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  • 1. KPT 6044 PEMBELAJARAN BERASASKAN ELEKTRONIK DAN WEB ENHANCING LEARNING WITH VISUALS CHAPTER 8 NAMA : IDA NORINI BINTI MAHAMAD TAJUDIN NO. KP : 791217-02-5086 NO. MATRIK : M20121000502 FAKULTI : PENDIDIKAN DAN PEMBANGUNAN MANUSIA NAMA PENSYARAH : PROF. MADYA DATO’ DR. ABDUL LATIF BIN HAJI GAPOR UNIVERSITI PENDIDIKAN SULTAN IDRIS
  • 2. QUESTION 1 Define visual literacy and identify two general strategies to teach visual literacy. The types of learners we have in our classrooms today, this 21 st century we live in, are a generation that lives in a world of games, images, Internet, animation, and virtual experiences, to say the least. Hence the importance of incorporating visual literacy and Internet in today’s classroom setting. Visual literacy refers to the learned ability to interpret visual messages accurately and to create such message. It can be used to interpret, negotiate, and make meaning from information presented in the form of an image, extending the meaning of literacy, which commonly signifies interpretation of a written or printed text. Visual literacy is based on the idea that pictures can be “read” and that meaning can be communicated through a process of reading. According to Wikipedia (2011), “Visual literacy is based on the idea that pictures can be ‘read’ and that meaning can be communicated through a process of reading”. Diagram : The uses of visual literacy
  • 3. On the other hand, visual literacy refers to the learned ability to interpret visual messages accurately and to create such messages. Visual literacy can be defined as the “ability to construct meaning from visual images (Giorgis, Johnson, Bonoma, Colbert, & al, 1999:146). Visual literacy can be developed through two major approaches and strategies: helping learners to decode or read visuals proficiently by practicing visual analysis skills and helping learners to encode or write visuals to express themselves and communicate with others. QUESTION 2 Name six types of visuals and the example of each type. Six types of visuals are 1. Pictures 2. Drawings 3. Charts 4. Graphs 5. Posters 6. Cartoons. PICTURES Picture is a visual representation or image painted, drawn, photographed, or otherwise rendered on a flat surface. According to Wikipedia, a picture, also called an image, is a group of coloured points on a flat surface that looks the same as something else. For example, a picture can look the same as an object or a person. Pictures can also be drawings, paintings or photographs. People who make such pictures are
  • 4. called artists, photographers or painters. Pictures are very helpful. Sometimes people say pictures are worth a thousand words. Pictures are photographic representations of people, places and things. They are readily available on the internet and in books, magazines and newspapers. Examples: Students should understand the textbook pictures. Teacher should teach skills for decoding textbook and computer pictures and motivate learners to use them for study purposes. DRAWINGS Drawing is a form of visual expression and is one of the major forms within the visual arts. Drawing also defined as a form of visual art that makes of any number of drawing instruments to mark a twodimensional medium. Common instruments include graphite, pencils, pen and ink, inked brushes, wax colour pencils, crayons, charcoal, chalk, pastels, various kinds of erasers, markers, styluses, and various metals (such as silverpoint). Drawings can be found in textbooks and computer-based materials. Teachers can make drawings as effective aids for learning. Teachers can draw on whiteboard to illustrate specific aspects of their instruction. However pupils can use such software programs as Photoshop and Paintbrush.
  • 5. CHARTS Charts are visual representations of abstract relationships such as chronologies, quantities, and hierarchies. According Wikipedia, a chart is a graphical representation of data, in which “ the data is represented by symbols, such as bars in a bar chart, lines in a line chart or slices in pie chart. A chart can represent tabular numeric data, functions or some kinds of qualitative structures. A chart is a useful way to present and display information or instructions, especially in a classroom or other educational situation. It can range in size from large wall chart to single piece of paper. A chart also can be defined as a group of related facts presented in the form of a diagram, table, graph, or other visually organized model. A chart should have a clear, well defined instructional purpose. A welldesigned chart should communicate its message primarily through the visual channel.
  • 6. GRAPHS Graphs provide a visual representation numerical data. They also illustrate relationships among units of data and trends over time. Data can be interpreted more quickly in graph form than in tabular form. Examples: Graphs bar, pictorial, circle and line. Numerous computer software programs such as Microsoft Excel, make it easy to produce professional-looking graphs. When a person enter the data into spreadsheet and with just a few clicks of the mouse the software creates the type of graph he or she wishes.
  • 7. POSTERS Posters incorporate visual combinations of images, lines, colour and words. A poster is any piece of printed paper designed to be attached to a wall or vertical surface. Typically posters include both textual and graphic elements, although a poster may be either wholly graphical or wholly text. Posters are designed to be both eye catching and informative. Posters may be used for many purposes. Posters can be effective in numerous learning situations. They can stimulate interest in a new topic, announce a special event, or promote social skills. They may be employed for motivation by attracting pupils to a school recycling meeting or to the media centre or encouraging them to read more. Teachers can make their own posters with coloured markers, computer printouts, and devices that print poster-sized pages. They are intended to capture and hold the viewer’s attention at least long enough to communicate a brief message, usually a persuasive appeal. Example: Travel agency’s posters to give information about their services.
  • 8. CARTOONS A cartoon is a form of two- dimensional illustrated visual art. A drawing depicting a humorous situation, often accompanied by a caption. Cartoons are also defined as line drawings that are rough caricatures of real or frictional people, animals, and events. They appear in a variety of print media such as newspapers, periodicals, textbooks and range of comic strips. Cartoons are easily and quickly read appeal to children of all ages. An additional options is for pupils to create cartoons with free online software, such as ToonDoo. The software provides an array of characters, settings, and props for pupils to assemble into a cartoon that depicts the assigned message. QUESTION 4 Identify four (4) methods for viewing visuals in the classroom. There are many methods for viewing visuals in the classroom. The first method is presentation software. Presentation software provides a format for displaying computer-based visuals with a digital projector. The most widely known is PowerPoint. Another method is digital images. Visuals can be captures and stored in a digital format by using a digital camera or a scanner. Another method that can be used is overhead projection. The overhead projection system is still widely used in classrooms because of its availability, low cost, and ease of use. However, we are steering away from this device. One last method for viewing visuals in the classroom are printed visuals.
  • 9. PRESENTATION SOFTWARE Presentation software is a category of application program used to create sequences of words and pictures that tell a story or help support a speech or public presentation of information. Some very popular presentation software, such as Microsoft's Powerpoint and Lotus's Freelance Graphics, are sold standalone or can come as part of office-oriented suites or packages of software. Presentation software is a tool used to create visual presentations. These presentations are usually delivered in a slide show format, and can be created with a variety of programs. The programs make it possible to combine text and graphic elements to convey important information to a group of people all at once. Teachers and pupils can use templates to produce very professional-looking presentations. Presentation software allows teachers to give handouts for pupils. The software also allows teachers to create “Note Pages”. by this, pupils take notes on the handouts.
  • 10. DIGITAL IMAGES Digital imaging is the art of making digital images – photographs, printed texts, or artwork - through the use of a digital camera or image machine, or by scanning them as a document. Digital storage methods include CDs, DVDs, portable storage devices, and computer hard drives. Teachers or pupils can view images on a computer screen. OVERHEAD PROJECTION An overhead projector is a variant of slide projector that is used to display images to an audience.A projector capable of projecting enlarged images of written or pictorial material onto a screen or wall from a transparency placed horizontally below the projector and lighted from underneath.An overhead projector is a very basic but reliable form of projector. The overhead projector
  • 11. displays images onto a screen or wall. It consists of a large box containing a cooling fan and an extremely bright light, with a long arm extended above it. At the end of the arm is a mirror that catches and redirects the light towards the screen. An overhead projector can be used to enlarge images onto the screen or wall for audiences to view. Transparencies can be placed onto the projector to be viewed by both the audience and the speaker. The overhead projector was once a common feature in classrooms. In the 1950s and 60s, it crossed over into the classroom as an educational tool.Recently, it has seen a decline in use, as more sophisticated computer based projectors are favoured. PRINTED VISUALS The simplest use of visuals is in printed form in book, on the wall, or held by the teacher. Printed visuals are easy to use because they do not require any equipment.
  • 12. QUESTION 8 Disuss two (2) methods for capturing images One way to capture an image is through photography. Another method for capturing images is through scanners. PHOTOGRAPHY Photography is the art, science and practice of creating durable images by recording light or other electromagnetic radiation. Digital cameras convert light energy to digital data, which is stored in a small digital recorder such as a removable memory card that can hold hundreds of photos. We can view images immediately and can download images to a computer and store them. These images can also be modified and edited in certain programs. SCANNER A scanner is a device that captures images from photographic prints, posters, magazine pages, and similar sources for computer editing and display. Scanners come in hand-held, feed-in, and flatbed types and for scanning black-and-white only or colour. A flatbed scanner looks like the top of a photocopy machine. Very high resolution scanners are used for scanning for high-resolution printing, but lower resolution scanners are adequate for capturing images for computer display. Scanners usually come with software, such as Adobe's Photoshop product, that lets you resize and otherwise modify a captured image.Scanners usually attach to your personal computer with a Small Computer System Interface ( SCSI ). An application such as PhotoShop uses the TWAIN program to read in the image.
  • 13. Scanners work with computer to transfer existing paper based visual images, such as student drawings or photographs, into digitized computer graphic files.. The user lifts the lid and places the image face down on the glass surface. Then special software scans the image into the computer for viewing. As with digital photographs, pupils may quickly incorporate scanned images into a word processing file. They can enhance or modify them using appropriate software. hand-held scanner feed-in scanner flatbed scanner REFERENCES Instructional Technology and Media for Learning (Tenth Edition). Sharon E. Smaldino, Deborah L. Lowther, James D. Russell. Learning Live. (n.d.). Literacy Materials: Visual Literacy. Retrieved November 10, 2013 from http://www.learninglive.co.uk/teachers/primary/literacy/materials/visual_literacy/index.asp Visual literacy. Retrieved November 10, 2013 http://www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Visual_literacy Using technology with classroom instruction that works. Denver, Colorado: Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning. Pitler, H., Hubbell, E. R., Kuhn, M., & Malenoski, K. (2007). from