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Plan de marketing - Primark
 

Plan de marketing - Primark

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Propuesta de Plan de Marketing elaborada para una agencia de publicidad que lleva la promoción de los centros de Primark en España. Trabajo elaborado junto a mi compañero del IE - Carlos Morales ...

Propuesta de Plan de Marketing elaborada para una agencia de publicidad que lleva la promoción de los centros de Primark en España. Trabajo elaborado junto a mi compañero del IE - Carlos Morales (@cmorales)

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    Plan de marketing - Primark Plan de marketing - Primark Presentation Transcript

    • MARKETING PLAN Carlos Montero cmontero@gmail.com Iñigo de Luis ideluis@gmail.com
    • Content• Situation analysis • Environment • Competition • Market• Situation diagnosis• Objectives definition• Strategies• Action plan
    • The two main figures are improving slowly their level, so the aggregate demand willl increase the level of the economy. Situation analysis: economical environmentConsumers Confidence Indicator Family expenditure level• It has two components: today situation • Decrease of the home expenditure and expectatives. reduction from -5% to -3,5%.• Its level is the same that before the • Salary, as families main support, slows crisis crunch. down its decrease from -3,9% to -• Consumers think that the worst phase 2,7%. of the crisis is over.• Best levels are in the 16-24 & 25-44 years old band. Premises price • It has decreased in the main cities up to 20%.26/2/10 Marketing Plan 3
    • Technology has two different influences in this sector: information distribution, and e-commerce. Situation analysis: technological environmentTechnology improves distribution of information• Internet and specifically social networks used as resources to support purchasing decisions (friend’s recommendations)• Internet is used by customers as a tool to compare prices, designs, products between different brands.• Internet as a tool for brand communication towards potential customers and repeating customers.• Online publicity investments have been rising.32% of Spaniards search information online whenever they want to purchase clothing, and 28% ocasionally.Source: TNS, feb-2010 http://www.tns-global.es/docs_prensa/nota_prensa_254.html “Internet influence on purchase decisions”26/2/10 Marketing Plan 4
    • Technology has two different influences in this sector: information distribution, and e-commerce. e- Situation analysis: technological environment Competitors’ e-commerce technology e- • Most of them sell online (Bershka, Carrefour, H&M, Kiabi, Zara Home). • Success in Spain of online “private shopping clubs” such as BuyVIP, Privalia or Vipventa: online outlets where the customer finds temporary offers of discounted brand products. Based on mouth-to- ear and virality between users (rewards for bringing new users).Private shopping clubs in Spain (2007) http://www.consumer.es/web/es/tecnologia/internet/2007/09/05/166466.phpVentePrivee growing in Spain http://www.fashionunited.es/News/Leads/Vente-Privee.com_duplica_su_facturaci%F3n_en_Espa%F1a_201002154953 26/2/10 Marketing Plan 5
    • Future purchasers are focusing their decisions not only in the price but in their own fashion trend. Situation analysis: social environment• Discount and value retailers have transformed the clothing industry in recent years, reinventing the consumer perception of a bargain. – “”Fast retailers” as Zara, GAP o H&M, have democratized fashion and luxury. – Clothes life cycle is shorter so the supply change management importance increases. – Focus is in profitability too, not only in fashion. High volumes. Less margin.• Fashion trends are not only in the hand of the main firms. – Consumers are looking for emotional and social relations when choosing their clothes at a reasonable good price. – Market reaction capacity is important. First wins.• Purchasing decision has changed of hands. – Youngest people choose their clothes without their parents approval.• Number of people who try to create their own style is increasing. – Not only one firm. They look everywhere.• Being the first is important among the social environment of the consumers.26/2/10 Marketing Plan 6
    • Several big competitors with brand image associated to low prices. Situation analysis: competition environment• There is a certain degree of concentration in the market, but there is no single major competitor that can exert a monopolistic influence over the rest.• Primark’s competitors can influence the environment through standard market tools (prices, promotions, opening new stores)• Some competitors, however, due to their presence in the Spanish market for a long time, have a big brand recognition and association with “low price” which gives them an advantage attracting customers price”, in the short term.• Mouth-to-ear takes time to create a similar level of brand recognition in the minds of Spanish customers.26/2/10 Marketing Plan 7
    • Customers purchasing behaviour is moving to trendy clothes at low prices. Situation analysis: customers environment• Customers are looking not only for the best price but for trendy clothes.• They don’t really prize so much the quality because the number of clothes per person is bigger, so the use decrease. Higher rotation of dressing.• Youngsters directly purchase in the shop. They don’t need their parents.• Shopping experience importance is higher. There are several Facebook groups that promote it.• New technologies, such as social networks (including mobile versions), are influencing the way people make their purchasing decisions.• EgoBlogs (for example, http://chicisimo.com) are increasing its number of visitors as a prescription way, higher than official catalogues in most of cases.26/2/10 Marketing Plan 8
    • Technology trends: increased importance of the internet as information, promotion and competition. Situation analysis: technological trendsTechnology changes to be expected in the next two years:• Increasing use of the internet by the target customers, through computers or mobile phones. That involves both information search and communication with friends.• Internet evolution and use will continue to increase importance of online advertisement; expenses in the internet will increase versus other media• Increased online presence for Primark’s competitors: Zara will sell online from fall/winter 2010.26/2/10 Marketing Plan 9
    • Future expenditure will continue its decrease as consequence of the new business models and the huge competence, Situation analysis: economical trends• Clothing expenditure among the families represents 4,4% of the total home consumption. It has been decreasing since 1985 when it was the 6,3%.• From 2001 to 2008 the annual increase has been around 0,9%, much less than the average home expenditure (2,5%).• In the future it will represent 4,% of the total expenditure according to Nielsen.• The business is increasing in volume (number of garments) but not so much in sales because of the global decrease of the prices.26/2/10 Marketing Plan 10
    • Demography trends: target market loses population, and they spend less in clothing. Situation analysis: demographic trendsDemography changes to be expected in the next two years:• Population increase will slow over the the next two years, mainly by the slowing in inmigration (450,000 instead of the 700,000-900,000 during the years 2004-2008) However, this variable (immigration in the next few years) is considered as hard to predict, and volatile.• Specifically, for the target markets of 18-35 and 14-24, population will decrease significantly in the short term, as the “baby boom” (currently in the 28-35 range) “exits” the target market, and the “baby bust” (currently in the 9-14) enters it.Source: INE data and short-term estimates http://www.ine.es/prensa/np576.pdf• Nielsen global study on consumers indicates that, on the second half of 2009, 67% of spanish consumers say that they spend less in clothing than before; if the economy continues to be down, they consider cheaper clothing as a useful way to save money.Source: Nielsen via DistribuciónActualidad26/2/10 Marketing Plan 11
    • Content• Situation analysis • Environment • Competition • Market• Situation diagnosis• Objectives definition• Strategies• Action plan
    • H&M is a dynamic firm with fashionable designs mainly for women, at a low price. Competition: H&M •Offers "fashion and quality at the best price", remarking the concept “new” everywhere. Brand •Frequent collaborations with top designers (Karl Lagerfeld, Jimmy Choo) or celebrities (Madonna, Kylie Minogue) •COS – high end clothing Product •Variety of products including shoes, apparel, accessories, and cosmetics Categories •Home textile products – not present in Spain Target •Mainly women Online •http://www.hm.com/es/ collections, style guides, interactive •2009 – 2% market share in Spain (Source: TNS WorldPanel Fashion) •114 stores in Spain Facts and •During 2009 sales fell 2% YoY, to 615 million euros;during 2009 Q4 sales fell 6% YoY. Both numbers are in local currency, EUR. Numbers in SEK show a rise in sales, due to currency exchange figures variations. •Profit rises in swedish currency; no data for Spain. Source: H&M Report.26/2/10 Marketing Plan 13
    • Bershka designs for young trend followers and associates the brand with modern art and music. Competition: Bershka •Strongly associated to music (remarkably loud and “catchy” music in the stores, music Brand playlists and recommendations at their website, music icons in the clothing designs) and art trends (store decoration) •Bershka - modern Product •BSK - young Categories •Men, Accessories Target •Young, trend-followers Online •http://Bershka.com/ collections (possible online store before 2011) •266 stores in Spain Facts and •Global Sales go up in 2009 by 14,7% to EUR 511 million. •Global Profits down in 2009 by 5,3% to EUR 56,91 million. figures Source: http://lowcostattitudespain.wordpress.com/2009/09/23/bershka-se-beneficia-de-la-moda-low-cost-y- supera-en-rentabilidad-a-zara/26/2/10 Marketing Plan 14
    • Zara is strong in logistics and design; currently shifting more towards the Lefties stores Competition: Zara & Lefties •Fashion at affordable prices(Lefties: Zara design at very low prices) Brand •Designers quickly copy trends that have become famous. •Man, woman, kids Product •Zara Home Categories •Zara Home Kids •Lefties is a Zara sub-brand Target •Fashion-seekers Online •http://www.zara.com/ collections (possible online store before 2011) •In Spain: 332 Zara and Lefties stores, 172 Zara Kids stores and 120 Zara Home stores •Zara stores are being transformed into Lefties stores Facts and Source: http://www.modaes.es/empresa/231109/inditex-echa-el-freno-y-comienza-el-repliegue-de-z figures •5,4% marketshare •Provisional: feb-oct 2009 data shows rise in sales YoY. Complete 2009 data to be available in march. Source: http://www.cotizalia.com/noticias/inditex-cumple-previsiones-ventas-alcanzan-millones-20091210.html26/2/10 Marketing Plan 15
    • Kiabi focuses its positioning in the whole family experience of shopping around their exclusive commercial surfaces. Competition: Kiabi •“Being the favourite brand of all the families, making it possible to dress up with no limits and enjoying the process” Brand •Values: efficiency (Price, big offer, quality, up-to-date clothes) and experience (Welcoming, team, shop environment, presentation). Product •Women (mom, large size, lingerie), men (large size), children (1 to 5, 3 to 10, 8 to 16) Categories and baby. Biggest success: baby, large size for women and pregnant women Target •The whole family. Online •http://www.kiabi.es/Online shop available (objective of 5% of sales for 2012). •57 stores in Spain (12 more along 2010) •121 millions of sales in 2008. (30% increase from 2007). Facts and •Less than 1% of share of market. figures •Franchising available (objective is 15 tp 30 for 2012 out of France) •Main presence in outskirt commercial areas.26/2/10 Marketing Plan 16
    • C&A is a multibrand experienced company, with a dressing solution for everyone’s desires for all the moments. Competition: C&A •“Fashion for young and old, fashion that fits every occasion and suits every style” Brand •Values: bid offer, price, high level of service, post-purchasing service. •Women (Yessica for casual, Yessica Pure for fashion clothes & Your 6th Sense for classic style), men (Angelo Litrico for urban style, Westbury for a classic style), unisex Product (Canda for comfortable daily clothes), youngsters (Clockhouse), children (Palomino from Categories 2 to 6 and Here&There from 7 to 14) and baby (Baby Club). Specific brands for jean clothing (Jinglers), sport style (Rodeo) and environmentally friendly (Bio Cotton) Target •Individuals from both sexes and specific needs Online •http://www.c-and-a.com/Collectionsand store locator. •145 stores in Spain: 89 + 25 Kid’s Store (17 more for 2012) •440 millions of sales in 2008. (6,5% increase from 2007). Facts and •1,4% of share of market. figures •25 years of experience in the Spanish market. •Presence in both commercial and city centre areas with specific categories26/2/10 Marketing Plan 17
    • Decathlon is an sport material retailer with their own dressing brands for practising sports and feeling comfortable before and after it. Competition: Decathlon Brand •“Dress casual and comfortable not only the weekends” Product •Sport and complements. Different brands as Quechua, Kalenji, Domyos and Triboard Categories Target •Mainly people who practice any kind of sport, but also for casual wearing. Online •http://es.decathlon.com Online shopavailable. •979 millions in sales in Spain during 2008 (not only the dressing business). •2nd brand in number of customers (5,48 millions) •3rd brand in share of market (1,8%) •Decathlon has 66 shopping centres in Spain Facts and •18 years of experience in the Spanish Market. figures •On line shop available •Presence in commercial areas with huge centres and in urban areas with the new Decatexperience (where 80% of the supply is clothiing) •Koodzais the new business model for “low cost”. •The owner group is Oxylane.26/2/10 Marketing Plan 18
    • Carrefour integrates their clothing offer in the hypermarket, with occasional designer collaborations Competence: Carrefour •Value at low price, easy access. Brand •Collaborations with BCBG or Don Algodón (now owned by BCBG) during the last five years. Product •Variety of products Categories •Leaders in the underwear and socks markets. Target •Women, 28-35 Facts and •Over 160 stores in Spain figures •No separateddata for clothing26/2/10 Marketing Plan 19
    • Content• Situation analysis • Environment • Competition • Market• Situation diagnosis• Objectives definition• Strategies• Action plan
    • Market Data by store type: Multibrand clothing stores have lost marketshare to cheaper alternatives Situation analysis: market Over the past few years: • Multibrand clothing stores, and lately, department stores, have lost market share • The increase in marketshare is for outlets, and secondarily, supermarkets and single brand chains. Source: AcotexMultimarca - multibrand clothing stores – independent stores retailing from different providersGrandes Almacenes – Department Stores as El Corte InglésCadenas Especializadas – Single brand chains as PrimarkHiper/Supermercados – hiper/supermarkets as CarrefourOutlets – stores offering discounted goods as Lefties 26/2/10 Marketing Plan 21
    • Market Data by store type: Single brand stores are the main alternative for clothing purchase in Spain Situation analysis: market Now: • Primark store type, single 2009 2Q Sales % Volume % brand stores, channel a Multibrand clothing store 32,9 21,4 third of all the clothing sales in Spain. Single brand store 33,8 33,9 • Secondarily, multibrand Markets 5,5 16,4 clothing stores keep selling expensive items of Department Store 15 6,3 clothing, and Supermarket 5,5 14 markets/supermarkets, cheap items of clothing Other 7,3 8 Source: TNS Worlwide26/2/10 Marketing Plan 22
    • Market Data by brand: Situation analysis: market Now: • Zara, C&A, H&M, Primark, 2009 2Q Sales % Volume % Cortefiel are the main players. Zara 5,4 5 • Of them, Primark, C&A and C&A 2,1 2,8 H&M are a different H&M 1,9 2,4 segment, with lower price per unit (high volume % Primark < 1,9 2,9 related to sales %) Sourcee: TNS Worlwide Cortefiel 2,5 < 2,426/2/10 Marketing Plan 23
    • Competition is increasing within the Spanish market. In consequence, price levels are lower because of the huge offer. Situation analysis: market conclusions• Most of the sales come from the women market.• Shops location is important. Shopping malls and city centre are the favourite locations.• Market prices are decreasing very fast, especially the last year with the economical crisis. Not only in sales season. So, cost reduction is a key factor for the companies.• Multibrand stores and department stores are loosing ground against the single brand stores and the supermarkets.• New competitors are looking to the Spanish market for their expansion plans: Gap (USA), Esprit (HK) & Fast Retailing with its brand Uniqlo (JP).26/2/10 Marketing Plan 24
    • Content• Situation analysis • Environment • Competition • Market• Situation diagnosis• Objectives definition• Strategies• Action plan
    • The target customer is a generation of young adults looking for individualization but connected with their peers in and out of their country. Target customer analysis (18-Some relevant characteristics of the target customer (18-34 spaniards)• They choose and buy their own clothing, both the individual items and the general style. Specially the young ones and the women.• Well communicated through mobile phones, social media, group activities (parties, concerts...) Less use of TV or radio than prior generations. Also a high percentage of them shares comments, blogs or photos online.• They realize there is an economic crisis, but they expect it to end soon and go back to higher income levels.• Stays close to the family (relatively few study or work away from their hometown, and generally stay in their parents house until well in their 20’s)• Culturally different from older spaniards – more following of world brands, less of traditionally spanish cultural items.• Interested in world events, but low skills in foreign languages.• Interested in health, fashion, cinema and music.26/2/10 Marketing Plan 26
    • Primark is the most trendy dressing solution at the best prices for its target group and makes it possible to be part of its community. Brand positioning price variety trendy community26/2/10 Marketing Plan 27
    • Brand positioning is evenly distributed when analyzed from the prices vs design point of view. Brand Positioning Prices Zara Brands in this market Cortefiel are distributed evenly, balancing prices and design to focus in different niches. H&M C&A Primark space is not BershkaDecathlon overcrowded but Design there are competitors in the surrounding markets Carrefour Lefties Primark Size: Brand awareness Colour: Target market Kiabi regarding clothing market Family - Young m/w - Young woman 26/2/10 Marketing Plan 28
    • Promotion through several channels is mandatory to increase the brand awareness and build barriers for future competitors. Situation diagnosis: SWOT Positive Facts Negative Facts •Primark business model is a success (strengths) but brand awareness is still a big •Price challenge. Specially, Internal •Design •Shops location because of the •Variety •Not in the “Top of Mind” •Quality •Market fragmentation incoming competitors •CSR image such as GAP and Fast Retailing. Strengths Weakness •Market fragmentation will increase cost Opportunities Threats reduction requirements to be competitive. •Primark locations External •Premises price decrease •Target volatility •Fashion trend increase •Target population decrease don’t make possible to •Clonehunting •Incoming competitors reach the key target •Web 2.0 •Economic future group.26/2/10 Marketing Plan 29
    • Content• Situation analysis • Environment • Competition • Market• Situation diagnosis• Objectives definition• Strategies• Action plan
    • The main objective is increase the brand awareness within the customer target in order to achieve a sustainable position of the Primark’s business model in Spain Objectives definitionMAIN OBJECTIVE SECONDARY OBJECTIVE RESULTS •In the short term the objective is to increase business chifres through Increase the word Build a community brand awareness of mouth increase and in order to maintain a profitable Increase customers Decrease business model. loyalty customers volatility Sustainable •Taking advantage of business model economies of scale, Primark can use its Brand awareness benefits to build up new Build up incoming Positioning barriers to incoming barriers reinforcement competitors through Key reference of promotion investment and the Spanish market setting stores in the city Promotion investment / City centre premises centre. •Last step is to create a Increase business community around the sales Maintain a brand through web 2.0 to Economy of scale profitable business increase customers loyalty Increase market and creating a fan model share phenomenum to create a sustainable business model 26/2/10 Marketing Plan 31
    • Content• Situation analysis • Environment • Competition • Market• Situation diagnosis• Objectives definition• Strategies• Action plan
    • New social, economic & technological situation are keys to increase Primark’s brand awareness in its new positioning. Strategy: starting point• Consumer confidence index and home expenditure recovery.• Increase the use of the Internet as an advertising tool and a comparison tool by the customers.• On line selling is not an option as it would require a different business model and customers engagement with the brand will be more difficult.• Spain is not a monopolistic market although the competitor’s brand awareness is higher than Primark’s.• Reduction of the target minimum age to 14 years old.• Single brand stores are increasing their market share, as Primark.• Primark growth rate has been very important since its arrival to Spain.26/2/10 Marketing Plan 33
    • Primark’s requirements within the Spanish market are specific and requires an specific strategy Strategy: brand requirements We are looking for Primark’s knowledge 1 increase within the consumers to… be relevant and build up a BRAND in Spain. 2 To gain clients To create a community26/2/10 Marketing Plan 34
    • Primark offers fashion solutions for the most trendy people at the best price. Strategy: insight Individual level Economic level Fashion levelConsumer The consumer is Seasons are shorter Looking fashionable looking for her and clothes rotation among their friends is personal style but higher. Price is more important. Creating an influenced by brands. important now. own style.Primark Primark has to be a Looking around the fashion SOLUTION Recognized leadership in community to know what company for its low price market is fashionable. customers Coolhunting. Primark helps you to be in vogue and share it with your friends. 26/2/10 Marketing Plan 35
    • Primark’s landing in the Spanish market was product oriented and now it’s necessary to build up the brand. Strategy: strategic approach Brand relaunch 1st 2nd stage stage Increase Primark’s awareness within Enhance communication with the the target, creating new fashion followers and Primark fans expectations and attractiveness to increase their loyalty and build up a community around the brand Increase brand knowledge & relevance Increase brand esteem &differentiation differentiation26/2/10 Marketing Plan 36
    • Content• Situation analysis • Environment • Competition • Market• Situation diagnosis• Objectives definition• Strategies• Action plan• Control plan
    • Use of different media and different formats for both objectives: promotions and brand building Action Plan: creative development • General press for specific • Focus in local radio promotions and/or stations for specific opening of new stores. promotions and/or opening of new stores. • Specilist press for creating brand • Not a good way for brand awareness. building. • Wedge radio. Radio Press Online Outdoors • Buy attention: display • Outdoors canvas, Advertising and video muppy, vinyls, etc. marketing. • Street marketing to • Beg attention: Search create a close Marketing, connection with • Earn attention: Social customers. Media & e-mailing26/2/10 Marketing Plan 38
    • Each media type offers different benefits for the campaign Action plan: benefits by media Radio Good for local promotions. Economical.Outdoors Notoriety and coverage. High impact if creativities are good. Local press offers good impact for store-specific promotions. Specialized press store- Press improves brand image and has prescriptive qualities. Segment targeting, interactivity, virality, monitoring results.Internet •Search Marketing.:Very targeted, relatively cheap and scalable. •Display advertising: similar to print media advertising; online versions of specialized or local press. •E-mailing: direct and easy to monitor. •Social Media: tracking conversations and integration with the online actions already described. 26/2/10 Marketing Plan 39
    • long- Customer loyalty and strong long-term positioning is a target achievable by online community building Online action plan: key factors• Increasing customer loyalty and achieving a stronger long-term positioning will be achieved through online community-building. That is, promoting a space where clients can share ideas, preferences and opinions about Primark items or clothing in general.• That space will allow Primark to appear as a brand that listens to customers, an “ally” for them, and a provider for their needs.• Using online marketing for these objectives is both effective (customers already consider internet a good way to communicate about possible purchases) and efficient (marketing actions can be delivered relatively cheaply)26/2/10 Marketing Plan 40
    • First, Primark customers will be reached in social networks, where they spend time. Online action plan: Primark presence• Primark customers are active in social networks.• There are already some communities that can be helped (Facebook and its fan pages)• There are other places where Primark will create it’s own following (channels in Twitter; events in Tuenti)• Primark communication activities will be focused on community building and sending customers to additional information at the main Primark website. Action Customer benefits BrandbenefitsCreate/Improve Primark Customers get information about Increase brand awarenesspresencein Social Networks events, products and stores within through word-of-mouth and link(Facebook, Tuenti, Twitter…) their usual websites, among their to Primark community website. friends26/2/10 Marketing Plan 41
    • The community website will provide customers with information aligned with Primark brand values Online action plan: Primark’s Community• The Primark community website will provide clients with useful information (elaborated in-house, or links to customers’ websites, egoblogs or fan blogs) Diverse information will reinforce the brand values of Primark: – Industry news (gives Primark credibility as a main player in the market) – Trends and Fashion comments (brand image as designer’s clothing) – Clothing tips (helping customers with day-to-day clothing needs) – Social Responsibility (Underline Primark’s effort to be socially responsible) – Other customer’s profiles (reinforce or reward the social status of Primark’s fans)• Customers engaged in the community are receptive to targeted promotions, etc. Action Customer benefits BrandbenefitsCreate a Primark Community Customers can access a community Improve customer loyaltyWebsite with shared interests, communicating with many Primark customersProvide news and information Customers get centralized in-depth Improve brand awareness andthrough Primark Community information about fashion, Primark brand image (Primark helpswebsite news, other customers’ ideas. solve your needs)26/2/10 Marketing Plan 42
    • cross- Online and Offline actions can cross-over to increase brand presence and effectivity Online action plan: Crossmedia • The Primark community website and social networks (Facebook, Tuenti, Online etc.) will send customer’s attention to presence offline promotion efforts: opening of new stores, seasonal clothing promotions, etc. • Store opening materials, print ads, Offline brochures will tell customers about promotional the online channels of Primark, to increase the community there. materials26/2/10 Marketing Plan 43
    • SourcesStatistics, Data and Studies• Indicador de confianza del consumidor – Instituto de CréditoOficialhttp://www.ico.es/web/contenidos/616/index.html• INE economic data and short-term estimates http://www.ine.es/prensa/np576.pdf• “Internet influence on purchase decisions” http://www.tns- global.es/docs_prensa/nota_prensa_254.html - TNS Group• ComercioTextil en Cifras 2008 - Acotex• Worlwide Panel Fashion – TNS GroupNews items such as as:• Private shopping clubs in Spain (2007) http://www.consumer.es/web/es/tecnologia/internet/2007/09/05/166466.php• VentePrivee growing in Spain http://www.fashionunited.es/News/Leads/Vente- Privee.com_duplica_su_facturaci%F3n_en_Espa%F1a_201002154953• http://www.distribucionactualidad.com/noticia/6255/Especiales-DA/textil-confeccion-imperio- cadenas.html• http://lowcostattitudespain.wordpress.com/2009/09/23/bershka-se-beneficia-de-la-moda-low-cost- y-supera-en-rentabilidad-a-zara/• http://www.modaes.es/empresa/231109/inditex-echa-el-freno-y-comienza-el-repliegue-de-z• http://www.cotizalia.com/noticias/inditex-cumple-previsiones-ventas-alcanzan-millones-20091210.htmlCorporate data from each competitor26/2/10 Marketing Plan 44