Writing objectives


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Writing objectives

  1. 1. WRITING OBJECTIVESInes A. de Guzman, PhD
  3. 3. OBJECTIVES Pinpoint the destination and not the journey Describe the intention of the lesson Describe learning outcome
  4. 4. General Objectives A statement, in more or less precise terms, that shows the trend of the learning activity. A statement, which defines the outcome of the learning activity and represents a particular point in the general orientation of a curriculum. The general objective is the first level of specification of the aim from which it was derived from.
  5. 5. General Objectives: Examples At the end of the semester, the students should be able to develop a home economics curriculum for public secondary high schools. At the end of the semester, the students should be able to evaluate a secondary home economics curriculum based on a curriculum standard model. At the end of the semester, the students should be able to appreciate the importance of home economics in everyday living.
  6. 6. Specific Objectives A statement which describes the trend of the learning activity. It is formulated in terms of observable behaviour. It is an interpretation of the general objective from which it was derived from.Examples: General Objective: At the end of the semester, the students should be able to develop a home economics curriculum for public secondary high school students. Specific Objective: At the end of the lesson, the students should be able to identify the various areas of home economics.
  7. 7. PURPOSE•Help teachers to clarify precisely what they want theirstudents to learn.•Help provide lesson focus and direction.•Help guide the selection of appropriate practiceactivities.•Help teachers evaluate if the students have learnedwhat they are supposed to learn.•Provide means of measuring the teacher’s teachingeffectiveness.
  8. 8. Characteristics of a Specific Objective1. It is always expressed in terms of the student.2. It is unequivocal/clear. It is precise and supports only one interpretation.3. It describes an observable behaviour on the part of the subject.4. It specifies, where appropriate, the special conditions in which this behaviour is manifested and the criteria which will make it possible to judge whether the objective has been attained.
  9. 9. It is always expressed in termsof the student. Emphasis is placed on the students learning rather than on the teaching given by the teacher. It is not enough for the teacher to have provided the teaching but it is also necessary for his students to have learnt. Encourage thinking about the link between teaching and learning. The teacher should try to specify his objectives by concentrating not on what she teaches but on the changes she wishes to bring about in the students.
  10. 10. It is unequivocal-precise and supportsonly one interpretation. The following objectives are open to various interpretations: 1. At the end of the lesson, the students will be able to display awareness of the home economics curriculum for secondary schools. 2. At the end of the lesson, the students will be able to know the content of home economics 1. In order to make these objectives unequivocal, it is necessary to consider what the student will do to demonstrate her awareness of the HE curriculum for secondary schools.
  11. 11.  General terms such as to know, to realize, to understand, to familiarize oneself with, to become aware of, to appreciate, and so forth, lend themselves to different interpretations. What is expected of a person who knows, realizes or understands must be specified if one is to infer that that person knows, realizes, or understands. Terms as vague as these are an indication rather of aims or of general objectives.
  12. 12.  To clarify the general objective, one derives from it a series of specific objectives choosing from among various possibilities the objectives which, given the context, seem to be the most relevant to the attainment of the general objective from which they are derived from. For example, the general objective, “To understand the meaning of nutrients,” may give rise to the following objectives:  to define a term in ones own words,  to identify the meaning of a term when it is used in a context,  to distinguish between terms which are similar in meaning. Users must, therefore, reach an understanding on the terminology used and thus make the objective unequivocal.
  13. 13. The specific objectivedescribes observable behaviour The objective must describe an ability which the subject must have acquired at the end of the learning process. It is a question of specifying an observable ability and not a category of modes of behaviour such as those suggested by the words to understand and to realize. One must be able to grasp the reality of this ability by means of a concrete and observable action. Thus, an objective such as to see the value of home economics is not specific.
  14. 14.  A distinction must be made between the process and the outcome, between the means and what one wishes to attain.Example of a learning process: To discover a home economics curriculum model as a standard for proposing a new curriculum. To experiment three best mixing methods.Example of an activity or a task to be accomplished: To mix the ingredients of fat-less longanisa. To beat the egg whites until foamy and thick.
  15. 15.  A distinction must also be made between the objectives in a list of contents. An objective comprises at least three parts:  a subject (the student),  a verb of action (the observable behaviour which is expected)  a content (the complement). Thus, in the specific objective, ‘the student must be able to list different types of mixing techniques, the subject is the student, the verb to list refers to observable behaviour, and the content is mixing techniques. Thus, there can be no confusion between the objective and list of content. The verb and the complement must be precise if the objective is to be specific.
  16. 16. The specific objective states the specialconditions in which the behaviour ismanifested.  The objective must, where appropriate, mention the conditions in which the behaviour must be manifested and the criteria that will be used to determine whether the objective has been attained or not.  The special conditions relating to the display of the behaviour are all those conditions which may make the difficulty of the objective variable and which make it possible to imagine a concrete situation in which the behaviour must be manifested.  Although it is not necessary for all objectives to mention such special conditions, certain objectives demand that they should be mentioned.
  17. 17. For example, the objectives: ‘to explain how to measure ingredients properly and accurately.’ ‘to demonstrate the proper way of handling ingredients.’ ‘to discuss the importance of food safety and kitchen sanitation.’could not be sufficiently precise to be specific if the time requirements in relation to the behaviour were not indicated.
  18. 18. Writing Specific Objectives  The objective of any lesson is to change a behavior.  Thus, objectives must be expressed in performance terms.
  19. 19. Questions to ask:1. What is the minimum acceptable level of performance?2. How will you test the achievement of that level of performance?3. What criterion or standard of performance will you accept?4. Is the new terminal behaviour defined in terms that are measurable?5. Under what conditions is the new behaviour expected to occur?
  20. 20. 6. Is the new terminal behaviour observable?7. Are the learning objectives categorized into three different areas or levels of domain? A. Knowledge (Cognitive ) B. Attitude (Affective) C. Skills (Psychomotor)
  24. 24. CONTENTIt refers to the subject matter. It tells what the students willlearn.It should be:Specific – anyone reading the objectives will understand thesubject matterMaterials free- anyone should be able to understand thecontent of the objectives without tracking down specificmaterials.Generic- emphasis is on knowledge and skills that are importantand applicable in a variety of contexts.Examples:• food preparation techniques• nutritious meals for the family
  25. 25. BEHAVIORIt tells what the student will do to show that he/she has learned.It is a verb that describes an observable action and outcomescould be measured.Examples:• say complete predict• draw list design• operate volunteer label• write paraphrase demonstrate• diagram copy prepare
  26. 26. CONDITIONIt describes the circumstances, situation, orsetting under which the student will perform thebehaviour. It is the condition which will applywhile the student is being evaluated rather thanthe learning condition, which must be described.Examples:• in isolation or in context - in a textbook• while following a recipe - during free time• at the playground - during classdiscussions• at the end of the lesson - when given directions
  27. 27. CRITERIONIt refers to the level of acceptable performance, thestandard of mastery, or the proficiency levelexpected.Examples:• with 90% accuracy• within ten minutes• at least three of the steps• with no errors• following baking standards• fully/correctly/precisely
  29. 29. 1. At the end of the lesson, the students will be able to explain fully the rationale behind the K-12 and its impact in the EPP curriculum. Content: Behavior: Condition: Criterion:
  30. 30. 2. At the end of the talk, the students will be able to discuss clearly the importance of food safety and kitchen sanitation.. Content: Behavior: Condition: Criterion:
  31. 31. 3. After the laboratory session, the students will be able to describe correctly how to handle various ingredients in baking. Content: Behavior: Condition: Criterion:
  32. 32. 5. At the end of the demonstration, the students will be able to compute the selling price of the product with no errors. Content: Behavior: Condition: Criterion:
  33. 33. References Blooms Taxonomy of Objectives Internet Materials http://www.unesco.org/webworld/ramp/html/ r8810e/r8810e07.htm