PEMBELAJARAN BERASASKAN ELEKTRONIK DAN WEB
: IDA NORINI BINTI MAHAMAD TAJUDIN
: PENDIDIKAN DAN PEMBANGUNAN MANUSIA
NAMA PENSYARAH : PROF. MADYA DATO’ DR. ABDUL
LATIF BIN HAJI GAPOR
UNIVERSITI PENDIDIKAN SULTAN IDRIS
Define visual literacy and identify two general strategies to teach visual literacy.
The types of learners we have in our classrooms today, this 21 st century we live in, are a
generation that lives in a world of games, images, Internet, animation, and virtual experiences, to say the
least. Hence the importance of incorporating visual literacy and Internet in today’s classroom setting.
Visual literacy refers to the learned ability to interpret visual messages accurately and to create
such message. It can be used to interpret, negotiate, and make meaning from information presented in the
form of an image, extending the meaning of literacy, which commonly signifies interpretation of a written
or printed text. Visual literacy is based on the idea that pictures can be “read” and that meaning can be
communicated through a process of reading.
According to Wikipedia (2011), “Visual literacy is based on the idea that pictures can be ‘read’
and that meaning can be communicated through a process of reading”.
Diagram : The uses of visual literacy
On the other hand, visual literacy refers to the learned ability to interpret visual messages
accurately and to create such messages. Visual literacy can be defined as the “ability to construct meaning
from visual images (Giorgis, Johnson, Bonoma, Colbert, & al, 1999:146).
Visual literacy can be developed through two major approaches and strategies: helping learners to
decode or read visuals proficiently by practicing visual analysis skills and helping learners to encode or
write visuals to express themselves and communicate with others.
Name six types of visuals and the example of each type.
Six types of visuals are
Picture is a visual representation or image painted, drawn, photographed, or otherwise rendered on a
flat surface. According to Wikipedia, a picture, also called an image, is a group of coloured points on a
flat surface that looks the same as something else. For example, a picture can look the same as an object
or a person. Pictures can also be drawings, paintings or photographs. People who make such pictures are
called artists, photographers or painters. Pictures are very helpful. Sometimes people say pictures are
worth a thousand words.
Pictures are photographic representations of people, places and things. They are readily available on
the internet and in books, magazines and newspapers. Examples: Students should understand the textbook
pictures. Teacher should teach skills for decoding textbook and computer pictures and motivate learners
to use them for study purposes.
Drawing is a form of visual expression and is one of the major
forms within the visual arts. Drawing also defined as a form of visual art
that makes of any number of drawing instruments to mark a twodimensional medium.
Common instruments include graphite, pencils, pen and ink, inked
brushes, wax colour pencils, crayons, charcoal, chalk, pastels, various kinds
of erasers, markers, styluses, and various metals (such as silverpoint).
Drawings can be found in textbooks and computer-based materials. Teachers can make drawings as
effective aids for learning. Teachers can draw on whiteboard to illustrate specific aspects of their
instruction. However pupils can use such software programs as Photoshop and Paintbrush.
Charts are visual representations of abstract relationships such as chronologies, quantities, and
hierarchies. According Wikipedia, a chart is a graphical representation of data, in which “ the data is
represented by symbols, such as bars in a bar chart, lines in a line chart or slices in pie chart. A chart can
represent tabular numeric data, functions or some kinds of qualitative structures.
A chart is a useful way to present and display information or instructions, especially in a classroom or
other educational situation. It can range in size from large wall chart to single piece of paper. A chart also
can be defined as a group of related facts presented in the form of a diagram, table, graph, or other
visually organized model. A chart should have a clear, well defined instructional purpose. A welldesigned chart should communicate its message primarily through the visual channel.
Graphs provide a visual representation numerical data. They also illustrate relationships among
units of data and trends over time. Data can be interpreted more quickly in graph form than in tabular
form. Examples: Graphs bar, pictorial, circle and line. Numerous computer software programs such as
Microsoft Excel, make it easy to produce professional-looking graphs. When a person enter the data into
spreadsheet and with just a few clicks of the mouse the software creates the type of graph he or she
combinations of images, lines, colour and
A poster is
printed paper designed to be attached to
a wall or vertical surface. Typically posters
elements, although a poster may be either
wholly graphical or wholly text.
Posters are designed to be both eye catching
and informative. Posters may be used for many
purposes. Posters can be effective in numerous
learning situations. They can stimulate interest in
a new topic, announce a special event, or
promote social skills.
They may be employed for motivation by attracting pupils to a school recycling meeting or to the media
centre or encouraging them to read more. Teachers can make their own posters with coloured markers,
computer printouts, and devices that print poster-sized pages. They are intended to capture and hold the
viewer’s attention at least long enough to communicate a brief message, usually a persuasive appeal.
Example: Travel agency’s posters to give information about their services.
A cartoon is
dimensional illustrated visual art. A drawing depicting a
humorous situation, often accompanied by a caption.
Cartoons are also defined as line drawings that are rough
caricatures of real or frictional people, animals, and events.
They appear in a variety of print media such as
newspapers, periodicals, textbooks and range of comic
strips. Cartoons are easily and quickly read appeal to
children of all ages. An additional options is for pupils to create cartoons with free online software, such
as ToonDoo. The software provides an array of characters, settings, and props for pupils to assemble into
a cartoon that depicts the assigned message.
Identify four (4) methods for viewing visuals in the classroom.
There are many methods for viewing visuals in the classroom. The first method is presentation
software. Presentation software provides a format for displaying computer-based visuals with a digital
projector. The most widely known is PowerPoint. Another method is digital images. Visuals can be
captures and stored in a digital format by using a digital camera or a scanner. Another method that can be
used is overhead projection. The overhead projection system is still widely used in classrooms because
of its availability, low cost, and ease of use. However, we are steering away from this device. One last
method for viewing visuals in the classroom are printed visuals.
Presentation software is a category of application program used to create sequences of words and
pictures that tell a story or help support a speech or public presentation of information. Some very popular
presentation software, such as Microsoft's Powerpoint and Lotus's Freelance Graphics, are sold standalone or can come as part of office-oriented suites or packages of software. Presentation software is a tool
used to create visual presentations.
These presentations are usually delivered in a slide show format, and can be created with a variety of
programs. The programs make it possible to combine text and graphic elements to convey important
information to a group of people all at once. Teachers and pupils can use templates to produce very
professional-looking presentations. Presentation software allows teachers to give handouts for pupils. The
software also allows teachers to create “Note Pages”. by this, pupils take notes on the handouts.
Digital imaging is the art of making digital images – photographs, printed texts, or artwork - through
the use of a digital camera or image machine, or by scanning them as a document. Digital storage
methods include CDs, DVDs, portable storage devices, and computer hard drives. Teachers or pupils can
view images on a computer screen.
An overhead projector is a variant of slide projector that is used to display images to an audience.A
projector capable of projecting enlarged images of written or pictorial material onto a screen or wall from
underneath.An overhead projector is a very basic but reliable form of projector. The overhead projector
displays images onto a screen or wall. It consists of a large box containing a cooling fan and an extremely
bright light, with a long arm extended above it. At the end of the arm is a mirror that catches and redirects
the light towards the screen.
An overhead projector can be used to enlarge images onto the screen or wall for audiences to view.
Transparencies can be placed onto the projector to be viewed by both the audience and the speaker.
The overhead projector was once a common feature in classrooms. In the 1950s and 60s, it crossed over
into the classroom as an educational tool.Recently, it has seen a decline in use, as more sophisticated
computer based projectors are favoured.
The simplest use of visuals is in printed form in book, on the wall, or held by the teacher. Printed
visuals are easy to use because they do not require any equipment.
Disuss two (2) methods for capturing images
One way to capture an image is through photography. Another method for capturing images is through
Photography is the art, science and practice of creating durable images by recording light or
other electromagnetic radiation. Digital cameras convert light energy to digital data, which is stored in a
small digital recorder such as a removable memory card that can hold hundreds of photos. We can view
images immediately and can download images to a computer and store them. These images can also be
modified and edited in certain programs.
A scanner is a device that captures images from photographic prints, posters, magazine pages, and
similar sources for computer editing and display. Scanners come in hand-held, feed-in, and flatbed types
and for scanning black-and-white only or colour. A flatbed scanner looks like the top of a photocopy
machine. Very high resolution scanners are used for scanning for high-resolution printing, but lower
resolution scanners are adequate for capturing images for computer display. Scanners usually come with
software, such as Adobe's Photoshop product, that lets you resize and otherwise modify a captured
image.Scanners usually attach to your personal computer with a Small Computer System Interface
( SCSI ). An application such as PhotoShop uses the TWAIN program to read in the image.
Scanners work with computer to transfer existing paper based visual images, such as student drawings
or photographs, into digitized computer graphic files.. The user lifts the lid and places the image face
down on the glass surface. Then special software scans the image into the computer for viewing. As with
digital photographs, pupils may quickly incorporate scanned images into a word processing file. They can
enhance or modify them using appropriate software.
Instructional Technology and Media for Learning (Tenth Edition). Sharon E. Smaldino, Deborah
L. Lowther, James D. Russell.
Learning Live. (n.d.). Literacy Materials: Visual Literacy. Retrieved November 10, 2013 from
Using technology with classroom instruction that works. Denver, Colorado: Mid-continent
Research for Education and Learning. Pitler, H., Hubbell, E. R., Kuhn, M., & Malenoski, K. (2007).