Design of an Ameliorated Methodology for the Abstraction of Usable Components of Object Oriented Paradigm from the Software Requirement Specification (SRS)
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Design of an Ameliorated Methodology for the Abstraction of Usable Components of Object Oriented Paradigm from the Software Requirement Specification (SRS)

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The object oriented design requires that the view ...

The object oriented design requires that the view
element required for the design is to be abstracted from the
SRS. So it is required to transform the requirements into
object oriented paradigm and then proceed for the
development. We are intending in our ensued project, to
develop a sequence of methods in the form of methodology,
those take the requirements and then transform it into objectoriented
paradigm. We are intending to develop an automated
(with least human intervention) sequence of methodology that
takes requirements specification as input and abstracts
required elements for the object oriented system. This is a
semiautomatic methodology. In few steps of our methodology
whenever the human intervention is required the detailed
guidelines for that of the process is framed to facilitate the
human worker to take unique unambiguous decision.

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    Design of an Ameliorated Methodology for the Abstraction of Usable Components of Object Oriented Paradigm from the Software Requirement Specification (SRS) Design of an Ameliorated Methodology for the Abstraction of Usable Components of Object Oriented Paradigm from the Software Requirement Specification (SRS) Document Transcript

    • ACEEE Int. J. on Network Security, Vol. 02, No. 01, Jan 2011 Design of an Ameliorated Methodology for the Abstraction of Usable Components of ObjectOriented Paradigm from the Software Requirement Specification (SRS) Dr. Shivanand M Handigund1, Dr. R J D’Souza2, Syed Naimatullah Hussain3 1 BIT/CSE, Bangalore, India Email: smhandigund@gmail.com 2 NITK/MACS, Surathkal, India Email: rjd@nitk.ac.in 3 NITK/MACS, Surathkal, India Email: snuh@rediffmail.comAbstract –The object oriented design requires that the view facilitate the human worker to take unique unambiguouselement required for the design is to be abstracted from the decision.SRS. So it is required to transform the requirements into Few researchers [1,6] have suggested some techniquesobject oriented paradigm and then proceed for the for certain stages of the design of object classes. Although,development. We are intending in our ensued project, todevelop a sequence of methods in the form of methodology, these guidelines may facilitate to certain extent for thethose take the requirements and then transform it into object- abstraction of object class name but since theseoriented paradigm. We are intending to develop an automated methodologies are based on conjectures. There is not(with least human intervention) sequence of methodology that authentication of correctness and completeness of the endtakes requirements specification as input and abstracts product of the ensued abstractions. We have made anrequired elements for the object oriented system. This is a attempt develop a methodology that identifies the object-semiautomatic methodology. In few steps of our methodology oriented specifications in the form of object structures,whenever the human intervention is required the detailed object methods and the interrelationships, from theguidelines for that of the process is framed to facilitate the requirements of an information system. This semihuman worker to take unique unambiguous decision. automatic methodology comprises of a sequence steps like feasibility analysis, for object structure identification, I. INTRODUCTION resolution of synonyms & homonyms issues, regrouping of The software development project normally starts with attributes of entities & functionalities through the design ofcustomers’ requirements. The customers are in general, data flow diagrams and elimination of imbalance betweenstrategic management people of the organization who are data & procedure selection along with authentication ofthe user’s of the ensuing tool. So the requirements of the correctness & completeness of the abstractions at eachensuing system reflect their processing mindset. This will stage. This manual intervention at few stages isnot serve the evolving process of organization. Presently, necessitated because of the need for human intelligence inthis will not serve the development process effectively. these steps. Even for these manual intervention steps,Now a day, people feel that the naturalness virtue of attempt is made to provide clear-cut guidelines toobject-oriented paradigm made it more reliable durable streamline the design process. In the proposedand stable. The object oriented design requires that the methodology we have surmounted this lacuna and we haveview element required for the design is to be abstracted avoided conjecturing.from the SRS. So it is required to transform therequirements into object-oriented paradigm and then II. OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDYproceed for the development. We are intending in our Earlier the client is to make use of system analysis &ensued project, to develop a sequence of methods in the design, the developer team is to study, analyze the systemform of methodology, those take the requirements and then and design it. Now days the client organization are awaretransform it into object-oriented paradigm. We are of information technology and its utility. Any projectintending to develop an automated (with least human development starts with the client organization submittingintervention) sequence of methodology that takes the SRS. Client and developer organization come to certainrequirements specification as input and abstracts required agreement for terms and condition they prepare documentelements for the object oriented system. This is a called as project charter which contains all requirement ofsemiautomatic methodology. In few steps of our SRS, budgetary constraints, change management cost andmethodology whenever the human intervention is required the duration of the project. An attempt is made to developthe detailed guidelines for that of the process is framed to and automatic methodology that takes SRS text as input 40© 2011 ACEEEDOI: 01.IJNS.02.01.233
    • ACEEE Int. J. on Network Security, Vol. 02, No. 01, Jan 2011 and abstract the elements required for object oriented reasoning. They have not specified when the iteration needs design. Researcher’s Rebecca wirfs et al has developed an to be stopped, nor specified how the completeness and the approach called noun phrase approach that identifies the correctness is achieved. object class names; and the process of identification of • They have identified object attributes from the noun classes is an iterative process. They have not specified phrases and object methods from verbs. This is when the process needs to be stopped nor specified how the questionable issue as there is vast flexibility in the correctness and completeness is achieved and is based on English language for using verbs. conjecturing of human intelligence. Similarly few other researchers Shlaer, Mellor et al in common class pattern B. Common Class Pattern Approach approach have stated that the entity as the object class Short falls in common class pattern approach structure. We know that the object class, the structure, the entity, the states and methods are encapsulated together, • Common class pattern approach considers the entity as but in the entity concept functionality may utilize part of an the object class structure. We know that the object entity attributes or it may contain number of attributes class, the structure, the entity, the states and methods across different entities. Thus it fails to distinguish between are encapsulated together,, but in the entity concept entity and the object class structure. In the use case driven functionality may utilize part of an entity attributes or it approach researchers Jacobson et al have stated that this may contain number of attributes across different approach identifies the information system as scenarios, the entities. Thus it fails to distinguish between entity and union of all scenarios becomes the behavior of the system. the object class structure. This is questionable concept as people are finding some C. Use-Case Driven Approach activities of the system are beyond the scope of use-case Shortfalls in Use-Case Driven Approach scenarios. These methods even though make some sense; they lack the mathematical rigor and the naturalness. These This identifies the information system as scenarios, the are two essential components for the true object oriented union of all scenarios becomes the behavior of the system. design; the proposed methodology bridges the gap by This is a questionable concept as people are finding some incorporating mathematical rigor and naturalness. . The activities of the system are beyond the scopes of use-case authors have not noticed any single methodology that scenarios. abstract the correct and complete object specifications. In These methods even though make some sense; they lack our proposed methodology we are attempting to develop a the mathematical rigour and the naturalness. These are the correct and complete methodology that abstracts the two essential components for the true object oriented requirement specification text in any paradigm in design. data/procedure oriented approaches and then automatically transforms the abstraction into first cut object IV. PROPOSED SOLUTION METHOD/ALGORITHM specifications. Later these specifications are refined using A. The Methodology the ambience of good database design principles. The abstracted specifications are correct and complete. We have proposed a methodology, which will help in Moreover we are attempting to develop a automatic developing an automated methodology for the abstraction methodology that has very limited human intervention thus of object structure from the SRS. The input to the system is avoiding the ambiguity. This intervention is made essential software requirements specification (SRS) (IV. B). The only for the authentication of the process for correctness output of the methodology is the object structure functional and completeness. It minimizes the description of human dependencies, and also attribute domain pair. This intervention power. methodology comprises a sequence of semiautomatic methods. Each stage of each method is proposed with III. LITERATURE SURVEY details of either procedure, if it is automated, or guidelines, if it is a manual process. A. Work Already Carried Out By Few Researcher’s Noun Phrase Approach B. System Requirement Specification (SRS) Rebecca Wirf’s Brock, Brian Wilkerson and Lauren Automation In Technical Institute / College Weiner (researcher’s) have developed a eleven steps noun Functional Requirements: phrase approach for identification classes [2,8]. From the software requirement specification (SRS) or Use-Case Admit Student: nouns are identified as class and verbs as methods of Student will get entrance exam card based on his/her classes. The process of identifying classes is an iterative performance, preference of college and availability of seats. process. The student will submit entrance exam card, original documents referenced in the card along with appropriate Short falls in noun phase approach fees to the college and gets acknowledgement.• Rebecca Wirf’s et al have proposed an iterative method, which manually selects attribute name from the noun phrases and eliminates some of them based on some 41 © 2011 ACEEE DOI: 01.IJNS.02.01.233
    • ACEEE Int. J. on Network Security, Vol. 02, No. 01, Jan 2011Register For Course Step-2 Design entities attributes along with primary keys The academic section verifies the documents referenced and foreign keys. Develop ER model (DOD) collected fromin the card, if satisfied assign roll number to each student functionality (POF).branch wise, year wise and after admission process is Step-3 Resolve synonym & homonym from both fromcompleted, sends the list to the concerned department . DOD & POF. Step-4 visualize all the functionalities that can be abstractedClassroom Allocation from the entity and attributes of DOD Similarly identify the attributes and entities required for the functionality POF Each batch of each semester is assigned with aclassroom thus a student is attached to a classroom in Establish On-to Correspondence Between DOD & PODwhich the teaching learning process takes place as per the (procedure oriented data)scheduleFaculty Work Load ** ** * A faculty member teaches the student the allocated *subject in the allocated classroom at the allocated time day ** **and hour. ** **C. Identify Different Nouns and Noun Phrases & AbstractReferenced and Defined Nouns From SRS (IV.B) DOD POD Figure 1 Identify noun/noun-phrases(N), Adjectives(Aj),Transitive Verbs(Vt), intransitive verb(Vi), Intransitive Match the attributes of DOD with attributes of POD &verb(Vi), impersonal verb(Vimp), Auxilary Verb(Vaux), store them separately in DD (matched data) from DOD &Adverb and Adverbial Phrases(Av), discard (Vaux), POD (Procedure Oriented Data), for unmatched attributesconvert passive voice to active voice see whether an attribute of one set has a matching part in TABLE 1 the attribute of other set, decompose the other set of TABLE FOR NOUN PHRASE APPROACH attributes and add matching attributes to corresponding pool. Noun Adverb Adjective Vt Vi Vaux Now we may have subsets containing unmatchingIntroduction Formally Admit Provide Is Can attributes. Now consider in each set whether an attributes is Purpose suitably Allocated Intended Receive synonymous with any attributes of other attributes, if soDocument only Eligible Admitted Fix add to the pool of respective attribute, discard unmatched attributes of DOD and decompose the unmatched attributes Complete apply Submit of POD & add in both.Description Strictly performance Establish on-to Correspondence Between POF & DOF To identify the functional dependencies among different (data oriented functionalities)attributes of object classes we are abstracting thereferenced and defined nouns from the SRS(IV.B).REFERENCED DEFINED ** **Entrance exam card, ** ** *performance, seat, college Student * ** **Entrance exam, fees, studentAcknowledgement, College POF DOF Figure 2Student Documents, Roll no,Semester, Match the functionality of POF (Procedure Oriented Batch, Branch- Functionality) with the functionality of DOF (Data Oriented Functionality) and store them separately in FFwise, Year-wise, (matched Functionality), for unmatched functionalities Branch, Schedule compare for partial matching of POF& DOF. Decompose DOF and add in both, discard unmatched POF.D. Resolve Synonym, Homonym Issues From DOD (DataOriented Data) & POF (Procedure Oriented • Collect the functionality from CTU’s; identify theFunctionalities) data required for all these functionalities in terms ofStep-1 Collect all attributes & entities their functional entity, attributes and interrelationship [1, 9].dependencies, interrelationship and procedure from • Group this attributes based on person, place, thing,customer team of user’s CTU’s. event or concept and form entities attributes, primary key, foreign key; call this as POD 42© 2011 ACEEEDOI: 01.IJNS.02.01.233
    • ACEEE Int. J. on Network Security, Vol. 02, No. 01, Jan 2011 • Resolve synonym homonym issue amongst assume the file. We identify the functionalities, function functionality name based on the behaviors of the oriented and procedure oriented. We identify the attributes functionalities. Now study each functionality for its using procedure oriented approach, identify the attributes relevance with respect to the information system. required for the different functionalities, make one-one & on-to functionality between attributes of data oriented Now consider first cut data set POD approach and attributes derived from procedure oriented approach [1, 3]. Business Process Functionality Business Process FDS and Entities occurrence Interrelationships Functionality FDS and Entities occurrence Structural Interrelationships Behavioral Structural Characteristics Behavioral haracteristics characteristics Structural Behavioral Characteristics Structural characteristics Characteristics Behavioral Characteristics Characteristics Data Oriented Object Oriented Paradigm Figure 3 Declarative Procedural constructs constructs Declarative Procedural constructs Object Constructs constructs Object Constructs Figure 3 Figure 5In the above fig 3, here more weightage is given to data,the upper rectangular block indicates the problem domain Object Oriented (fig 5) The above figure illustrates aand the lower rectangular block states the solution domain. perfect balance between the data and procedure orientedWe identify the attributes using data oriented approach by approach, here we identify the attributes using objectmaking one-one and on-to functionality between the oriented paradigms.attributes of procedure oriented approach and attributes E. Group the Functional Dependencies for Identificationderived from data oriented approach. of the Object Structure Attributes of Object Class from SRS(B)Procedure oriented Eg: Functional Dependencies Business Process Entrance Exam card, Entities Functionality Performance, seats, college student FDS and occurrence Interrelationships Entrance exam, fees, student, Acknowledgement College Structural Behavioral Structural Student documents, assign roll no., Characteristics Behavioral Characteristics characteristics Characteristics semester, batch, branch-wise, Year-wise, department, schedule TLP classroom Classroom batch, semester, student Procedure oriented paradigm Grouping the Attributes on RHS from FD’S Declarative Procedural constructs constructs Student Student, acknowledgement, college, semester, Object Constructs Performance, borrowed books, shortage, Lab exam, admission, staff Performance Figure 4 Performance, studentFig 4, Now visualize all the data required for processing Collegethe functionalities POD (procedure oriented data) we College, acknowledgement, order, engg degree 43© 2011 ACEEEDOI: 01.IJNS.02.01.233
    • ACEEE Int. J. on Network Security, Vol. 02, No. 01, Jan 2011Staff depicted as the actors and manage teaching learning Staff, student process is depicted as the lone process. The data stores,Lab Exam data flows and the sub processes are within this process. Lab exam, student Here, a student is admitted to college when he/she qualifiesClassroom for the entrance exam. To get admission to a college for a Classroom, batch, semester, student requisite branch of requisite programme, he/she has to produce his/her name, rank no, branch, programmeF. Separate Out Actor from Functional Dependencies allocated, to the college. The college management ensures(IV.E) that the admission of the candidate does not overflow theAttributes which are only referenced or defined are Actor total intake allocated by AICTE. The university(interface). examination activity starts with the candidates’ sending ofEg. University, parents, candidate, management, entrance their details like US No., Course Nos., branch, programmeexam cell, supplier, KCSR & Fees payment. University will conduct examinations andAttributes which are both referenced & defined are the send marks details to the respective US Nos. To seekattributes of object class. placement activity, a student has to produce proof ofEg. Student, college, semester, subject, classroom, books, his/her US No., Degree, and Branch and marks card.test H. Logical DFD:G. Context Level Diagram I. Authentication of Correctness and Completeness from SRS (IV.B) Identify object class for the correctness and completeness. Correctness means whether all the abstraction are correct or whatever, I have abstracted is correct Eg. Student, Faculty, and corridor here corridor is deleted because it is not an object class. Completeness means whether all the elements are abstracted or whether all the attributes are covered. Eg. Student Name whether student name is answer to any of the attributes. The following questionnaire is developed to show the correctness and completeness of object class. • Who will use the main functionality of system? • Who needs support from the system? • Who will maintain the system? (secondary actors) Figure 6 • Which hardware system, the system needs to interface?In the above context diagram, the attributes Entrance • Who/ what has an interest on the result, the systemExam, AICTE, University, Degree, management are produces? 44© 2011 ACEEEDOI: 01.IJNS.02.01.233
    • ACEEE Int. J. on Network Security, Vol. 02, No. 01, Jan 2011J. Normalization (SRS IV. B) Salary { Fid, Fname, Fbasic, date-of-next-incrmnt.date- College { college-name, branch, Programme, Intake, of-present-scale} Compliance-report, Subject} Class Room{room-no, Fname,sub,fhour,pgm,brnch, Branch {,Hod, branch-name, No.-of-faculty} sem avlbt day} Programme { Prgm-name, Prgm-co-ordinator, no. of Marks{USNo,sub-code,marks-obtn,grade-obtn,min- student, qualification} mrks,max-mrks} Faculty{Fname, Fid, designation, brch-name, K. Two Levels of Data Integration specialization, } Student {Usno., sname, prgm,branch, qual} L. Transform Logical DFD to Physical DFD: 45© 2011 ACEEEDOI: 01.IJNS.02.01.233
    • ACEEE Int. J. on Network Security, Vol. 02, No. 01, Jan 2011 V. CONCLUSION flexibility in English language, different people use different words for the same meaning, automation is veryThis paper discusses the framework of our proposed difficult but however we propose an automated method inresearch. The framework is developed on the study of near future.different methodologies that exist for the abstraction ofobject classes from the software requirements specification. VI. REFERENCESThe available methodologies are designed with brokensequence of methods. Moreover piece-wise methods are 1) Shivanand M. Handigund, “Reverse Engineering of Legacymanual methods without facilitating the opportunity for COBOL Systems”, Ph.D. Thesis, 2001, I. IIT. Bambay,authenticating the correctness and completeness. Mumbai. These methods can only be used to abstract object class 2) Ali Bahrami “Object Oriented System Developments”names, currently no methods are available to abstract McGraw-Hill International Editions 1999.object attributes, methods moreover in the proposed 3) S.B. Navathe C. Batini, M. Lenzerini. A comparativemethodology, we have used good database design analysis of methodologies for database schema integration.principles to strengthen the high cohesion and low coupling ACM Computing Surveys, 18(4):323-364,1986.properties, moreover we are planning to develop 4) Joseph Fong et. al. Methodology of Scheme integration formethodology for the abstraction of object method new database applications: A practitioner’s approach. Journalinculcating good software engineering design principles, of Database Management, 10(1):3-18,1999.thus the methodology transfers the business information 5) Shivanand M. Handigund and Deepak B. Phatak.into domain elements. Since we propose to use good data Reengineering methodology for legacy COBOL systems. Inbase design principles and good software engineering Proceeding of International Conference on Informationprinciples. The abstracted object classes will be free from Technology & Communications Bangkok, Thailand Pagesthe anomalies and blend of balanced approach. We are 221-232, August 2000.intending to refine the abstracted object classes to be more 6) D B Phatak. Migrating Legacy systems. Pre-coneferencenatural than random object classes. In the proposed paper we have identified the tutorial Presented at COMAD95, Pune (India), 1999.functional dependencies (FDs) and minimization of FDs, 7) Amith Sheth Vipul Kashyap. Semantic and schematicand Two levels of data integration for refinement of object similarities between databasemethod. Still there is need to use good software Objects: A context based approach. VLBD Journal,engineering principles to identify object attributes involved 27(5):276-in the object method 304,1996. Our methodology is semi automatic it has advantages 8) Rebecca Wirfs: Designing Object Oriented Softfware.over existing methodologies in the sense that other Prentice-Hall India. 1990methodologies have not given the clear cut methodology, 9) Pankaj Jalote An Integrated Approach to Softwaresound reasoning for the steps. We have attempted to engineering principles Pages 79-136, Springersaddress these challenges in our methodology. As the SRS Publication,2005,Indiais prepared by number of users in organization, due to 46© 2011 ACEEEDOI: 01.IJNS.02.01.233