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# Smart statistics 2

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### Smart statistics 2

1. 1. SMART STATISTICS PREPARED BY: ALI KHAIRI BIN MAZLAN MUHAMMAD SABIQ BIN MOHD NOOR
2. 2. THE QUESTIONS <ul><li>What is statistics? </li></ul><ul><li>There are two types of data. Name them? </li></ul><ul><li>Explain their differences?. Give examples for each of them. </li></ul><ul><li>Find the meaning of these words:- </li></ul><ul><li>- Population - Variables </li></ul><ul><li>- Sample - Observation </li></ul><ul><li>- Data set </li></ul>
3. 3. What is statistics? <ul><li>A function of the set of random variables corresponding to a set of observation. </li></ul><ul><li>It’s often used to refer to the corresponding function of the data. </li></ul><ul><li>The word of ‘statistic’ was introduced by Sir Ronald Fisher in 1922. </li></ul>
4. 4. TYPE OF DATA DATA QUALITATIVE DATA QUANTITATIVE DATA
5. 5. TWO TYPES OF DATA <ul><li>DATA FOUND BY QUALITATIVE DATA </li></ul><ul><li>Overview: </li></ul><ul><li>Deals with descriptions. </li></ul><ul><li>Data can be observed but not measured. </li></ul><ul><li>Colors, textures, smells, tastes, appearance, beauty, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Qualitative -> Quality </li></ul>
6. 6. EXAMPLE FOR QUALITATIVE DATA <ul><li>Example 1: Oil Painting </li></ul><ul><li>Qualitative data: </li></ul><ul><li>blue/green color, gold frame </li></ul><ul><li>smells old and musty </li></ul><ul><li>texture shows brush strokes of oil paint </li></ul><ul><li>peaceful scene of the country </li></ul><ul><li>Example 2: Latte </li></ul><ul><li>+ </li></ul><ul><li>Qualitative data: </li></ul><ul><li>robust aroma </li></ul><ul><li>frothy appearance </li></ul><ul><li>strong taste </li></ul><ul><li>burgundy cup </li></ul>
7. 7. <ul><li>DATA FOUND BY QUANTITATIVE DATA </li></ul><ul><li>Overview: </li></ul><ul><li>Deals with numbers. </li></ul><ul><li>Data which can be measured. </li></ul><ul><li>Length, height, area, volume, weight, speed, time, temperature, humidity, sound levels, cost, members, ages, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Quantitative -> Quantity  </li></ul>
8. 8. EXAMPLE FOR QUANTITATIVE DATA <ul><li>Example 1: Oil Painting </li></ul><ul><li>Quantitative data: </li></ul><ul><li>picture is 10&quot; by 14&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>with frame 14&quot; by 18&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>weighs 8.5 pounds </li></ul><ul><li>surface area of painting is 140 sq. in. </li></ul><ul><li>cost \$300 </li></ul><ul><li>Example 2: Latte </li></ul><ul><li>Quantitative data: </li></ul><ul><li>12 ounces of latte </li></ul><ul><li>serving temperature 150º F. </li></ul><ul><li>serving cup 7 inches in height </li></ul><ul><li>cost \$4.95 </li></ul>
9. 9. DIFFERENCE TYPE OF DATA <ul><li>QUALITATIVE DATA </li></ul><ul><li>Deals with descriptions. </li></ul><ul><li>Data can be observed but not measured. </li></ul><ul><li>Colors, textures, smells, tastes, appearance, beauty, </li></ul><ul><li>QUANTITATIVE DATA </li></ul><ul><li>Deals with numbers. </li></ul><ul><li>Data which can be measured. </li></ul><ul><li>Length, height, area, volume, weight, speed, time, temperature, humidity, sound levels, cost, members, ages, </li></ul>
10. 10. FIND THE MEANING <ul><li>What Is Sample? </li></ul><ul><li>A subset of population is usually chosen in such way that it can be taken to represent the population with respect to some characteristic. (example: height, or cost, or gender, or make of car) </li></ul><ul><li>A list of members of the population of interest is called the sampling frame . </li></ul><ul><li>If each members of the sample is selected by the equivalent of drawing lots, the sample is a simple random sample or commonly a random sample. </li></ul>
11. 11. What is Data Set? <ul><li>In statistics data sets usually come from actual observations obtained by sampling a statistical population , and each row corresponds to the observations on one element of that population. </li></ul><ul><li>Data sets may further be generated by algorithms for the purpose of testing certain kinds of software . </li></ul>
12. 12. <ul><li>What Is Variables? </li></ul><ul><li>The characteristic measured or observed when an experiment is carried out or an observation is made. Variables may be non-numerical or numerical. Since a non-numerical observation can always be coded numerically, a variable is usually taken to be numerical. Statistic is concerned with random variables and with variables whose measurement may involve random errors. </li></ul>
13. 13. <ul><li>What Is Observation? </li></ul><ul><li>A result of an experiment or trial in which a variable, either numerical or categorical, is measured </li></ul>
14. 14. <ul><li>What is Population? </li></ul><ul><li>The complete set of all people in a country, or a town, or any region. </li></ul><ul><li>By extension the term is used for the complete set of objects of interest. </li></ul><ul><li>For example: </li></ul><ul><li>- All cars built by a particular company in the year 2001. </li></ul><ul><li>- All apple sold as grade I by a particular supermarket. </li></ul>
15. 15. <ul><li>These all the real population and they are finite. </li></ul><ul><li>It can be in the larger number. </li></ul><ul><li>It is also used for infinite population of all possible result of a sequence of statistic trials. </li></ul><ul><li>For example:- </li></ul><ul><li>- Tossing a coin. </li></ul>
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