'Neill's Cottage were finally ratified in August 1881.
'Thanksgiving in Boer Camp after signing of Peace' from a drawing by Artist-War-Correspondent Melton Prior for Illustrated London News. Majuba can be seen in the background. The rifles are interesting. The Boer on the left side of picture has a .577/.450 Martini-Henry, as does the man behind Preacher's right hand. The lever behind the trigger-guard on the latter rifle can be clearly discerned.
Lets jump ahead and get to the subject – The Second Anglo-Boer war.
Cecil Rhodes in conjunction with other powerful figures, including the British Secretary of Colonies - Joseph Chamberlain and several of the “Rand Lords” had concocted a plan to seize control of the troublesome Boer Republics; the South African Republic, also called the Transvaal – and the Orange Free State. This was the famous Raid - led by Dr. Leander Starr Jameson and consisting of about 450 Charted Company Police - Rhodesian Mounted police - and around 150 troops recruited from nearby Mafeking. They were going to Jo’burg and support an uprising by the Uitlanders, thereby helping to take over the country from the Boers. Who were the Uitlanders? Who were the Rand Lords? Well, let’s take a brief step back in time again;
When diamonds were discovered in Kimberly, Britain annexed Kimberly and the section of land, which had been nominally a part of the Orange Free State, into the Cape Colony - under British rule. Over a period of about 30 years with the ebb & flow of British parliaments and politics, Britain had annexed the Free State and the Transvaal and then given them both limited independence. In 1877 Britain once again proclaimed Transvaal as a colony. - only to lose it in the brief 1st Boer War. The diamonds and gold attracted thousands of prospectors and others from all over the world - although primarily Britain. There were also Cape Afrikaners, Germans, French – others from many places in Europe, America and Australia. These “Uitlanders” or foreigners began to outnumber the Boers in the Transvaal and many began to demand equal franchise.
In the interim - Agents of Rhodes literally conned Lobengula, Chief of the Mashona and Matebele into conceding his country, north of Transvaal, to Rhodes - Lobengula believed he was merely agreeing to some gold prospecting in his country. Rhodes took the “signed” agreement back to London and after he assured the government and Queen Victoria, she granted his company a Royal charter to govern the region. Later, Rhodes exploited a dispute between local tribes as a reason to destroy the Mashona and Matebele - Lobengula fled and then poisoned himself.
Rhodes is now well on the way to “Painting Africa Red” - his dream of claiming a large part of Africa - “from Cape to Cairo” - for England. “ I would annex the planets, if I could” Cecil Rhodes had cried one night staring up at the heavens. In 1895, the most dynamic figure on African continent was at the peak of his career, he was prime minister of the Cape colony of South Africa. He had added territories as large as Western Europe to the British Empire, and he was one of the richest man in the world. At 42 he was called “The Colossus”
Marl Twain always got it right! Of course he is alluding to the noose which will be used to hang Rhodes - Cecil Rhodes is not one of my most popular people – contrary to what some believe he stopped at nothing to gain power and he had megalomaniac dreams of Britain, and himself, controlling much of the world.
This is the situation in 1914 – except for the Boer republics it demonstrates the extent of British control in Africa
The gold findings in the Reef were the largest ever seen - the gold exceeded that of Australia, America and the Klondike - combined!
The key British politicians: Prior to the Jameson Raid Cecil Rhodes was Prime Minister of the Cape Colony - the raid resulted in him being replaced by John Gordon Sprigg. Following the raid - Milner was sent to South Africa by Chamberlain. Although most writers will blame Rhodes for starting the Boer War, Milner had more to do with actually forcing it.
Smuts went on to become a world renown figure – in later years he became Prime Minister of South Africa – led South African forces against the Germans in WW I and was a close advisor to Churchill in WW II. He wrote the initial preamble for the United Nations. Joubert was Kruger's political opposition – he did not want war with Britain but eventually he led the Boer forces into Natal. He died early in the conflict from natural causes.
They appealed to the British government to intercede for them. Kruger and the Boers resisted - realizing that such an event would result in the Uitlanders taking control of their country. The Rand Lords supported the Uitlanders because they believed they could then control the taxes and price of dynamite - which were excessive!
Chamberlain subsequently tried to deny any prior knowledge of he plot. But his friend Earl Grey was adamant about it. In a record of an interview with Grey, the historian Basil Williams wrote in his notebook: 'Grey said Chamberlain certainly knew about the force intended to go into TV [Transvaal]. Grey said that for the honor of England it should not come out, just as it was not blurted out by any of the people at the time. The great difficulty was R. Harris - it took a lot of trouble to try and silence him.' Remember – Chamberlain has been assured the Kruger will back down when faced with superior British forces.
As we saw at the beginning – Jameson’s force only numbered about 600. And the Uitlanders had not been enticed to “rise up.” Most were actually happy and making good money.
This video briefly covers the raid and extensively it’s aftermath – in fact it covers the period to the end of the Boer war – gives a taste of what is to come.
The excerpt was really just a brief summary - there was so much more in this story, especially leading up to and after the raid.
As we saw - the raid did not succeed - after riding night and day for four days, continually harassed by the Boer commando, and within sight of Johannesburg, Jameson surrendered. He got no help from the Uitlanders even though he sent several messages asking for help. The Boers captured all of the troopers - sent the wounded to hospitals in Johannesburg and jailed the remainder. They found the letters from Rhodes pertaining to the raid although none were actually signed by him. There were also letters from Chamberlain which did not appear until much later - in 1970.
Cartoon from a French paper - The Europeans and even many of the British are outraged by this attempt to take over the Transvaal.
He is 5th from the left. The Boer government later handed the men over to the British for trial and the British prisoners were returned to London . Jameson and was sentenced to 15 months for leading the raid, which he served in Holloway prison . The Transvaal government was paid almost a £1 million in compensation by the British South Africa Company. For conspiring with Jameson, the members of the Reform Committee (Transvaal) , including Col. Frank Rhodes and John Hays Hammond , were jailed in deplorable conditions, found guilty of high treason , and sentenced to death by hanging. This sentence was later commuted to 15 years imprisonment, and in June 1896, all surviving members of the Committee were released on payment of stiff fines. As further punishment for his support of Jameson, the highly decorated Col. Rhodes was placed on the retired list by the British Army and barred from active involvement in army business. After his release from jail, Col. Rhodes immediately joined his brother Cecil and the British South Africa Company in the Second Matabele War taking place just North of the Transvaal in Matabeleland. Cecil Rhodes was forced to resign as Prime Minister of Cape Colony in 1896 due to his apparent involvement in planning and assisting in the raid.
Although at first the English public were outraged by Rhodes attempt to “grab” the Transvaal, an event occurred that quickly reversed that feeling! The Telegram! Queen Victoria’s grandson, Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany was, to say the least, a “loose cannon.” Several events had happened in recent years that had made him unhappy - although the English and The French had gone head-to-head a few times; notably Fashoda. Germany and England had confronted each other over Morocco. Wilhelm’s diplomatic “blunders” were part of his governing elite’s views that Germany should be seen as a more important world nation. Following the Raid he decided to send a telegram of congratulation to Paul Kruger which set off a firestorm in England. Wilhelm’s implication that Germany stood ready to assist the Boers as well as that Britain had “attacked from without” caused British sentiment to swing against both Germany and the Boers.
An enquiry into the raid was held in Parliament - In June 1896, Chamberlain offered his resignation to Salisbury, having shown the Prime Minister one or more of the cablegrams implicating him in the Raid's planning. Salisbury refused to accept the offer, possibly reluctant to lose the government's most popular figure. Salisbury reacted aggressively in support of Chamberlain, supporting the Colonial Secretary's threat to withdraw the Company's charter if the cablegrams were revealed. Accordingly, Rhodes refused to reveal the cablegrams, and as no evidence was produced showing that Chamberlain was complicit in the Raid's planning, the Select Committee appointed to investigate the events surrounding the Raid had no choice but to absolve Chamberlain of all responsibility. It was decided to increase the garrison in South Africa by 3000 to 4000 men. And to replace Lord Rosemead – Hercules Robinson - with Alfred Milner.
This profound statement was made by Chamberlain soon after the abortive Jameson Raid. Milner and Chamberlain had differing goals – They both wanted to see the Boer republics subjected to British rule and incorporated into a united South African federation such as Canada. However Milner believed the only way to achieve this was by force to “take down” Kruger. Chamberlain on the other hand was expecting to put pressure on Kruger and get him to agree to unification. Remember, there was also a large population of Afrikaners in the Cape and although technically “British” citizens many were sympathetic to the Boers and an uprising by the Cape Afrikaners would have jeopardized Britain's control in the entire area. Salisbury; “A war with the Transvaal will have a reaction on European politics, which may be pernicious” he wrote to Chamberlain. Chamberlin disagreed and arguing that &quot;Kruger has never looked into the mouth of a cannon&quot; At the end of August, Chamberlin switched metaphors and warned the Boer government that “the sands are running low the glass.” Kruger responded by rejecting all British suzerainty over the Transvaal. Pg 93 TBW
Diamonds Gold & War2
The Afrikaners The White Tribe of Africa <ul><li>Diamonds Gold & War 2 </li></ul>Presented at OLLI at Duke - Fall 2009
Dutch East India Company <ul><li>Established a ‘victualing’ station at the Cape in 1652 </li></ul><ul><li>Population was restricted to the Cape area </li></ul><ul><li>Some indentured Dutch moved to areas in the east </li></ul><ul><li>once their contracts ended. </li></ul><ul><li>Pastoral, nomadic people. </li></ul><ul><li>Become “The Trekboers” </li></ul>Traditional Boeremusik Wals van Tant Sanie
Origins of the Afrikaners <ul><li>1652 - Dutch East India Company </li></ul><ul><li>1688 - French Huguenots, </li></ul><ul><li>1700’s - Flemish, Frisians, Germans, Scandinavians </li></ul><ul><li>1823 - British Settlers </li></ul>
Gradual migration into the east Population in 1717; 744 officials, about 2000 free burgers & over 2,700 slaves
British Annexation - 1805 <ul><li>Maintains policy of limited expansion </li></ul><ul><li>Involved in frontier wars with Xhosa </li></ul><ul><li>British impose laws protecting ‘Natives’ </li></ul><ul><li>Slagtersnek incident in 1815 </li></ul><ul><li>In 1833 British abolish slavery everywhere </li></ul><ul><li>Although ‘Trek Boers’ have few slaves, resentment of interference grows </li></ul>
A Trekboer Group Reading suggestion; The Great Trek by Oliver Ransford
Reasons for The Great Trek <ul><li>The British control of the Cape Colony </li></ul><ul><li>Forced to give up slaves with no compensation </li></ul><ul><li>Forced to speak & write “English” </li></ul><ul><li>British did not protect them from Xhosa raiders </li></ul><ul><li>Considered equal with the “natives” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This was contrary to Afrikaner religious beliefs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also seen as punitive </li></ul></ul>
Die Voorste Mense – The Pathfinders <ul><li>Several families trek first </li></ul><ul><li>Notably Louis Trichard (Tregard – Swedish decent) </li></ul><ul><li>Also, Potgieter, Van Rensburg, Maritz, Retief, Uys </li></ul><ul><li>In 1836 Trichard uproots his family and steps into history </li></ul><ul><li>He kept a journal which tells us much </li></ul>
The Mfecane <ul><li>A large dislocation (elimination?) of humans took place in the interior of southern Africa – early 1800’s </li></ul><ul><li>Thought to be aggravated by Zulu war parties under Shaka but also environmental factors (drought) </li></ul><ul><li>Current “conventional wisdom” questions the degree of witchdoctors influence notwithstanding widespread belief in the parable </li></ul><ul><li>Boers maintain that the land was essentially unoccupied when they arrived </li></ul>
The Voortrekkers <ul><li>Following the pathfinders, about 12,000 pioneers make the Great Trek to the north </li></ul><ul><li>Founding Transorangia, Natalia, the South African Republic and other minor states </li></ul><ul><li>British made many attempts to control the Boers; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cape of Good Hope Punishment Act (1836), </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sand River Convention (1852) & Bloemfontein Convention (1854) </li></ul></ul>
The Zulus <ul><li>In an attempt to establish an Afrikaner state in Natal Voortrekkers encountered Zulu’s and many settlers were killed in confrontations with raiding parties. </li></ul><ul><li>Dec. 1838 Piet Retief negotiated with the Zulu king, Dingane, at Umgungundhlovu and agreed to a treaty. </li></ul><ul><li>Retief and as many as 70 unarmed men were then murdered by the Zulus. </li></ul><ul><li>The murder of the Boer leaders was especially brutal. Some were impaled on poles and left to die, others were disemboweled. </li></ul>
<ul><li>The Zulus Impi's (Armies) then attacked and killed more than 500 Afrikaners including women and children, as well as an English rag-tag army sent from Durban to help. </li></ul><ul><li>Andries Pretorius led a group of Boers up from the Cape and eventually they laagered on a hill called Gelato (Vegkop) upon hearing that an Impi of 15,000 Zulu were approaching </li></ul><ul><li>The Boers established a defensive position, a laager, circling the wagons around the 1000 or so animals they had with them. Piled thorn bush under and between the wagons – and prayed to God for their salvation and victory </li></ul>Retaliation
“ My brothers and fellow citizens, here we stand in the presence of the Holy God, creator of heaven and earth, to make a vow unto Him, that if His protection shall be with us and He give our enemy into our hand so that we might be victorious over him, that this day and date every year shall be spent as a memorial and a day of thanksgiving, just as a Sabbath is spent and that we shall erect a temple to His honor wherever it will be pleasing to Him and that we shall also instruct our children that they must also share in it, as well as for our generations yet to come. Because the Honor of His name shall thereby be glorified and the glory and honor of the victory shall be given Him.” Vow of the Voortrekkers December 9, 1838 Battle of Blood River The Covenant
The Battle of Blood River <ul><li>Nearly 500 men </li></ul><ul><li>Supported by 200 or more “non-white” helpers </li></ul><ul><li>64 Wagons </li></ul><ul><li>3 Cannon </li></ul><ul><li>15,000 Zulu led by Ndlela – the Zulu commander </li></ul>
The Outcome <ul><li>3000 plus Zulu’s killed </li></ul><ul><li>3 Boers wounded including Pretorius who had his wrist stabbed by an assegai. </li></ul><ul><li>The Boers followed up by destroying Umgungundhlovu </li></ul><ul><li>Dingane fought a running battle engaging and killing some of the commando. Zulu’s eventually defeated. </li></ul><ul><li>The British meantime settled Durban and put an end to the dream of a “Natalia” </li></ul>
Orange Free State & SA Republic <ul><li>Recognized in the two conventions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sand River Convention (1852) & Bloemfontein Convention (1854) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Sliced and diced” by the British as opportunities arose </li></ul><ul><li>Internal bickering amongst the Afrikaners </li></ul><ul><li>Afrikaners establish several short-lived republics </li></ul>
Transvaal Troubles <ul><li>Transvaal Republic formed under President T. F. Burgers – 1872. </li></ul><ul><li>Transvaal in difficulty - war with the Pedi and facing bankruptcy. </li></ul><ul><li>Britain intercedes by annexation in 1877. </li></ul><ul><li>Kruger and others, seeking to negotiate, go to England. </li></ul>The ‘Vierkleur
The 1 st Boer War <ul><li>Talks with British fail. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1877 the British annexed the Transvaal (ZAR.*) </li></ul><ul><li>The Boers protested and fought back. </li></ul><ul><li>Dec. 1880 Transvaal declared independence and declared war, the OFS with them. </li></ul>16 December 1880 until 23 March 1881.
Battles of Laingsnek, Schuinshoogte and Majuba
Battle of Majuba A Mountain in Natal <ul><li>The battles culminated at Majuba in Natal </li></ul><ul><li>General Colley, senior British General took command himself. </li></ul><ul><li>The British established themselves on the top of the mountain </li></ul>
The Outcome <ul><li>Boers eventually beat them off the mountain </li></ul><ul><li>British losses; 92 killed, 134 wounded and 59 captured </li></ul><ul><li>Boers; 1 killed, 5 wounded </li></ul><ul><li>British withdrew and called for negotiations </li></ul>
The Battle of Majuba General Colley had led the 554 riflemen onto the mountain. He was killed in the battle after ordering the retreat
Peace Negotiated Sir Evelyn Wood negotiated the peace with President Brand, Paul Kruger and Piet Joubert Britain retained suzerainty and other oversight privileges over the TvL
<ul><li>An uneasy peace ensued – diamonds and gold had been discovered and greed and avarice were raising their ugly heads! </li></ul><ul><li>Cecil Rhodes and Albert Milner lurked in the background! </li></ul><ul><li>Stay Tuned! </li></ul>
Diamonds Gold & War The B eginning Rhodes’s ‘Big Idea’ “ Johannesburg is ready … [this is] the big idea which makes England dominant in Africa, in fact, gives England the African continent” Secret letter from Cecil Rhodes to Alfred Beit in August 1895
Johannesburg was not ready! The Uitlanders were “in a funk” and not going to “revolt.” ‘ The Raid’ was heading for disaster Pitsani Camp, near Mafeking on the Transvaal border 29 Dec. 1895
<ul><li>1870-1 Diamond Rush to Kimberly </li></ul><ul><li>1880 President Paul Kruger leads the Boers against the British in the First Boer War - gaining partial autonomy for the South African Republic. </li></ul><ul><li>1880 Rhodes & Rudd form De Beers Mining Company </li></ul><ul><li>1886 Gold Rush to Jo’burg </li></ul>South Africa - 1800’s
<ul><li>1888 Cecil Rhodes obtains British Royal Charter for his BSA company to exploit Chief Lobengula’s territory </li></ul><ul><li>1889 Wernher, Beit & Co become main Rand mining-house </li></ul><ul><li>Julius Werner, Alfred Beit, Barney Barnato and Rhodes became known as “The Rand Lords” or “Gold Bugs” </li></ul><ul><li>They wield great influence in South Africa and Britain although their wealth is in the Transvaal and Kimberly. </li></ul>
1890 Rhode’s BSA company occupy Lobengula’s land and rename it Rhodesia.
<ul><li>Meanwhile: back at the gold fields; </li></ul><ul><li>Johannesburg has become “the richest place on earth.” </li></ul><ul><li>Millionaires have been created ‘overnight’ and wield much political power in Britain. </li></ul><ul><li>British government begins to feel pressure to ensure stability in the region. </li></ul>
Cecil Rhodes Lord Salisbury Prime Minister Joseph Chamberlain Colonial Secretary Alfred Milner High Commissioner For Southern Africa (after the Raid)
President of the South African Republic Paul Kruger President of the Orange Free State Martinus Steyn Commandant-General South African Republic Piet Joubert State Attorney South African Republic Jan Smuts
<ul><li>The ‘Uitlanders’ – ‘out-landers’; essentially foreigners who had flooded into Jo’burg when gold was discovered </li></ul><ul><li>They had become increasingly frustrated with high taxes, high costs and accusations of abuse by the TvL (Transvaal) government </li></ul><ul><li>By early 1890’s these people constitute about 50% of the population and are starting to agitate for enfranchisement </li></ul><ul><li>Rhodes and other high level Cape and British officials support their goals and the ousting of the Boers </li></ul>
<ul><li>Chamberlain sees this as a opportunity and also a potential problem – expansion of imperialism or a semi-autonomous state ruled by Rhodes </li></ul><ul><li>Rhodes wants to expand his hold over South Africa and wants Kruger out </li></ul><ul><li>Rhodes begins to manipulate Chamberlain and others to move against Kruger and the Orange River Colony </li></ul>
<ul><li>Kruger, to counteract this pressure cultivates links with Germany. He encourages German investment and immigration. </li></ul><ul><li>In a speech he contrasts German immigrants with ‘Her Majesty's’ subjects – the Germans remain loyal to SAR in times of trouble but the British subjects turn to Great Britain. </li></ul><ul><li>By 1895 Kruger has established the SAR (TvL) as the dominant state in southern Africa – Rhodes decides it’s time to remove him. </li></ul>
The Rhodes Conspiracy <ul><li>Rhodes gathers the “Rand Lords” and they begin to plan a coup d'état in the Transvaal. </li></ul><ul><li>He also uses his influence to rally support in London </li></ul><ul><li>Although some prominent Cape Afrikaners and newsmen are more in favor of a political solution, Rhodes persists that he does not want a “reformed Republic” – he wants a British Colony. </li></ul>See D,G&W pg 311
<ul><li>Rhodes and his cohorts make several major miscalculations: </li></ul><ul><li>The overthrow of Kruger will be “straightforward” </li></ul><ul><li>The Uitlanders are ready to participate in an uprising </li></ul><ul><li>The white settlers in Rhodesia will be safe if Rhodes withdraws the BSA police to take part in the coup. </li></ul>
<ul><li>First and foremost Chamberlain wants the two republics as colonies and he wants this without war </li></ul><ul><li>He insists on “a proper consideration of all issues” including the Tswana chiefs (Bechuanaland) </li></ul><ul><li>However he is in favor of handing over a “strip of land” in Bechuanaland for railway construction </li></ul><ul><li>Rhodes (and Chamberlain secretly) want a launching point for the invading force in Bechuanaland near the border close to Johannesburg </li></ul>
<ul><li>“ Doctor” Leander Starr Jameson is appointed to lead the raid. A very close colleague and employee of Rhodes he had no military experience </li></ul><ul><li>Percy FitzPatrick became a leader amongst the Uitlanders and, working with Rhodes and many others, both in Johannesburg and London “stoked the fire.” </li></ul>
<ul><li>The Plan </li></ul><ul><li>Jameson's force would be 1,500 men raised from Rhodesian police and others equipped with Maxim guns, artillery, spare rifles </li></ul><ul><li>They would invade Johannesburg from Pitsani in Bechuanaland (170 miles) on pre-arranged date </li></ul><ul><li>Uitlanders – about 7,500, secretly equipped with rifles and Maxim’s would rise-up </li></ul><ul><li>Together they would subdue the local authorities and declare a provisional government </li></ul>
Excerpt from PBS ‘Victoria - Scramble for Africa’
Well! That was interesting! That’s the whole story. So we can all go home now! Not Really; There is a lot more to this story!
Kaiser Wilhelm II’s telegram to Kruger “ I express to you my sincere congratulations that you and your people, without appealing to the help of friendly powers, have succeeded, by your own energetic action against the armed bands which invaded your country as disturbers of the peace, in restoring peace and in maintaining the independence of the country against attack from without.”
Now, public opinion, the press and the Conservatives in Parliament were strongly in favor of the Uitlanders and against the Boers. The Liberal party led by Carter-Bannerman was opposed to any war but was too weak to be effective in stopping it.
‘ The Jameson Raid was the real declaration of war in the Great Anglo-Boer conflict. . . . And that is so in spite of the four years truce that followed . . . [the] aggressors consolidated their alliance ... the defenders on the other hand silently and grimly prepared for the inevitable.’ Jan Smuts, 1906
‘ A war in South Africa would be one of the most serious wars that could possibly be waged. It would be the nature of a Civil War. It would be a long war, a bitter war and a costly war. . . it would leave behind the embers of a strife which I believe generations would hardly be enough to extinguish …. to go to war with President Kruger, to force upon him reforms in the internal affairs of his state, with which [we] have repudiated all right of interference - that would have been a course of action as immoral as it would have been unwise.' Joseph Chamberlain, speaking as Colonial Secretary in the House of Commons. May 1896