Basic mathematics


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Basic mathematics

  1. 1. Basic MathematicsMohd Aidil Bin Othman
  2. 2. Pie chart• A pie chart (or a circle graph) is a circular chart divided into sectors, illustrating relative magnitudes or frequencies.• In a pie chart, the arc length of each sector (and consequently its central angle and area), is proportional to the quantity it represents.• Together, the sectors create a full disk.• It is named for its resemblance to a pie which has been sliced.
  3. 3. Example Sales 1st Qtr 2nd Qtr 3rd Qtr 4th Qtr 9% 10%23% 58%
  4. 4. Bar Chart• A bar chart or bar graph is a chart with rectangular bars with lengths proportional to the values that they represent.• Bar charts are used for comparing two or more values that were taken over time or on different conditions, usually on small data sets.• The bars can be horizontally oriented (also called bar chart) or vertically oriented (also called column chart).• Sometimes a stretched graphic is used instead of a solid bar.• It is a visual display used to compare the amount or frequency of occurrence of different characteristics of data and it is used to compare groups of data.
  5. 5. ExampleCategory 4Category 3 Series 3 Series 2Category 2 Series 1Category 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
  6. 6. Scatter plot• A scatter plot is a type of display using Cartesian coordinates to display values for two variables for a set of data.• The data is displayed as a collection of points, each having the value of one variable determining the position on the horizontal axis and the value of the other variable determining the position on the vertical axis.• A scatter plot is also called a scatter chart, scatter diagram and scatter graph.
  7. 7. Example 3.5 3 2.5Axis Title 2 1.5 Y-Values Linear (Y-Values) 1 0.5 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 Axis Title
  8. 8. Histogram• In statistics, a histogram is a graphical display of tabulated frequencies, shown as bars.• It shows what proportion of cases fall into each of several categories: it is a form of data binning.• The categories are usually specified as non-overlapping intervals of some variable. The categories (bars) must be adjacent. The intervals (or bands, or bins) are generally of the same size.• Histograms are used to plot density of data, and often for density estimation: estimating the probability density function of the underlying variable.
  9. 9. • The total area of a histogram always equals 1. If the length of the intervals on the x-axis are all 1, then a histogram is identical to a relative frequency plot.• An alternative to the histogram is kernel density estimation, which uses a kernel to smooth samples.• This will construct a smooth probability density function, which will in general more accurately reflect the underlying variable
  10. 10. Example 54.5 43.5 3 Series 12.5 Series 2 2 Series 31.5 10.5 0 Category 1 Category 2 Category 3 Category 4
  11. 11. Line Graph• In a graph theory, the line graph of an undirected graph is another graph that represents the adjacencies between it edges.• The line graph is also sometimes called the edge graph, the adjoin graph, the interchange graph, or the derived graph.
  12. 12. Example Chart Title65 5 4.3 4.4 4.54 3.5 Series 13 3 2.8 Series 2 2.4 2.52 2 2 Series 3 1.810 Category 1 Category 2 Category 3 Category 4
  13. 13. Pictogram• A Pictograph (also called pictogram or pictograms) is an ideogram that conveys its meaning through its pictorial resemblance to a physical object.• Earliest examples of pictographs include ancient or prehistoric drawings or paintings found on rock walls.• Pictographs are also used in writing and graphic systems in which the characters are to considerable extent pictorial in appearance.
  14. 14. • Pictographs can also take the form of diagrams to represent statistical data by pictorial forms, and can be varied in color, size, or number to indicate change
  15. 15. Example Days Quantity Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday= represent 10 people