Social Media / University of Oslo's summer school
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Social Media / University of Oslo's summer school

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Why do people use social media? How does it affect social networks and social capital? How does information spread in social media?

Why do people use social media? How does it affect social networks and social capital? How does information spread in social media?

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Social Media / University of Oslo's summer school Social Media / University of Oslo's summer school Presentation Transcript

  • Social Media Ida Aalen UiO • July 22nd 2013
  • Social Media Ida Aalen UiO July 22nd 2013
  • Masters degree in Media, communication and IT from NTNU Interaction designer at Netlife Research Hi, my name is Ida Aalen
  • @idaAa aalen.ida@gmail.com http://idaaalen.wordpress.com Questions?
  • Agenda 9.15-10.00 • What is social media? • How and why does social media spread? • How does social media affect our social networks? 10.15-11.00 • Communication and interaction in social media • How does information spread?
  • Photo: Harald Bøhn CC-BY-NC-SA
  • 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% All Norwegian Internet-users 9-15 years 16-24 years 25-44 years 45-64 years 67-79 years Source: SSB
  • 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% 13 26 39 47 51 58 All Norwegian Internet-users 9-15 years 16-24 years 25-44 years 45-64 years 67-79 years Source: SSB
  • 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% 13 26 39 47 51 58 18 37 55 52 52 63 All Norwegian Internet-users 9-15 years 16-24 years 25-44 years 45-64 years 67-79 years Source: SSB
  • 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% 13 26 39 47 51 58 18 37 55 52 52 63 30 65 70 83 83 84 All Norwegian Internet-users 9-15 years 16-24 years 25-44 years 45-64 years 67-79 years Source: SSB
  • 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% 13 26 39 47 51 58 18 37 55 52 52 63 30 65 70 83 83 84 13 23 46 55 61 69 All Norwegian Internet-users 9-15 years 16-24 years 25-44 years 45-64 years 67-79 years Source: SSB
  • 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% 13 26 39 47 51 58 18 37 55 52 52 63 30 65 70 83 83 84 13 23 46 55 61 69 2 5 13 22 30 40 All Norwegian Internet-users 9-15 years 16-24 years 25-44 years 45-64 years 67-79 years Source: SSB
  • 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% 13 26 39 47 51 58 18 37 55 52 52 63 30 65 70 83 83 84 13 23 46 55 61 69 2 5 13 22 30 40 0 1 3 15 11 17 All Norwegian Internet-users 9-15 years 16-24 years 25-44 years 45-64 years 67-79 years Source: SSB
  • Twitter Blink Myspace Nettby Windows Live Spaces LinkedIn Facebook Google+ Instagram 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% Q1-07 Q2-07 Q3-07 Q4-07 Q1-08 Q2-08 Q3-08 Q4-08 Q1-09 Q2-09 Q3-09 Q4-09 Q1-10 Q2-10 Q3-10 Q4-10 Q1-11 Q2-11 Q3-11 Q4-11 Q1-12 Q2-12 Q3-12 Q4-12 Source: TNS Gallup
  • 300+ peer- reviewed articles on social media
  • 300+ peer- reviewed articles on social media (Unfortunately: mostly US research)
  • Social media: Definitions and characteristics
  • Photo: Flickr-bruker D. CC-BY-NC-ND
  • Photo: Flickr-bruker postaletrice CC-BY-NC-ND
  • – What was once a sharp break between two styles of communicating is becoming a smooth transition. Clay Shirky Here Comes Everybody, s. 86-87
  • • Telegraph • Telefax • E-mail and mailinglists • Forums • Text messaging • Instant messaging • Blogging • Social networking sites The speed and ease of communication has increased
  • A definition
  • – We define social network sites as web-based services that allow individuals to... boyd & Ellison Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 2007
  • – (1) construct a public or semi-public profile within a bounded system, boyd & Ellison Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 2007
  • – (2) articulate a list of other users with whom they share a connection, boyd & Ellison Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 2007
  • – and (3) view and traverse their list of connections and those made by others within the system. boyd & Ellison Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 2007
  • When did the first SNS appear?
  • When did the first SNS appear? 1997 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2009 2010 SixDegrees LiveJournal LunarStorm Cyworld Friendster LinkedIn MySpace Flickr Facebook YouTube Twitter FourSquare Pinterest Path
  • – Just as with the popular website Friendster, which Zuckerberg said was a model for his new website, The Harvard Crimson, 9. februar 2004
  • members can search for people according to their interests and can create an online network of friends. The Harvard Crimson, 9. februar 2004
  • How and why does social networking sites spread?
  • – It’s just that everybody else is on Facebook so you’re there too Brandtzæg & Lüders, 2009: 51
  • – So now we have everybody gathered [...] almost everyone is on Facebook now Brandtzæg & Lüders, 2009: 51
  • – So now we have everybody gathered [...] almost everyone is on Facebook now Brandtzæg & Lüders, 2009: 51 Network effects
  • Diffusion theory
  • Network effects are not always that important • People may read your blog, even if they don’t blog • People may watch your video, with out being signed up for YouTube • You can enjoy Wikipedia, even if you don’t contribute
  • Peer pressure? Facebook • People suggested and badgered friends to sign up • Parents wanted to keep an eye with their children • Peer pressure is not enough to make someone an active user
  • Domestication theory & Social Construction of Technology
  • Facebook every day An idle week 30 minutes daily A busy week 30 minutes daily
  • Information Entertainment Integration and social interaction Personal identity McQuail (1987)
  • • finding out about relevant events and conditions in immediate surroundings, society and the world • seeking advice on practical matters or opinion and decision choices • satisfying curiosity and general interest • learning; self-education • gaining a sense of security through knowledge Information
  • • gaining insight into circumstances of others; social empathy • identifying with others and gaining a sense of belonging • finding a basis for conversation and social interaction • having a substitute for real- life companionship • helping to carry out social roles • enabling one to connect with family, friends and society Integration and social interaction
  • • finding reinforcement for personal values • finding models of behaviour • identifying with valued other (in the media) • gaining insight into one's self Personal Identity
  • • escaping, or being diverted, from problems • relaxing • getting intrinsic cultural or aesthetic enjoyment • filling time • emotional release • sexual arousal Entertain- ment
  • Technology changes quickly. People change more slowly.
  • How does social media affect our social networks?
  • Six degrees of separation?
  • Is our world getting smaller? • 6 degrees between e-mail users in 2001 • 6,6 degrees between people chatting on MSN Messenger in 2007 • 4,7 degrees between two random Facebook users i 2011 • 3,4 degrees between two random, active Twitter users in 2011
  • Under 50 51-100 101-200 201-500 Over 500 0 10 20 30 40 2008 2009 2010 Brandtzæg & Nov (2011) - check out @PetterBB on Twitter How many Facebook- friends have Norwegians got?
  • Under 50 51-100 101-200 201-500 Over 500 0 10 20 30 40 2008 2009 2010 Brandtzæg & Nov (2011) - check out @PetterBB on Twitter How many Facebook- friends have Norwegians got?
  • Under 50 51-100 101-200 201-500 Over 500 0 10 20 30 40 2008 2009 2010 Brandtzæg & Nov (2011) - check out @PetterBB on Twitter How many Facebook- friends have Norwegians got?
  • Under 50 51-100 101-200 201-500 Over 500 0 10 20 30 40 2008 2009 2010 Brandtzæg & Nov (2011) - check out @PetterBB on Twitter How many Facebook- friends have Norwegians got?
  • Under 50 51-100 101-200 201-500 Over 500 0 10 20 30 40 2008 2009 2010 Brandtzæg & Nov (2011) - check out @PetterBB on Twitter How many Facebook- friends have Norwegians got? How many Facebook- friends have you got?
  • – You can’t refuse... it’s a complete ‘no-no’, a complete slap in the face to like deny anyone who wants to be your friend British student Lewis & West (2009:1220)
  • – You can’t refuse... it’s a complete ‘no-no’, a complete slap in the face to like deny anyone who wants to be your friend British student Lewis & West (2009:1220) Is this true in your country?
  • Accept Ignore
  • Accept Ignore Norms vary between different social media
  • We communicate only with a minority of the people we are connected too.
  • Friends in the “real” world • ≤ 5 in the inner circle • ≤ 15 that you’re close with • ≤ 50 people you communicate with often enough to know whats going on in their lives • ≤ 150 people you have relations to • ≤ 500 that you would say hi or nod too • ≤ 2000 faces that you can recognize
  • What does this mean for our social networks?
  • Strong ties Two people with a close connection, e.g. family or friend Weak ties Acquiantances No ties ...but might have ties in common Social network theory
  • People with greater and more varied networks have greater social capital than people with fewer and less varied relations Granovetter (1973)
  • Social capital are the ressources a person gain access to through their relations to other people Bourdieu (1983), Ellison et al (2007), ++
  • Social media increases social capital. But you’re not likely to increase your number of close friends.
  • Three hypotheses of what this might entail
  • Three hypotheses of what this might entail The rich get richer Popular people with become more popular
  • Three hypotheses of what this might entail The rich get richer Popular people with become more popular The poor get richer Shy or insecure individuals will more easily connect with others in online-based communication
  • Three hypotheses of what this might entail The rich get richer Popular people with become more popular The poor get richer Shy or insecure individuals will more easily connect with others in online-based communication The poor get poorer Insecure people will use social media instead of socializing offline
  • What about people who doesn’t use social media?
  • What do we know about non- users? Myths • Lacking technical competence • Asocial, insecure or introverted • Too busy
  • What do we know about non- users? Research • Less interested in what acquaintances are up to • Dislike smalltalk, gossip • Just as many close friends as active users • See social media as wasted time • More concerned about privacy • More focused on utility in their use of Internet
  • What do we know about non- users? Research • Less interested in what acquaintances are up to • Dislike smalltalk, gossip • Just as many close friends as active users • See social media as wasted time • More concerned about privacy • More focused on utility in their use of Internet Do you think this is the case in your home country?
  • Life phase Generation gap vs.
  • Interaction and communication i social media
  • Why do people say so much to so many in social media? Why do they expose themselves?
  • Photo: Flickr-bruker jaime.silva CC-BY-NC-ND
  • This is more difficult in social media • It’s more difficult to tell who your audience is • It’s more difficult to determine what the social context is • When you know neither your audience nor the context, it breakes down the boundary between private and public
  • Persistence
  • Searchability
  • Replicability
  • Invisible audiences
  • Persistence Searchability Replicability Invisible audiences See danah boyd
  • Context collapse Even if you do know your audience, it can be hard to decide how to act appropriately. Can you expose yourself in the same way to grand parents, close and distant friends, colleagues, former sweethearts, cusins and people you don’t even really know?
  • – They have such hearty, eventful lives, and document it with pictures of children with jam around their mouth [...] Aftenposten (12.03.2011)
  • – Something happend to us. A silent transformation. When we logged on Facebook, we shook off the law of Jante and became superheroes. Aftenposten (12.03.2011)
  • Photo: Flickr-bruker sweenpole2001 CC-BY-NC-ND
  • Photo: Flickr-bruker SemperNovus CC-BY-NC-ND
  • Photo: Flickr-bruker Patrick Q CC-BY-NC-ND
  • Photo: Flickr-bruker Patrick Q CC-BY-NC-ND
  • Photo: Flickr-bruker SemperNovus CC-BY-NC-ND
  • Photo: Flickr-bruker Patrick Q CC-BY-NC-ND
  • Photo: Flickr-bruker Patrick Q CC-BY-NC-ND
  • Photo: Flickr-bruker jennandjon CC-BY-NC-ND
  • Photo: Flickr-bruker panavatar Q CC-BY-NC-ND
  • Photo: Flickr-bruker jennandjon CC-BY-NC-ND
  • Photo: Flickr-bruker jennandjon CC-BY-NC-ND
  • We have a need for acceptance and companionship.
  • ...but how pointless is so-called pointless talk?
  • – Although phatic communion is understood as “talk that is aimless, prefatory, obvious, uninteresting, sometimes suspect, and even Wang et al (2011:47-48) quoting Malinowski
  • – irrelevant”, it is “part of the process of fulfilling our intrinsically human needs for social cohesiveness and mutual recognition” Wang et al (2011:47-48) quoting Malinowski
  • Social grooming on Facebook
  • Social grooming on Facebook Writing on the wall Say hi, congratulate, give compliments
  • Social grooming on Facebook Writing on the wall Say hi, congratulate, give compliments Post photos Reminisce and share experiences
  • Social grooming on Facebook Writing on the wall Say hi, congratulate, give compliments Post photos Reminisce and share experiences Status updates Moods, where we are, what we’re up to
  • Photo: Flickr-bruker LWY CC-BY
  • – I get anxious if my last wall post was from a week ago because it looks like you're a nerd. It really matters. Girl, second year in high school Quoted in “Alone together” by Sherry Turkle
  • – People know it is a way that people are going to judge you. Girl, second year in high school Quoted in “Alone together” by Sherry Turkle
  • Illustrasjon:Eva-LottaLammCC-BY-NC
  • Forsideillustrasjon til New Yorker november 2009
  • – In the new etiquette, turning away from those in front of you to answer a mobile phone or respond to a text... Sherry Turkle Alone Together, s. 160-161
  • – ...has become close to the norm. [...] A parent, a partner, a child glances down... Sherry Turkle Alone Together, s. 160-161
  • – ...and is lost to another place, often without realizing that they have taken leave. Sherry Turkle Alone Together, s. 160-161
  • Photo: Flickr-bruker Difei Li CC BY NC ND
  • How does information spread in social media?
  • Is our world getting smaller? • 6 degrees between e-mail users in 2001 • 6,6 degrees between people chatting on MSN Messenger in 2007 • 4,7 degrees between two random Facebook-users i 2011 • 3,4 degrees between two random, active Twitter- users in 2011
  • What do people share? Information that makes people feel • angry • scared • astonished spreads more widely than information that make people feel • sad
  • What do people share? Information that makes people feel • angry • scared • astonished spreads more widely than information that make people feel • sadHow something is articulated means a lot for how it is spread
  • News and social information spread in different ways More social Twitter updates received a greater diffusion when they were positive, while news increased their diffusion if they were negative
  • Why retweet? • Might be interesting for followers • To comment on the original tweet • Indicate that you are listening • Show support or agreement • Out of friendship, loyalty or tribute • To help yourself
  • The message is changed when it is spread.
  • Are social media democratizing?
  • • More sources makes the information seem more trustworthy • People you trust may give legitimacy to the actions • Attitudes are spread more quickly in larger groups • If more people take part, each individual has more to win and less to lose Diffusion is more difficult when the stakes are higher
  • 0 10 20 30 40 50 Face to face Facebook Phone Satelitte TV Other How did you first hear about the protests on Tahrir square?
  • 0 10 20 30 40 50 Personal contact Facebook Text message Mass media Other When did you find information about the rose march?
  • vs. Photo: Sjur Stølen/Aktivioslo.no by-nc-n
  • Political protest groups on Facebook Some findings from ISF: • Young people are more likely to take part in political Facebook groups • People who take part in protestgroups on Facebook believe that they have an effect
  • Birds of a feather flock together • Both repulican and democrat students more Facebook friends who shared their political views • Political groups and pages are often named in a way that take a stand • The NewsFeed will show more information from the people you more often interact with
  • Social proof • What other people do around us, affects what we see as the norm • What we consider to be the norm, affects how we choose to act
  • Political debate online Findings from ISF: • 1 in 3 discuss politics online, Facebook is the most popular arena • For youth, Facebook is one of the most important media for news and politics
  • (Almost) everyone can say something in social media, but not everyone will be heard
  • • Jens Stoltenberg (177 000) • Morten Ramm (99 000) • Steinar Sagen (76 000) • Tore Sagen (68 000) • Espen Eckbo (66 000) • Truls Svendsen (66 000) • Oddmund Harsvik (65 000) • Are Kalvø (63 000) • Bjørn Eidsvåg (63 000) • Jenny Skavlan (61 000) • HKH Mette-Marit (61 000) • Svein Tveitdal (53 000) • Tone Damli Aaberge (51 000) • Davy Wathne (51 000) • Odd Magnus Williamson (50 000) • Jonas Gahr Støre (50 000) Social media for everyone?
  • Digital activism ≠ Slacktivisme
  • Thank you! Ida Aalen aalen.ida@gmail.com 45 24 24 12 @idaAa
  • Thank you! Ida Aalen aalen.ida@gmail.com 45 24 24 12 @idaAa slideshare.com/ idaiskald