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# Basic math

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### Transcript

• 1. BASIC MATH : NOMINAL AND ORDINAL DATA MOHD SABIQ B. MOHD NOR ALI KHAIRI B MAZLAN.
• 2. TYPES OF DATA
• Ratio
• Interval
• Ordinal
• Nominal
• 3. WHAT IS NOMINAL DATA?
• The name 'Nominal' comes from the Latin nomen .
• Meaning 'name' and nominal data are items which are differentiated by a simple naming system.
• The data related to gender, race, religious affiliation, political affiliation etc; are the examples for Nominal data.
• Nominal data are categorical data where the order of the categories is arbitrary.
• Nominal data have no order and thus only gives names or labels to various categories.
• 4.
• A set of data is said to be nominal if the values / observations belonging to it can be assigned a code in the form of a number where the numbers are simply labels. You can count but not order or measure nominal data.
• 5. Nominal Data
• Data characterized as nominal has:
• Data groups that do not have a specific order. An example of this could be country names, or individuals, or, as shown on the right, Courses by name. These don't need to be placed in any order.
• With nominal data you can only make statements about the difference between groups, and comment on patterns, such as in the example on the right.
• Note that the inferences we draw from the data are different for ordinal and nominal data. For example, with ordinal data you can look at trends.
• Enrollment in Introductory Courses at Union University
• 6. WHAT IS ORDINAL DATA?
• Items on an ordinal scale are set into some kind of order by their position on the scale.
• This may indicate such as temporal position, superiority.
• The order of items is often defined by assigning numbers to them to show their relative position.
• Letters or other sequential symbols may also be used as appropriate.
• Ordinal items are usually categorical, in that they belong to a definable category, such as '1956 marathon runners'.
• You cannot do arithmetic with ordinal numbers -- they show sequence only.
• 7.
• In computer programming , an ordinal data type is a data type with the property that its values can be counted. That is, the values can be put in a one-to-one correspondence with the positive integers .
• Ordinal data have order , but the interval between measurements is not meaningful.
• A set of data is said to be ordinal if the values / observations belonging to it can be ranked (put in order) or have a rating scale attached.You can count and order, but not measure, ordinal data.
• 8. Ordinal Data
• Data characterized as ordinal has:
• Groups that should be listed in specific order. The order may be either increasing or decreasing.
• The data could have numeric values, or values such as high, medium, low. One example would be exam grades, another example could be price levels.
• Ordinal data allows us to look at trends as we move along this axis.
• As we can see, in this graph, the data has a numerical order. The data groups are numerical amounts that go from a low of \$1 to a high of \$5.
• 9. EXAMPLE
• 10. EXAMPLE OF NOMINAL DATA
• Example 1
• The number pinned on a sports person.
• A set of countries.
• Example 2: Colors To most people, the colors: black, brown, red, orange, yellow, green, blue, violet, gray, and white are just names of colors.
• To an electronics student familiar with color-coded resistors, this data is in ascending order and thus represents at least ordinal data.
• To a physicist, the colors: red, orange, yellow, green, blue, and violet correspond to specific wavelengths of light and would be an example of ratio data.
• 11. EXAMPLE OF ORDINAL DATA
• Example 1:
• The first, third and fifth person in a race.
• Pay bands in an organization, as denoted by A, B, C and D.
• Example 1:
• a group of people were asked to taste varieties of biscuit and classify each biscuit on a rating scale of 1 to 5, representing strongly dislike, dislike, neutral, like, strongly like. A rating of 5 indicates more enjoyment than a rating of 4, for example, so such data are ordinal.
• However, the distinction between neighbouring points on the scale is not necessarily always the same. For instance, the difference in enjoyment expressed by giving a rating of 2 rather than 1 might be much less than the difference in enjoyment expressed by giving a rating of 4 rather than 3.
• 12. REFERENCES
• http://changingminds.org/explanations/research/measurement/types_data.htm
• http://msg.calsnet.arizona.edu/icyf/docs/basic_stats.ppt#266,13,More data reduction
• http://www.andrews.edu/~calkins/math/edrm611/edrm13.htm
• [http:// www.neurophys.wisc.edu/www/comp/docs/ascii.html ]