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This paper presents the design and performance comparison of a two stage ...

This paper presents the design and performance comparison of a two stage
operational amplifier topology using CMOS and BiCMOS technology. This conventional op
amp circuit was designed by using RF model of BSIM3V3 in 0.6 μm CMOS technology and
0.35 μm BiCMOS technology. Both the op amp circuits were designed and simulated,
analyzed and performance parameters are compared. The performance parameters such as
gain, phase margin, CMRR, PSRR, power consumption etc achieved are compared. Finally,
we conclude the suitability of CMOS technology over BiCMOS technology for low power
RF design.

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72 129-135 72 129-135 Document Transcript

  • Design and Performance Analysis of Low Power RF Operational Amplifier using CMOS and BiCMOS Technology A. Baishya1 , Trupa Sarkar2 , P. P. Sahu1 and M. K. Naskar3 1 Dept of ECE, Tezpur University, Assam, India. Email: anukul@tezu.ernet.in. 2 GDC Kamalpur, Dept of ETCE, Tripura, India. Email: trupa.sarkar@gmail.com. 3 Dept of ETCE, Jadavpur University, Kolkata, India Abstract— This paper presents the design and performance comparison of a two stage operational amplifier topology using CMOS and BiCMOS technology. This conventional op amp circuit was designed by using RF model of BSIM3V3 in 0.6 µm CMOS technology and 0.35 µm BiCMOS technology. Both the op amp circuits were designed and simulated, analyzed and performance parameters are compared. The performance parameters such as gain, phase margin, CMRR, PSRR, power consumption etc achieved are compared. Finally, we conclude the suitability of CMOS technology over BiCMOS technology for low power RF design. Index Terms— RF CMOS, frequency response, unity gain, unity gain bandwidth, gain margin, phase margin. I. INTRODUCTION The growing demand in low power and at the same time high performance design plays an important role and creates a challenging task in modern analog and mixed signal systems that are expected to operate at low supply voltages. Many low power applications require high performance op amp which is considered to be one of the most widely used circuit blocks. To design an op amp with wide input common mode range at low supply voltage, complementary differential pairs are usually required and the minimum supply voltage in this case is given by 4ܸ஽௦௔௧ + ்ܸே + |்ܸ௉|. Potentially increasing requirement for reduced cost, less chip area, reduced power consumption and improved performance demand integration of mixed signal systems on the same die. Effort towards integration of this versatile circuit block started way back in 1960 [1], the µA 709 being the first integrated op amp. The power supply requirement for digital circuits is less compared to analog circuits and can be achieved by voltage scaling. Since threshold voltage (்ܸு) does not scale down at the same rate as (ܸௗௗ), it results in reduced common mode range, output swing and linearity of the op amp. As the supply voltage decreases, it becomes increasingly challenging to maintain the transistors in saturation [2]. Therefore, the designers need to opt for low power design techniques to integrate analog circuit blocks along with digital circuits on a single chip using standard CMOS technology. Operational amplifiers based on CMOS technology with different levels of complexity are used to understand functions like dc bias generation, high speed DOI: 02.ITC.2014.5.72 © Association of Computer Electronics and Electrical Engineers, 2014 Proc. of Int. Conf. on Recent Trends in Information, Telecommunication and Computing, ITC
  • 130 amplification, high output swing and reasonable open loop unity gain bandwidth (UGB) product. With the increase in cut off frequency as technology shrinks to sub-micrometer range, CMOS technology has been in the run from its counterpart bipolar technology. The optimum trade-off among die area, power consumption and operating speed of an op amp can be achieved when the transistors are operated in their moderate inversion region of operation [3], [4]. Amplifiers designed to operate at radio frequency differs from conventional low frequency circuit design approaches and demand special considerations [5], [6]. In RF regime, stability analysis becomes an important issue with noise and gain figures. The key parameters associated with an RF op amp are gain (dB), operating frequency and bandwidth (Hz), output power (dBm), power supply requirement, input and output refection coefficients (VSWR), noise figure (dB) etc. Transistors are mainly used in RF op amps as gain elements. An overview of CMOS op amp design is described in [7]. II. DESIGN OF A TWO STAGE OP AMP The op amp architecture employed in this work comprises of two stages as shown in fig 1. The first stage is a differential stage with an active load which is used to amplify the differential input voltage suppressing the common mode voltage. The input differential amplifier stage is designed to achieve high input impedance, large CMRR, and PSRR, low offset voltage, low noise and high gain. The second stage is an inverting output stage. Additional differential stage is used in order to enhance the gain of the op amp. The circuit was designed with RF models of BSIM3v3 MOSFET with a supply voltage obtained from the I – V characteristics shown in fig 2 and fig 3 obtained by simulating the NMOS and PMOS transistors. During the simulation of the CMOS and BiCMOS op amps supply voltages were so chosen that both the transistors operate in their moderate inversion region resulting in optimum power supply requirement. The two stage op amp circuit shown in fig 1 was designed using PMOS and NMOS devices derived from RF models of BSIM3v3 [8] made available by AWR Microwave office version 9.05. As seen in the figure, the differential stage comprises of transistors M1 to M4. M1 and M2 are NMOS transistors while M3 and M4 are PMOS transistors. This differential stage forms the basic stage of the op amp. A differential input signal applied across the two input terminals will be amplified according to the gain of the differential stage. The current mirror active load formed using M3 and M4 performs the differential to single ended conversion of the input signal. Transistor M13 acts as a current source supply and with M12, supplies a voltage between the gate and the source of M5, M7 and M9. Transistor M5 acts as a simple current source while M7 serves as a load for the driver M6, which form the second gain stage. It also acts as a level shifter. The source follower consists of the transistors M10 and M11. M10 acts as a driver and M11 acts as a load. Parallel connected channels of the complementary transistors M10 and M11 form a resistance ‘R’ which is used as a compensation technique for improvement of phase margin. The resistance is connected to the input of second stage gain to the output and hence acts as a feedback. A. CMOS and BiCMOS implementation The two stage opamp shown in fig 1 employs PMOS and NMOS devices those were derived using 0.6 µm CMOS and 0.35 µm BiCMOS process parameters. The devices were simulated for V-I characteristics in order to obtain the supply voltage required for operating them in moderate inversion region. The simulation results for V-I characteristics of PMOS and NMOS devices are shown in fig 2 and fig 3 respectively. III. SIMULATION RESULTS The two stage op amp circuit of fig 1 was simulated using the PMOS and NMOS devices derived above in 0.6 µm CMOS and 0.35 µm BiCMOS technology and were simulated for gain, phase margin, CMRR and PSRR. The simulation results obtained for these parameters for the CMOS and BiCMOS circuits are described below. A. Frequency response The frequency response obtained by simulating the op amp circuit of fig 1 in CMOS and BiCMOS technology are shown in fig 4 and fig 5 respectively. It is observed that a gain of 22.69dB and a phase margin of 450 is achieved for the CMOS op amp while BiCMOS op amp provides a gain of 12dB with a phase margin of 600 . The unity gain bandwidth (UGB) of the CMOS and the BiCMOS op amp were found to be 11.2 GHz and 4.2 GHz respectively.
  • 131 Fig. 1 Two stage Op amp circuit diagram Fig 2. V-I Characteristics of PMOS device
  • 132 Fig 3. V-I Characteristics of NMOS device Fig 4. Frequency response of CMOS op amp Fig 5. Frequency response of BiCMOS op amp B. Common mode rejection ratio (CMRR) The op amp circuit was simulated for CMRR in Microwave office version 9.05. The CMRR in dB was obtained by applying two identical voltage sources in series with the op amp inputs and employing a unity gain feedback. CMRR of 80 dB and 26 dB as seen in fig 6 and fig 7 were obtained for CMOS and BiCMOS implementation respectively.
  • 133 Fig 6. CMRR of CMOS op amp Fig 7. CMRR of BiCMOS op amp Fig. 8. PSRR of CMOS op amp C. Power supply rejection ratio (PSRR) The power supply rejection ratio (PSRR) of the CMOS and BiCMOS implementations of the proposed op amp architecture were obtained by simulating the circuit with inputs shorted in unity gain configuration. The values obtained for PSRR (+) and PSRR(-) of the CMOS op amp are 30 dB and 60 dB respectively as shown in fig 8 while the PSRR(+) and PSRR(-) of the BiCMOS op amp were obtained as 42 dB and 22 dB respectively as shown in fig 9. D. Device geometry and electrical yields The device geometry of the NMOS and PMOS devices employed in constructing the op amp circuit in CMOS and BiCMOS technologies are shown in TABLE I and TABLE II respectively along with the electrical parameters yielded. The device dimensions were arrived at through repeated simulation and optimization.
  • 134 Fig 9. PSRR of BiCMOS op amp TABLE I. DEVICE GEOMETRY AND PERFORMANCE PARAMETERS OF CMOS OP AMP DESIGN PARAMETERS ELECTRICAL PARAMETERS YIELDED M1, M2 W/L=42.2; L=0.6 Phase Margin 44° M3,M4 W=25; L=0.6 UGB 11.31 GHz M5 W=33.1; L=1.2 DC Gain 22.69dB M6 W=9; L=0.6 PSRR(+ve) 30dB M7 W=5.84; L=1.2 PSRR(-ve) 60dB M8 W=0.6; L=0.6 CMRR 80dB M9 W=0.6; L=1.2 Power Consumption 83.8mW M10, M11 W=6.7; L=0.6 Slew Rate 39.21V/ns M12 W=6; L=0.6 M13 W=3.9; L=0.6 VDD 0.8V CL 1fF IREF 1.5mA TABLE II. DEVICE GEOMETRY AND PERFORMANCE PARAMETERS OF BICMOS OP AMP THE DESIGN PARAMETERS THE ELECTRICAL PARAMETERS YIELDED M1, M2 W=18; L=0.35 Phase Margin 60° M3,M4 W=9; L=0.35 Unity Gain Frequency 4.2 GHz M5 W=21; L=0.35 DC Gain 12dB M6 W=15; L=0.35 PSRR(+ve) 42dB M7 W=18; L=0.35 PSRR(-ve) 23dB M8 W=18; L=0.35 CMRR 26dB M9 W=12; L=0.35 Power Consumption 133mW M10 W=10; L=0.6 Slew Rate 18.22V/ns M11 W=9; L=0.6 VDD 3.5V CL 1fF IREF 3.1mA
  • 135 TABLE III. PERFORMANCE COMPARISON OF CMOS AND BICMOS OPAMP The performance parameter as obtained by simulating and optimizing the op amp implemented in CMOS and BiCMOS technology are tabulated as shown in TABLE III. It is observed that the CMOS implementation of the two stage op amp outperforms the BiCMOS implementation. IV. CONCLUSION The most commonly used two stage op amp topology was used to perform a comparative study using 0.6 µm and 0.35 µm BiCMOS process technology. It was observed that the CMOS implementation of the same circuit topology outperforms the BiCMOS implementation almost in all aspects and thereby revalidates the suitability of CMOS technology for low power RF analog circuit design. REFERENCES [1] S. Sedra and K. C. A. Smith, “Microelectronic circuits,” Oxford University Press, 2009 [2] R. Gonzalez, B. Gordon, and M. Horowitz, “Supply and threshold Voltage scaling for low power cmos,” IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, vol. 32, no. 8, pp. 1210–1216, 1997. [3] A. Shameli and P. Heydari, “A novel power optimization technique for ultra-low power rfics,” in International Symposium on Low Power Electronics and Design: Proceedings of the 2006 international symposium on Low power electronics and design, vol. 4, no. 06, 2006, pp. 274–279. [4] D. Binkley, C. Hopper, S. Tucker, B. Moss, J. Rochelle, and D. Foty, “A cad methodology for optimizing transistor current and sizing in analog cmos design,” IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 225–237, 2006. [5] M. Steyaert, M. Borremans, J. Craninckx, J. Crols, J. Janssens, and P. Kinget, “Rf integrated circuits in standard cmos technologies,” in Solid-State Circuits Conference, 1996. ESSCIRC’96. Proceedings of the 22nd European. IEEE, 1996, pp. 11–18. [6] T. Lee, The design of CMOS radio-frequency integrated circuits. Cambridge university press, 2003. [7] F. Roewer and U. Kleine, “A novel class of complementary foldedcascode opamps for low voltage,” IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, vol. 37, no. 8, pp. 1080–1083, 2002. [8] Y. Cheng, M. Jeng, Z. Liu, J. Huang, M. Chan, K. Chen, P. Ko, and C. Hu, “A physical and scalable i-v model in bsim 3 v 3 for analog/digital circuit simulation,” IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, vol. 44, no. 2, pp. 277– 287, 1997. OPAMP PARAMETER OPAMP USING GenBic35 OPAMP USING BSIM3v3 Phase Margin 60° 44° Unity Gain Frequency 4.2 GHz 11.31 DC Gain 12dB 22.69dB PSRR(+ve) 42dB 30.1 PSRR(-ve) 23dB 60.3 CMRR 26dB 80 Power Consumption 133mW 83.8 Slew Rate 18.22V/ns 39.21